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PRVI SVJETSKI RATNI BRODOVI

PRVI SVJETSKI RATNI BRODOVI


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Klase

Monitori klase Abercrombie
Razarači klase žira/ razarači klase H
Izviđački krstaši aktivne klase
Izviđački krstaši klase avanture
Nosači zrakoplova, Britanci, Prvi svjetski rat
Kruzeri druge klase Apollo
Laki kruzeri klase Arethusa
Arogantni krstaši druge klase
Laki kruzeri klase Astraea
Razarači klase Bainbridge
Battlecruiser
Klase bojnih brodova, Britanski, Prvi svjetski rat
Klase bojnih brodova, njemački, Prvi svjetski rat
Bojni brodovi klase Bayern
Razarači klase Beagle/ Razarač klase G (1909.)
Bojni brodovi klase Bellerophon
Lagani kruzeri klase Birkenhead
Lagani kruzeri klase Birmingham
Izviđački krstaši klase plavuša
Izviđački krstaši klase Boadicea
Bojni brodovi klase Brandenburg
Klasa Braunschweig
Laki krstaši klase Breman
Lagani kruzeri klase Bristol
Razarači klase C (1912)
Razarači klase Caldwell
Lagani kruzeri klase Caledon
Lagani kruzeri klase Calliope
Laki kruzeri kambrijske klase
Bojni brodovi klase Canopus
Lagani kruzeri klase Caroline
Razarači klase Cassin
Laki kruzeri klase Centaur
Krstaši druge klase Challenger klase
Laki kruzeri klase Chatham
Bojni brodovi klase Colossus
Oklopne krstarice prve klase Cressy
Klase krstarenja, britanski, Prvi svjetski rat
Klase krstarenja, njemački, Prvi svjetski rat
Razarači klase D (1912)
Bojni brodovi klase Delaware
Bojni krstaši klase Derfflinger
Bojni brodovi klase Deutschland
Oklopne krstarice prve klase Devonshire klase
Prvoklasni zaštićeni kruzeri klase Diadem
Oklopne krstarice prve klase klase Drake
Lagani kruzeri klase Dresden
Krstaši prve klase vojvode od Edinburga
Duncan klasa bojnih brodova
Razarači E klase (1912)/ Uništavači riječne klase
Krstaši druge klase Eclipse klase
Zaštićene krstarice prve klase klase Edgar
Bojni brodovi klase Florida
Zastrašujući bojni brodovi pre dreadnought klase
Izviđački krstaši napredne klase
Razarač klase G (1909.)/ Razarači klase Beagle
Lagani kruzeri klase Gazelle
Kruzeri treće klase dragulja
Monitori klase Gorgon
Lagani kruzeri klase Graudenz
Razarači klase H/ razarači klase žira
Bojni brodovi klase Helgoland
Kruzeri druge klase visoke klase
Razarači klase Hopkins
Monitori klase Humber
Neumorni klase bojnih krstaša
Nepobjedivi klasni bojni krstaši
Bojni brodovi klase Iron Duke
Bojni brodovi klase Kaiser pre-dreadnought
Bojni brodovi klase Kaiser dreadnought
Laki kruzeri klase Karlsruhe
Bojni brodovi kralja Edwarda VII
Bojni brodovi kralja Georgea V.
Lagani kruzeri klase Kolberg
Bojni brodovi klase König
Laka krstarica klase Königsberg (1905-1907)
Laka krstarica klase Königsberg (1915-1916)
Razarači klase Lawrence
Bojni krstaši lavovske klase
Bojni brodovi londonske klase prije dreadnoucta
Monitori klase Lord Clive
Bojni brodovi klase Lord Nelson
Bojni krstaši klase Mackensen
Magdeburška klasa lakih krstarica
Bojni brodovi veličanstvene klase prije dreadnoucta
Monitori klase Marshal Soult
Oklopne krstarice prve klase klase Minotaur
Bojni krstaši klase Moltke
Razarači klase Monaghan
Monitor klase, Britanski, Prvi svjetski rat
Oklopne krstarice prve klase Monmouth
Bojni brodovi klase Nassau
Bojni brodovi klase Nevada
Bojni brodovi klase New York
Razarači klase O'Brien
Bojni brodovi klase Orion
Izviđački krstaši klase Pathfinder
Razarači klase Paul Jones
Uništavači klase Paulding
Kruzeri treće klase Pelorus
Laki kruzeri klase Pillau
Snažni prvoklasni zaštićeni kruzeri
Teški kruzeri klase Prinz Adalbert
Kraljevski vojni sestra kraljice Aleksandre (QARANC)
Bojni brodovi klase kraljice Elizabete
Razarači riječne klase/ razarači klase E (1912)
Teški kruzeri klase Roon
Bojni brodovi klase St. Vincent
Razarači klase Sampson
Teški kruzeri klase Scharnhorst
Izviđački krstaši klase Sentinel
Bojni brodovi klase Južna Karolina
Olujni vojnici, njemački (Prvi svjetski rat)
Bojni brodovi klase Swiftsure
Razarač plemenske klase (1905.)
Razarači klase Truxtun
Razarači klase Tucker
Teški kruzeri klase Victoria Louise (Njemačka)
Oklopne krstarice prve klase ratničke klase
Lagani kruzeri klase Weymouth
Razarači klase Wickes
Lagani kruzeri klase Wiesbaden
Bojni brodovi klase Wittelsbach
Bojni brodovi klase Wyoming

Australija

Australija, HMAS
Brisbane, HMAS
Susret, HMAS
Melbourne, HMAS
Pionir, HMAS
Sydney HMAS

Njemačka

Blücher, SMS
Derfflinger, SMS
Dresden, SMS
Emden, SMS
Gneisenau, SMS
Goeben, SMS
Hindenburg, SMS
Königsberg, SMS
Leipzig, SMS
Lützow, SMS
Magdeburg SMS
Moltke, SMS
Nürnberg, SMS
Prinz Heinrich, SMS
Scharnhorst, SMS
Seydlitz, SMS
Stettin, SMS
Stuttgart SMS
von der Tann, SMS

Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo

Žir, HMS (1910)
Aktivan, HMS
Afridi, HMS (1907)
Agincourt, HMS
Alarm, HMS (1910)
Albacore, HMS (1906)
Albatros, HMS (1898)
Albemarle, HMS
Albion, HMS
Amazon, HMS (1907)
Ametist, HMS
Amfion, HMS
Ribolovac, HMS (1897)
Arapski, HMS (1901)
Arethusa HMS
Arun. HMS (1903)
Smion HMS
Aurora HMS
Avon, HMS (1896)
Balch, USS (DD-50)
Barham, HMS
Basilisk, HMS (1910)
Šišmiš, HMS (1896)
Beagle, HMS (1909.)
Bellona HMS
Birkenhead, HMS
Birmingham, HMS
Bittern, HMS (1897)
Crni princ HMS
Blanche HMS
Plavuša HMS
Boadicea HMS
Bonetta, HMS (1907)
Bokser, HMS (1894)
Boyne, HMS (1904)
Drsko, HMS (1896)
Brzo, HMS (1910)
Bristol, HMS
Buldog, HMS (1909.)
Zimovka, HMS (1898)
Bedem, HMS
Cezar, HMS
Calliope, HMS
Kameleon, HMS (1910)
Kampanija, HMS
Kanada, HMS
Canopus, HMS
Caroline, HMS
Carysfort, HMS
Kasandra, HMS
Izazivač, HMS
Prvak, HMS
Chatham, HMS
Chelmer, HMS (1904)
Veselo, HMS (1897)
Cherwell, HMS (1903)
Chester, HMS
Kleopatra, HMS
Colne, HMS (1905.)
Kometa, HMS (1910)
Comus, HMS
Sukob, HMS (1894)
Osvajanje, HMS
Koketa, HMS (1897)
Kordelija, HMS
Cornwallis, HMS
kozak, HMS (1907)
Dizalica, HMS (1896)
Križar, HMS (1909.)
Mladi labud, USS (1898)
Cynthia, USS (1898)
Dartmouth, HMS
Dee, HMS (1903)
Obrana HMS
Derwent, HMS (1903)
Očajan, HMS (1896)
Dijamant, HMS
Diana, HMS
Nestašluk, HMS
Doon, HMS (1904)
Doris, HMS
Golubica, HMS (1898)
Drednot HMS
Vojvoda od Edinburga HMS
Duncan, HMS
Ozbiljno, HMS (1896)
Zasjeniti, HMS
Eden, HMS (1903)
Electra, HMS (1896)
Carica, HMS
Erin, HMS
Ettrick, HMS (1903)
Exe, HMS (1903)
Exmouth, HMS
Izraziti, HMS (1897)
Vila, HMS (1897)
Sokol, HMS (1899)
Falmouth, HMS
Slava, HMS (1896)
Smedjan, HMS (1897)
Neustrašiv, HMS
Vatreni, HMS (1895)
Koketiraj, HMS (1897)
Leteća riba, HMS (1897)
Zastrašujuće, HMS
Lisičar, HMS (1909.)
Foyle, HMS (1903)
Žestok, HMS
Bijes, HMS (1911)
Galatea HMS
Garry, HMS (1905.)
Ghurka, HMS (1907)
Ciganin, HMS (1897)
Glasgow, HMS
Slava, HMS
Gloucester, HMS
Češljugar, HMS (1910)
Golijat, HMS
Dobra nada, HMS
Grampus, HMS (1912-)/ HMS Nautilus (1910-12)
Skakavac, HMS (1909.)
Hrt, HMS (1900)
Bjeloglavi, HMS (1896)
Zgodan, HMS (1895)
Hanibal, HMS
Harpija, HMS (1909.)
Hermes, HMS
Visoki letač, HMS
Nada, HMS (1910)
Humber, HMS
Zumbul, HMS
Slavan, HMS
Neumoljiv, HMS
Nepostojano HMS
Neumoran, HMS
Neukrotiv, HMS
Nefleksibilan, HMS
Nepobjediv, HMS
Neodoljivo, HMS
Je je, HMS
Itchen, HMS (1903)
Jed, HMS (1904)
Juno, HMS
Jupiter, HMS
Kelj, HMS (1904)
Klokan, HMS (1900)
Kennet, HMS (1903)
Vjetriga, HMS (1898)
Larne, HMS (1910)
Leopard, HMS (1897)
Leven, HMS (1898)
Liffey, HMS (1904)
Munja, HMS (1895)
Lav, HMS
Živo, HMS (1900)
Liverpool, HMS
Skakavac, HMS (1896)
London, HMS
Lowestoft, HMS
Lyra, HMS (1910)
Veličanstveno, HMS
Veličanstven, HMS
Malajski, HMS
Mladiča, HMS (1896)
Manley, USS (DD-74)
Maori, HMS (1909.)
Mars, HMS
Martina, HMS (1910)
Sirena, HMS (1898)
Mersey, HMS
Minerva, HMS
Minstrel, HMS (1911)
Mohikanac, HMS (1907)
Monmouth, HMS
Komarac, HMS (1910)
Moy, HMS (1904)
Mirmidone, HMS (1900)
Nautilus, HMS (1910-12)/ HMS Grampus (1912-)
Nemesis, HMS (1910)
Neptun, HMS
Nereide, HMS (1910)
Ness, HMS (1905.)
Newcastle, HMS
Novi Zeland, HMS
Nith, HMS (1905.)
Nottingham, HMS
nubijski, HMS (1909.)
Nimfe, HMS (1911)
ocean, HMS
Oposum, HMS (1895)
Orwell, HMS (1898)
Osprey, HMS (1897)
Noj, HMS (1900)
Vidra, HMS (1896)
Ouse, HMS (1905.)
Pantera, HMS (1897)
Patrola HMS
Pegaz, HMS
Pelorus, HMS
Penelope HMS
Peterel, HMS (1899)
Faeton HMS
Philomel, HMS
Pincher, HMS (1910)
Dikobraz, HMS (1895)
Princ George, HMS
Princ od Walesa, HMS
Princeza Royal, HMS
Prozerpin, HMS
Psiha, HMS
Piramusa, HMS
Prepelica, HMS (1895)
Kraljica Elizabeth, HMS
Kraljica, HMS
Kraljica Marija, HMS
Trkaći konj, HMS (1900)
Rakun, HMS (1910)
Ranger, HMS (1895)
Čegrtuša, HMS (1910)
Novak, HMS (1896)
Redpole, HMS (1910)
Renard, HMS (1909.)
Ribble, HMS (1904)
Strijelac, HMS (1910)
Rivijera, HMS
Srndać, HMS (1901)
Rother, HMS (1904)
Rojalistički HMS
Kraljevski hrast, HMS
Rubin, HMS (1910)
Russell, HMS
Safir, HMS
Heljda, HMS (1908)
Divljak, HMS (1910)
Škorpion, HMS (1910)
Bičevati, HMS (1910)
Pečat, HMS (1897)
Severn, HMS
Vrsta plovke, HMS (1911)
Southampton, HMS
Zlobno, HMS (1899)
Uspravno, HMS (1900)
Zvijezda, HMS (1896)
Stour, HMS (1905.)
Uspjeh, HMS (1901)
Sunčane ribe, HMS (1895)
Surly, HMS (1894)
Swale, HMS (1905.)
Brz, HMS (1907)
Swiftsure, HMS
Silvija, HMS (1897)
Sirena, HMS (1900)
Taku, HMS (1898)
Talbot, HMS
Tatarin, HMS (1907)
Test, HMS (1905.)
Teviot, HMS (1903)
Trn, HMS (1900)
Batinač, HMS (1895)
Tigar, HMS
Topaze, HMS
Trijumf, HMS
Neustrašivi HMS
Ure, HMS (1904)
Usk, HMS (1903)
Hrabar, HMS
Velox, HMS (1902)
Časni, HMS
Osveta, HMS
Venera, HMS
Pobjednički, HMS
Budan, HMS (1900)
Viking, HMS (1909.)
Osvetoljubiv, HMS
Ljubičasta, HMS (1897)
Virago, HMS (1895)
Lisica, HMS (1900)
Sup. HMS (1898)
Warspite, HMS
Waveney, HMS (1903)
Nositi, HMS (1905.)
Dobro i, HMS (1904)
Weymouth, HMS
Pišmolj, HMS (1896)
čarobnjak, HMS (1895)
Vuk, HMS (1897)
Wolverine, HMS (1910)
Yarmouth, HMS
Zephyr, HMS (1895)
Zubian, HMS (1917.)
zulu, HMS (1909.)

Ujedinjene države

Alen, USS (DD-66)
Amen, USS (DD-35)
Arkansas, USS (BB 33)
Aylwin, USS (DD-47)
Bainbridge, USS (DD-1)
Barry, USS (DD-2)
Beale, USS (DD-40)
zvono, USS (DD-95)
Benham, USS (DD-49)
Breese, USS (DD-122/ DM-18)
Burrows, USS (DD-29)
Caldwell, USS (DD-69)
Cassin, USS (DD-43)
Chauncey, USS (DD-3)
Conner, USS (DD-72)/ HMS Leeds
Conyngham, USS (DD-58)
Cummings, USS (DD-44)
Cushing, USS (DD-55)
Dale, USS (DD-4)
Davis, USS (DD-65)
Decatur, USS (DD-5)
Utiskivati, USS (DD-116/ APD-9)
Dorsey, USS (DD-117/ DMS-1)
Downes, USS (DD-45)
Drayton, USS (DD-23)
Duncan, USS (DD-46)
Ericsson, USS (DD-56)
Fairfax, USS (DD-93)/ HMS Richmond
Fanning, USS (DD-37)
Flusser, USS (DD-20)
Grgur, USS (DD-82/ APD-3)
Henley, USS (DD-39)
Hopkins, USS, (DD-6)
Trup, USS (DD-7)
Izrael, USS (DD-98/ DM-3)
Jarvis, USS (DD-38)
Jenkins, USS (DD-42)
Jouett, USS (DD-41)
Kimberly, USS (DD-80)
Lamberton, USS (DD-119/ AG-21/ DMS-2)
Lamson, USS (DD-18)
Lansdale, USS (DD-101/ DM-6)
Lawrence, USS (DD-8)
Lea, USS (DD-118)
Malo, USS (DD-79/ APD-2)
Luce, USS (DD-99/ DM-4)
MacDonough, USS (DD-9)
Mahan, USS (DD-102/ DM-7)
Maury, USS (DD-100/ DM-5)
Mayrant, USS (DD-31)
McCall, USS (DD-28)
McDougal, USS (DD-54)
McKee, USS (DD-87)
Monaghan, USS (DD-32)
Montgomery, USS (DD-121/ DM-17)
Murray, USS (DD-97/ DM-2)
Nevada, USS (BB 36)
New York, USS (BB 34)
Nicholson, USS (DD-52)
O'Brien, USS (DD-51)
Oklahoma, USS (BB 37)
Parker, USS (DD-48)
Patterson, USS (DD-36)
Paul Jones, USS (DD-10)
Paulding, USS (DD-22)
Perkins, USS (DD-26)
Perry, USS (DD-11)
Filip, USS (DD-76)/ HMS Lancaster
Nosač, USS (DD-59)
Preble, USS (DD-12)
Preston, USS (DD-19)
Radford, USS (DD-120/ AG-22)
Reid, USS (DD-21)
Robinson, USS (DD-88)/ HMS Novo tržište
Srna, USS (DD-24)
Oskoruša, USS (DD-64)
Sampson, USS (DD-63)
Shaw, USS (DD-68)
Sigourney, USS (DD-81)/ HMS Newport
Smith, USS (DD-17)
Sterett, USS (DD-27)
Stevens, USS (DD-86)
Stjuard, USS (DD-13)
Stockton, USS (DD-73)/ HMS Ludlow
Stribling, USS (DD-96/ DM-1)
Taylor, USS (DD-94)
Frotir, USS (DD-25)
Teksas, USS (BB 35)
Trippe, USS (DD-33)
Truxtun, USS (DD-14)
Tucker, USS (DD-57)
Wainwright, USS (DD-62)
Hodaj, USS (DD-34)
Warrington, USS (DD-30)
Vode, USS (DD-115/ APD-8)
Whipple, USS (DD-15)
Wickes, USS (DD-75)/ HMS Montgomery
Wilkes, USS (DD-67)
Winslow, USS (DD-53)
Woolsey, USS (DD-77)
Wyoming, USS (BB 32)


Osigurana je dobro opremljena mornarica i dobro obučeno osoblje Neutralnost Danske

Kad je 1914. izbio Prvi svjetski rat, danska mornarica sastojala se od znatnog broja brodova.

Osim toga, bila je to prilično moderna mornarica prikladna za danske vode, a stanje obučenosti osoblja bilo je vrlo dobro nakon nekoliko godina iscrpnih vježbi eskadrila.

Tako je Danska imala dobro opremljenu mornaricu spremnu braniti svoju neutralnost.

Dok danas analiziramo situaciju Danske kada je izbio rat 1914. godine, važno je imati na umu da je to bila prilično drugačija i manja zemlja u odnosu na zemlju koju poznajemo danas.

Južni Jutland, vojvodstvo Slesvig i vojvodstva Holsten i Lauenborg bili su dio Njemačkog Carstva od rata 1864. To je značilo da su se Danska i Njemačka graničile s vodenim tijelom poznatim pod imenom Little Belt.

Tisuće mladih Danskih muškaraca koji žive južno od granice u južnoj Jutlandiji bili su prisiljeni sudjelovati u ratu boreći se za Nijemce.

Osnovane su sigurnosne snage

Nakon što je Austro-Ugarska objavila rat Srbiji 28. srpnja 1914., stvari su se vrlo brzo razvile na geopolitičkoj areni.

U Danskoj je eskadrila za obuku opremljena tijekom ljeta, kao što je to bio slučaj i prethodnih godina. Tako je većina jedinica spremnih za borbu već bila opremljena kad je izbio rat.

Eskadrila za obuku dobila je naređenje da otplovi u The Sound odmah nakon početka neprijateljstava.

Dana 31. srpnja 1914. godine u 2130. danska je vlada izdala pismenu direktivu kojom se mornarici naređuje da uspostavi sigurnosne snage.

Nakon toga, zapovjedni admiral, viceadmiral O. J. Kofoed-Hansen, preuzeo je vrhovno zapovjedništvo nad opremljenim brodovima, dok je odgovornost za obranu Kopenhagena prema moru dobio zapovjednik plutajuće obrane, kontraadmiral A. F. Mazanti Evers.

Sljedećeg jutra, nakon što su se napunili u Holmenu, većina brodova bila je spremna pridružiti se novoosnovanoj eskadrili Waterways 23 sata nakon izdavanja naredbe o uspostavi sigurnosnih snaga.

Eskadrila vodenih putova okupila se u Soundu južno od Drogdena u večernjim satima 1. kolovoza. Brodovi koji su 24 sata čekali u Holmenu bili su spremni za polazak 2. kolovoza.

Cijela eskadrila Waterways bila je na kolodvoru u Soundu 5. kolovoza 1914. godine.

Danska ostaje neutralna

Dok su se snage sigurnosti mornarice spremale 1. kolovoza, svim je nacijama poslana deklaracija u kojoj se savjetuje da će Danska ostati potpuno neutralna tijekom rata između Austro-Ugarske i Srbije.

Danska je 4. kolovoza objavila sličnu poruku u vezi s objavom rata između Njemačke i Rusije, kao i Njemačke i Francuske.

Kasnije istog dana, Njemačka je odgovorila na engleski ultimatum u vezi s kršenjem belgijske neutralnosti, nakon čega je Engleska objavila rat Njemačkoj.

Prvi svjetski rat sada je postao stvarnost.

Danska vlada bila je odlučna u namjeri provođenja neutralnosti Danske.

Rano ujutro 5. kolovoza 1914. objavljeno je da su njemački brodovi angažirani na postavljanju mina u južnom dijelu Langelandskog pojasa.

Rano ujutro 5. kolovoza 1914. objavljeno je da su njemački brodovi angažirani na postavljanju mina u južnom dijelu Langelandskog pojasa.
(Karta sa: Arhiva Kraljevskog danskog pomorskog muzeja)

Istog jutra Nijemci su usmeno zahtijevali da Danska pokrene miniranje Velikog pojasa.

Umjesto da jednostavno zadovolje njemačke zahtjeve, žurno nazvano vladino vijeće, u kojem je sudjelovao i zapovjedni admiral, viceadmiral OJ Kofoed-Hansen, istog je dana odlučio rasporediti mine u Soundu, Velikom pojasu i danskom dijelu Littlea. Pojas.

Ministar obrane je stoga naredio miniranje danskih tjesnaca, a ministar vanjskih poslova osobno je izvijestio njemačke i engleske izaslanike da:

& quotDa bi se provela neutralnost i držale vojne operacije dalje od danskih plovnih putova i obala te kako bi se osigurala stalna veza između različitih dijelova zemlje, danska je vlada odlučila zatvoriti danske teritorijalne plovne putove u Zvuku, kao i Veliki i Mali pojas rudarstvo. & quot

Nakon odluke o miniranju danskih tjesnaca, mornarica se suočila s izazovnim zadatkom. Osim što je štitila dansku neutralnost i zadovoljavala napade na dansko područje, minska polja je trebalo obraniti.

Svaka eskadrila normalno se sastojala od najmanje jednog obalnog obrambenog broda kao vodećeg broda, jedne ili dvije krstarice te nekoliko torpednih čamaca i podmornica, kao i nekih brodova za podršku. Obalni obrambeni brod OLFERT FISCHER s kruzerom HEJMDAL u pozadini se vidi ovdje.
(Foto: Arhiva Kraljevskog danskog pomorskog muzeja)

Strateški su zadani zadaci bili oprečni jer je za očuvanje neutralnosti bilo potrebno rasipanje snaga, dok je obrana minskih polja i odgovor na mogući napad zahtijevala koncentraciju snaga.

Dilema je riješena podjelom eskadrile Waterways na 1. eskadrilu, smještenu u Soundu, i 2. eskadrilu, smještenu u Velikom pojasu, dok je manji broj brodova bio smješten u Little Beltu i Smaalandsfarvandetu.

Svaka eskadrila normalno se sastojala od najmanje jednog obalnog obrambenog broda kao vodećeg broda, jedne ili dvije krstarice, šest do devet torpednih brodova i tri do četiri podmornice, kao i nekih brodova za podršku. Osim toga, plutajuća obrana na cestama u Kopenhagenu sastoji se od četiri topovnjače ili ophodnih čamaca i dvanaest do petnaest starijih torpednih i ophodnih brodova s ​​nekim brodovima za podršku.

Također, tijekom cijelog svjetskog rata patrolni su brodovi bili stacionirani na Skawu, zapadnoj obali Jutlanda (Esbjerg), na Farskim otocima, Islandu i u danskoj Zapadnoj Indiji.

Međutim, dugačke obale samo su se sporadično čuvale.

Povrede neutralnosti

Tijekom cijelog svjetskog rata zaraćene strane pokušavale su poštivati ​​neutralnost Danske, ali su ipak prijavljena 164 kršenja.

Najozbiljniji i najkrvaviji prekršaj dogodio se 19. kolovoza 1915. kada je britanska podmornica E.13 - prizemljen prethodne večeri na južnoj točki Saltholma u Soundu - napadnut je od njemačkog torpednog čamca u danskim teritorijalnim vodama.

Napuštena i uništena britanska podmornica E.13 nasukali se u Saltholmu nakon njemačkog napada 19. kolovoza 1915.
(Foto: Arhiva Kraljevskog danskog pomorskog muzeja)

Unatoč prisutnosti danskih brodova na tom području, njemački torpedni čamac napao je i uništio prizemljenu britansku podmornicu.

Napad je rezultirao gubitkom 15 britanskih podmornica.

Jedan od mirnijih prekršaja dogodio se tijekom studenog 1916., kada se njemačka podmornica nasukala zbog problema s motorom izvan Vrista, južno od Harbooerea na zapadnoj obali Jutlanda.

Danski ratni brod dobio je nalog u to područje za čuvanje podmornice i provođenje danske neutralnosti. Pokazalo se da je to lak zadatak. Kad je njemački zapovjednik podmornice otkrio da nije moguće ponovno postaviti podmornicu, odlučio je isploviti brod.

Kasnije se pokazalo da je uzemljena, a sada istrebljena njemačka podmornica U20, koji je u svibnju 1915. potopio britanski putnički brod LUSITANIJA.

Potonuće koje je uvelike pridonijelo odluci Sjedinjenih Država da uđu u rat.

Gubitak podmornice Dykkeren

9. listopada 1916. mornarica je doživjela nesreću kada je podmornica DYKKEREN sudario se s norveškim teretnim brodom tijekom rutinskog ronjenja u Soundu kod Taarbaeka i potonuo.

Posada je spašena, no zapovjednik - prvoporučnik Svend Aage Christiansen - poginuo je u tornju podmornice, nadgledajući spašavanje prva tri člana posade.

Približno šest sati kasnije preostalih pet članova posade spašeno je kada je jedan od spasilačkih brodova Svitzers uspio izvući pramac podmornice na površinu.

The DYKKEREN je spašen nekoliko dana kasnije i doveden u brodogradilište. Međutim, podmornica je bila izvan pogona jer se procjenjivalo da će troškovi popravka premašiti vrijednost broda.

Danska Zapadna Indija

U jesen 1915. krstarica VALKIREN, kojim je zapovijedao komodor Henri Konow, poslano je u dansku Zapadnu Indiju kao brod stanice.

Tijekom posljednjih pedeset godina bilo je nekoliko pregovora sa Sjedinjenim Državama o prodaji otoka. Tijekom svjetskog rata Amerikanci su bili duboko zabrinuti zbog mogućnosti da Nijemci pokušaju zauzeti danske otoke, gdje su njemačke tvrtke imale značajne gospodarske interese.

Glasanje u Danskoj proizvelo je većinu za prodaju otoka Sjedinjenim Državama. Nastavljeni pregovori sada su bili uspješni i odlučeno je da se VALKIREN trebao ostati u Zapadnoj Indiji do primopredaje. U isto vrijeme, zapovjednik, kapetan Henri Konow, postavljen je za privremenog namjesnika.

Krstarica VALKIREN kao postajno plovilo u Zapadnoj Indiji
tijekom 1. svjetskog rata.
(Foto: Arhiva Kraljevskog danskog pomorskog muzeja)

Dana 1. ožujka 1917. Dannebrog (danska zastava) spušten je u vojnu vojarnu u Charlotte Amalie na St. Thomas i danska Zapadna Indija, St. Thomas, St. Croix i St. John predani su Sjedinjenim Državama nakon što je danski posjed od 1666.

Sljedećeg dana, kao krstarica VALKIREN otpočevši plovidbu natrag u Kopenhagen, strana je zastava vijorila područje koje je 245 godina bilo zapadna granica patrola danske mornarice.

Ubrzo nakon provedbe primirja 11. studenog 1918., vlada je poduzela korake za ponovno uspostavljanje normalnih prometnih uvjeta na danskim plovnim putovima.

Istoga dana kada je primirje postalo stvarnost, započelo se sanacijom minskih polja, zatvoreni dijelovi plovnih putova ponovno su otvoreni, a svjetionici ponovno stavljeni u funkciju.

Sigurnosne snage postupno su se smanjivale, a do kraja 1918. samo obalni obrambeni brod HERLUF TROLLE, krstarica HEJMDAL a neki torpedni čamci bili su opremljeni za formiranje zimske eskadrile. Osim toga, niz manjih plovila bilo je stacionirano na danskim plovnim putovima.

No rat je i dalje uzrokovao žrtve

Čišćenje mina i čamci na njemačkim minskim poljima još uvijek zahtijevaju veliku opremu.

14. prosinca 1918., više od mjesec dana nakon primirja, tri danska marinca su ubijena, a osam je ranjeno, kada je torpedni čamac SVAERDFISKEN naletio na njemački rudnik kod Albuena u Velikom pojasu.

Torpedni čamac SVAERDFISKEN ovdje se vidi s nestalom krmom na Holmenu nakon minske nesreće u Velikom pojasu 14. prosinca 1918. godine.

Situacija je također zahtijevala pomno praćenje plovidbe stranih brodova u danskim vodama.

Uglavnom su brodovi koji pripadaju novoj ruskoj republici zahtijevali posebno promatranje, ali i nemiri u Njemačkoj i opsežna invazija ruskih ratnih zarobljenika koji su pobjegli iz južnog Jutlanda u Aero i jugozapadnu obalu Funena zahtijevali su znatan broj torpeda brodovi i podmornice za patrolne dužnosti u Malom pojasu.

Ova patrolna dužnost morala se zadržati dugo nakon službenog odstupanja snaga sigurnosti 31. ožujka 1919. u 1200 sati.

Južni Jutlanderi vraćeni su u domovinu

Za dijelove mornarice rat još uvijek nije bio završen kada su snage sigurnosti prestale.

Krstarica VALKIREN, koji je u ljeto 1919. opremljen kao brod za obuku kadeta, u srpnju je poslan u Egipat i na Maltu kako bi pokupio južne Jutlandance oslobođene kao ratni zarobljenici.

Ovi Danci iz južnog Jutlanda bili su prisiljeni služiti u njemačkoj vojsci tijekom Svjetskog rata.

Kruzer, koji je među svojim mlađim kadetima ubrajao prijestolonasljednika Frederika - kasnijeg admirala, kralja Fridrika IX - uspio se vratiti u Dansku u rujnu sa ukupno 160 južnih Jutlandaca na brodu.

Već tijekom listopada 1920. godine VALKIREN je još jednom poslano. Ovaj put u Nizozemsku, Belgiju i Francusku, kako bi se vratili oslobođeni ratni zarobljenici južnog Jutlanda, ukrcano je ukupno 135 južnih Jutlanda.


Enciklopedija - Q -brodovi

Predvođeni krajem 1914. godine od strane Britanaca i Francuza - a kasnije su ih rasporedili talijanska i ruska mornarica - Q -brodovi bili su raspoređeni kao početno, iako sve manje uspješno protupodmorničko oružje. Alternativno nazvani brodovi za posebne usluge ili misteriozni brodovi, svrha Q-brodova bila je jasna: hvatanje neprijateljskih (obično njemačkih) podmornica.

Neizmjerno sastavljeni od malih teretnjaka ili starih koćarica bili su napunjeni skrivenim oružjem u sklopivoj konstrukciji palube. U praksi bi podmornice pozdravljale Q-brodove koji lete (u slučaju Kraljevske mornarice) trgovačku crvenu zastavnicu, a u razdoblju prije provedbe njemačke politike neograničenog ratovanja podmornicama 1917., očito bi takozvana & quotpanic party & quot napustiti Q-Ship prije uobičajene njemačke politike približavanja neprijateljskom plovilu kako bi ga potopili uz minimalno iscrpljivanje streljiva.

U ovoj fazi službeno se mrzilo korištenje torpeda za potopljivanje relativno malih plovila.

Tako bi podmornicom koja je učinkovito namamljena prema naizgled napuštenom brodu Q-Ship dotrčao bijeli zastavnik, a ostatak brodske posade srušio bi strukturu palube otkrivajući niz do četiri pištolja s posadom, koji bi odmah otvorili vatru .

U početku uspješan trik Q-Ship rezultirao je potonućem 11 britanskih i francuskih podmornica. Kako je rat odmicao, proizvodnja Q-brodova značajno se povećala pa su do kraja rata samo Britanci rasporedili 366. Međutim, Nijemci su brzo razvili određeni oprez pri približavanju malim neprijateljskim plovilima, oprezni s mamcima.

Torpeda su se sve više koristila za potopljavanje Q-brodova na većem dometu, a uvođenjem neograničenog podmorničkog ratovanja posadama Q-brodova nije dano vrijeme da napuste brod prije nego što se na njih puca. Britanci su ukupno izgubili 61 Q-Ship. Do 1917. učinkovitost Q-Ship implementacije bila je minimalna i cjelokupni pothvat nije se mogao nazvati uspjehom.

Subota, 22. kolovoza 2009. Michael Duffy

& Quotred cap & quot bio je britanski vojni policajac.

- Dali si znao?


'Zabljesnuta' strategija kamuflaže Prvog svjetskog rata bila je toliko smiješna da je bila genijalna

Jedno od najstrašnijeg i najučinkovitijeg oružja Njemačke tijekom Prvog svjetskog rata bila je njezina flota podmornica, poznatih kao podmornice, koje su lutale Atlantikom, šuljajući se pod vodom na britanskim trgovačkim brodovima i uništavajući ih torpedima. Tijekom rata potopili su više od 5.700 plovila, pritom ubivši više od 12.700 neboraca.

Britanci nisu bili sigurni što učiniti. Kamuflaža je radila u kopnenom ratovanju, ali bila je druga stvar da se objekt velik poput teretnog broda uklopi u ocean, osobito kad je dim hrlio iz njegovih hrpa.

No, dobrovoljni rezervni poručnik Kraljevske mornarice po imenu Norman Wilkinson, slikar, grafički dizajner i ilustrator novina u svom civilnom životu, došao je s radikalnim, ali genijalnim rješenjem: Umjesto da pokušavate sakriti brodove, učinite ih uočljivim.

Pokrivajući brodske trupove zapanjujućim prugama, kovitlacima i nepravilnim apstraktnim oblicima koji su podsjetili na kubističke slike Pabla Picassa ili Georgesa Braquea, mogao se na trenutak zbuniti njemački podmornički časnik koji je provirio kroz periskop. Uzorci bi otežali utvrđivanje veličine, brzine, udaljenosti i smjera broda.

Wilkinsonova ideja bila je zapanjujući kontrast s idejama drugih teoretičara kamuflaže. Američki umjetnik Abbott Thayer, na primjer, zalagao se za oslikavanje brodova u bijelo i prikrivanje njihovih dimnih stubova platnom u nastojanju da se uklope u ocean, prema Smithsonian.

Zasljepljujuća kamuflaža, kako se počeo nazivati ​​Wilkinsonov koncept, “ini se da je kontra-intuitivna, ” objašnjava Roy R. Behrens, profesor umjetnosti i ugledni stipendist sa Sveučilišta Sjeverna Iowa, koji piše �moupedia , ” blog koji je ’ sažetak istraživanja umjetnosti kamuflaže. � bi Wilkinson došao na ideju redefiniranja kamuflaže kao visoke vidljivosti za razliku od slabe vidljivosti bilo je prilično zapanjujuće. ”

Kao što Peter Forbes piše u svojoj knjizi iz 2009. godine Zaslijepljeni i prevareni: Mimikrija i kamuflaža, Wilkinson —koji je zapovijedao motornim čamcem od 80 stopa koji se koristio za čišćenje mina kod britanske obale —očigledno je bio inspiriran tijekom jednog ribolovnog putovanja vikendom u proljeće 1917. Kad se vratio u brodogradilište Devonport Kraljevske mornarice, otišao je ravno do svog nadređenog časnika sa svojom idejom.

“I je znao da je krajnje nemoguće učiniti brod nevidljivim, podsjetio je kasnije Wilkinson, prema Forbesovoj knjizi. Ali palo mu je na pamet da bi, ako se crni brod razbije s bijelim prugama, vizualno zbunio neprijatelja.

“ Ideja je imala presedan u prirodi, s poremećajem u šarenju u obojenosti životinja, "kaže Behrens. Kako bi otkrilo istraživanje koje su proveli gotovo stoljeće kasnije britanski i australski istraživači, čini se da zebrine pruge služe toj svrsi, pretvarajući stado u ono što se čini kaotičnim neredom linija s daljine, i čini ga lavovima i drugim teškim grabežljivci da ih presretnu.

Kako objašnjava Behrens, Nijemci su, kada su bili pod vodom, jedini način da vide cilj bili kroz periskop, koji su mogli probiti kroz vodu samo nakratko zbog opasnosti da budu otkriveni. Morali su upotrijebiti taj mali dio vizualnih podataka kako bi izračunali gdje u vodi usmjeriti torpedo, tako da će ono stići na to mjesto u isto vrijeme kad i brod koji su pokušavali potopiti.

Wilkinsonova shema kamuflaže dizajnirana je tako da ometa te izračune, otežavajući reći koji je kraj broda i kamo je krenuo. S torpedima nije bilo mnogo prostora za greške, pa ako je zasljepljujuća kamuflaža odbacila izračune samo za nekoliko stupnjeva, to bi moglo biti dovoljno da promaši i spasi britanski brod.

“To je iskorištavanje ograničenog pogleda na periskop, & Bexrens objašnjava.

Današnji ljubitelj umjetnosti mogao bi pretpostaviti da je zasljepljujuća kamuflaža zamisao kubističkog slikara, a ne nekoga poput Wilkinsona, reprezentativnog umjetnika koji je volio slikati brodove i morske pejzaže. Claudia Covert, knjižničarka posebnih zbirki na Školi za dizajn na Rhode Islandu i autorica članka o Dazzle kamuflaži iz 2007. Umjetnička dokumentacija: časopis Društva umjetničkih biblioteka Sjeverne Amerike, kaže da je Wilkinson “ vjerojatno bio svjestan ovih suvremenih pokreta —kubizma, futurizma i vrtloga. Zapravo, jedan od slikara Vorticista, Edward Wadsworth, nadzirao je zaslijepljene brodove u Liverpoolu tijekom rata. ”

Osim toga, morate se sjetiti da Wilkinson nije bio samo slikar morskih pejzaža, već i dizajner plakata, kaže Behrens. “Pa je morao raditi s apstraktnim oblicima, bojama i oblicima. ”

Iako britanski Admiralitet vjerojatno nije uključivao previše ljubitelja moderne umjetnosti, gubici od napada podmornicama bili su toliko razorni da su uskoro ovlastili Wilkinsona da postavi maskirnu jedinicu na Kraljevskoj akademiji u Londonu. Zaposlio je druge umjetnike, koji su dobili povjerenstva Pomorskog rezervata, i oni su se dali na posao.

Norman Wilkinson, oko 1943.  

Wilkinson je napravio modele brodova na okretnom stolu, a zatim ih promatrao kroz periskop, koristeći zaslone, svjetla i pozadine kako bi vidio kako će zasljepljujuće sheme boja izgledati u različita doba dana i noći. Upotrijebio je jedan od tih modela kako bi impresionirao posjetitelja, kralja Georgea V, koji je zurio kroz periskop i nagađao da se maketa kreće južno-zapadno, da bi iznenađen otkrio da se kreće istočno-jugoistočno.

Do listopada 1917. britanski su dužnosnici bili dovoljno uvjereni u zasljepljujuću učinkovitost pa su naredili da svi trgovački brodovi dobiju posebne poslove za farbanje, prema ovom Behrensovom članku iz 1999. godine.

Na zahtjev američke vlade, Wilkinson je u ožujku 1918. preplovio Atlantik i susreo se s tajnikom mornarice Franklinom D. Rooseveltom, a zatim je pomogao u uspostavi maskirne jedinice na čelu s američkim slikarom impresionistom Everettom Warnerom.

Do kraja rata više od 2.300 britanskih brodova bilo je ukrašeno zasljepljujućom kamuflažom. Nije jasno koliko je blještavilo zapravo uspjelo u osujećivanju napada podmornicama. Kako objašnjava Forbes, poslijeratna komisija zaključila je da je vjerojatno samo dala malu prednost.

“Kada je američka mornarica usvojila Wilkinsonovu i apossovu shemu i za trgovačke i za borbene brodove, postoje statistički dokazi koji podržavaju Wilkinsonovu i apossovu tehniku, kaže Forbes. Ukupno 1.256 trgovačkih i borbenih brodova bilo je kamuflirano u razdoblju od 1. ožujka do 11. studenoga 1918. Devedeset šest brodova s ​​više od 2.500 tona potopljeno je, od čega je samo 18 bilo kamuflirano i svi su bili trgovački brodovi. & quotNi jedan od maskirnih borbenih brodova nije potopljen, ” kaže

Važno je zapamtiti da se brodovi nisu samo oslanjali na zasljepljujuću kamuflažu za zaštitu od podmornica, objašnjava Behrens. “Koristilo se u kombinaciji s taktikama kao što su cik-cak i putovanje u konvojima, u kojima su najugroženiji brodovi držani u središtu formacije, okruženi bržim, opasnijim brodovima sposobnim uništiti podmornice. ” Sinergija tih mjera bila je ȁZačudno učinkovita, ” kaže.


Protupodmorničke barijere

Saveznici su koristili barijere poznate kao baraže kako bi spriječili njemačke podmornice da dođu do njihovih luka. Tri najveće baraže bile su u La Mancheu između Norveške i Orkneyovih otoka u Sjevernom moru te u Otrantskom tjesnacu.

Baraže su se sastojale od mina, mreža i površinskih čamaca. The nets were designed to be dragged along by any submarine that got caught in them. A submarine would either have to surface to get rid of the net or drag it around identifying its presence. Either way, it made a U-boat visible and so vulnerable to attack.

The barrages helped to limit German activity, at one point denying access to U-boats in the English Channel for 12 months. Ultimately, it was the convoy system that took a real toll on the German submariners, although U-boats remained the most powerful submarine force right up to the war’s end.


Civilian days

The ships were owned by the Union Steam Ship Company of New Zealand Ltd, the country’s biggest private business. Run from Dunedin since 1875, it was also the southern hemisphere’s largest shipping line, able to draw on a mixture of New Zealand, Australian and British capital.

The Union Company had a history of innovation. In the early 1900s, its founder, James Mills, took a shine to the new-fangled marine steam turbine, a fuel- and labour-saving engine that also made life easier for passengers by running more smoothly and quietly than reciprocating engines. In 1904 Union commissioned the Bass Strait ferry Loongana, the world’s first seagoing turbine merchant ship.

Even before that ship proved its worth, Mills ordered his next trans-Tasman liner as a turbine. He gave the job to Scottish shipbuilder William Denny & Bros, a founding shareholder that had built every new Union Company ship since 1875. This became the Maheno of 1905. It was no North Atlantic liner, even smaller than a modern Cook Strait ferry, but the company’s first (and only) two-funnel Tasman liner shaved a full day off the usual five-day crossing.

The stylish Maheno captured public attention, but was not perfect. The ship chewed through coal, had clumsily designed furnace doors and ‘rolled on wet grass’ as seafarers used to say. Canny firemen and trimmers took jobs on other ships if they could get them. In 1914 the company spent a fortune on completely re-engining the ship at Port Chalmers.

The Maheno’s shortcomings were the last straw for the company, which had complained about several recent Denny ships. In 1906 it gave the contract for its next passenger liner to another Scottish builder, Caird & Co of Greenock.

The Marama of 1907 reverted to conventional reciprocating steam engines and a single funnel.

Technical details: TSS Maheno
Builder: Wm Denny & Bros, Dumbarton, Scotland
Tonnage: 5323 gross
Dimensions: 121.9 m long, 15.2 m wide, 6.95 m draft
Top speed: 17 knots
Passengers: 231 first class, 120 second class and 67 third class
Crew: 113

Technical details: SS Marama
Builder: Caird & Co, Greenock, Scotland
Tonnage: 6437 gross
Dimensions: 128 m long, 16.1 m beam and 6.9 m draft
Top speed: 16 knots
Passengers: 270 first class, 120 saloon and 100 (200 max) fore-cabin passengers
Crew: 140


Troopships in the First World War

Alaunia : In 1914 the Alaunia i Andania , were used as troop ships carrying Canadian troops across the Atlantic. In the summer of 1915 both the ships were involved in the Gallipoli campaign. Later that year the Alaunia carried troops to Bombay. In 1916 the Alaunia struck a mine and sank two miles off the Royal Sovereign Lightship.

Andania : Andania was used to transport the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and Royal Dublin Fusiliers to Cape Helles for the landings at Suvla. In 1918 she was hit by a torpedo a few miles from Altacarry Light (County Antrim).

Aurania : Aurania was completed in 1917. She was employed in the North Atlantic, but after having made only seven trips she was hit by a torpedo 15 miles off Inishtrahull.

Ascania : When the war broke out the Ascania worked on the North Atlantic. On the eastward journeys, the third class areas were occupied by Canadian troops. In 1918 Ascania ran aground off Cape Ray.

Aquitania : Commissioned by the Royal Navy in 1914 the Aquitania first patrolled the Western Approaches but after colliding with a cargo ship it was decided that she was too big to be an armoured merchant cruiser. However she was used in the Gallipoli landings. In the latter part of the war she was employed as a hospital ship.

Kampanija : Built in 1893, the Kampanija was originally a record-breaking transatlantic liner. Kampanija was saved from being scrapped by the outbreak of the war. As most of the other Cunarders were being used by the Admiralty, the Kampanija was used for passenger trips. Eventually Cunard decided that she was no longer needed and put her up for sale. The Admiralty came to the rescue as they were looking for a ship which could be converted to carry seaplanes. Purpose built planes called Fairy Campanias were built and the ship had room for ten on her decks. The Kampanija was now the world's largest aircraft carrier. She was a great success, but unfortunately in November 1918, she sank after dragging her anchors and colliding with first Kraljevski hrast i onda Glorious in the Firth of Forth.

Carmania : Three days after war was declared, Carmania was converted into a armoured merchant cruiser. Both her and her sister ship, the Caronia were armed with 4.7 inch guns. In mid-September 1914 she sunk the German liner Cap Trafalgar . The Carmania was going to help at Gallipoli but she ran aground on the way and ended up just picking up survivors from three battleships torpedoed in the Dardanelles. The Carmania was the first Cunard liner to have turbines.

Caronia : Caronia was the Carmania's sister-ship and was the first to be turned into an armoured merchant cruiser. On the 19th August 1914 she captured the German ship Odesa carrying a cargo of nitrate. In August 1916 she was repaired and given back to the Cunard Line. Both ships survived the war and in June 1919 the Caronia was returned to Cunard.

Franconia : At the start of the war Franconia continued her regular service from Liverpool to New York. Then in February 1915 she was turned into a troopship and was sent straight to Gallipoli where she took casualties to the safety of the Egyptian port. On the 4th of October 1916, bound for Salonika, she was torpedoed and sank. There were no troops on board and only 12 of the crew were killed.

Laconia : Laconia was turned into an armed merchant cruiser in 1914. She was based at Simonstown in the South Atlantic which she patrolled until April 1915. Laconia was then used as a headquarters ship for the operations to capture Tanga and the colony of German East Africa (Tanzania). Four months later she returned to the patrolling of the South Atlantic. The Laconia was handed back to Cunard in July 1916.

Invernia : Invernia was taken over by the Royal Navy and used for troop transport to Canada and the Mediterranean. She was sunk by a torpedo about 60 miles SE of Cape Matapan in Greece while carrying troops. Most of the crew were saved by the Rifleman or trawlers who were accompanying her.

Llandovery Castle : The sinking of this Llandovery Castle is considered one of the worst atrocities of the war. She was employed as a hospital ship and had her cross lights on when she was torpedoed without warning by a German submarine. Only 24 people survived out of the 258 people on board.

Omrah : With the outbreak of war Omrah was requisitioned by the government for troop transport. Work on her was completed in mid-September 1914. She carried troops to Colombo and then 40 prisoners to Egypt before being discharged from service in February 1915. Two years later she was again used for troop transport bringing troops from Australia to England. Then 40 miles SW of Cape Spartivento in Sardinia, she was hit by a torpedo and sank.

Ormonde : Ormonde was being built when the First World War started and her completion was delayed because the ship builders were needed by the British Navy. In early 1917 there was a great need for troop ships and work started again on the Ormonde . She was completed in November and taken over by the Navy. After a short service she was returned to P&O in 1919.

Orontes : Orontes was taken over by the government in 1916 as a troop ship and held this job until the end of the war. In the year after the war she was used to take Australian and South African troops home from England.

Orsova : Requisitioned as a troop ship in April 1915, Orsova carried Australian reinforcements to Egypt and Europe. In March she was hit by a torpedo in the English channel, luckily her captain was able to beach her at Plymouth. After a long wait she was repaired and was used to carry troops over from America. The Orsova was transferred to the Australian route for the last three months of the war.

Otranto : On the 1st August 1914 the Otranto was requested to become hospital ship but in the end became an armed merchant cruiser. On the 31st October 1914 she confronted Admiral von Spee's powerful fleet of German cruisers and two of the three ships with her, Good Hope i Monmouth , sank but luckily she and the Glasgow escaped. She was then used for troop transport between Liverpool to New York. In October 1918 the Otranto was heading for Scotland with her convoy when she collided with the Kashmir . Some of the people on board were rescued by the Mounsey but she then ran aground and broke in half. Only a hand full of men survived out of the 400 which were still onboard. This was one of the worst misfortunes in the last few weeks of the war.


FIRST WORLD WAR SHIPS - History


This page is part of my web pages concerning the picture postcards of WW I troopships. This page describes the troopships themselves and a bit about their history.

I have a copy of a book entitled A History of the Transport Service by Vice Admiral Albert Gleaves, U.S.N. It was published in 1921 and describes the incredible effort needed to transport millions of American troops both over to France and back home again. Several tables and illustrations from the book are available from my web account, by following the links on this page. This information may help if you are looking for a particular ship or wish to see the statistics behind this major war effort.

Note that this book's contents are available online: Online copy of A History of the Transport Service by Vice Admiral Albert Gleaves, U.S.N. You can download your own copy and learn more about this fascinating history, and the ships and men that were part of it.

Passenger Lists

Ancestry.com offers a search engine that may help connect a particular service person with a troopship.

Listings of Ships

The following images were scanned from the book mentioned above. These pages list the ships used to take troops over to France. These ships also took part in the return of the troops. Any of the German ships listed here were seized by the U.S. after it's entrance into the War in 1917. (Note that other German ships were used to return troops, but those ships were given to the U.S. as part of the post-War reparations.) Each line is formatted thus: NAME of SHIP [tonnage], Ship Origin, 'Turns:', Number of Turnarounds, 'Px:', Total Passengers Carried to Europe, Date this ship started to carry troops (Month, Day-Year as '17' or '18' for 1917 or 1918).

Aeolus [22000], Ex-German, Turns: 8, Px: 24770, Aug. 4-17

Agamemnon [30000], Ex-German, Turns: 10, Px: 36097, Aug. 21-17

America [41500], Ex-German, Turns: 9, Px: 39768, Aug. 6-17

Antigone [15000], Ex-German, Turns: 8, Px: 16526, Sep. 5-17

Calamares [10000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 5, Px: 7657, Apr. 9-18

Covington [41500], Ex-German, Turns: 6, Px: 21628, Jul. 28-17

De Kalb (Aux. Cruiser) [14280], Ex-German, Turns: 11, Px: 11334, May 12-17

Finland [22000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 5, Px: 12654, Apr. 26-18

Geo. Washington [George Washington] [39435], Ex-German, Turns: 9, Px: 48373, Sep. 6-17

Great Northern [14000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 10, Px: 28248, Nov. 1-17

Hancock [10000], Marine Transport, Turns: 2, Px: 1438, ---

Harrisburg [15000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 4, Px: 9855, May 29-18

Henderson [10000], Marine Transport, Turns: 10, Px: 16352, May 24-17

Huron [15000], Ex-German, Turns: 8, Px: 20871, Jul. 25-17

K. der Nederlanden [Koningin der Nederlanden] [13600], Dutch Chartered, Turns: 3, Px: 6283, Apr. 4-18

Kroonland [22000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 5, Px: 14125, Apr. 25-18

Lenape [7000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 6, Px: 8975, Apr. 24-17

Leviathan [69000], Ex-German, Turns: 10, Px: 96804, Jul. 25-17

Louisville [14000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 4, Px: 9247, Apr. 27-18

Madawaska [15000], Ex-German, Turns: 9, Px: 17931, Aug. 27-17

H. R. Mallory [11000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 6, Px: 9756, Apr. 17-18

Manchuria [26500], Am-Passenger, Turns: 4, Px: 14491, Apr. 25-18

Martha Washington [14500], Ex-German, Turns: 8, Px: 22311, Jan. 2-18

Matsonia [17000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 6, Px: 13329, Mar. 1-18

Maui [17500], Am-Passenger, Turns: 4, Px: 11042, Mar. 6-18

Mercury [16000], Ex-German, Turns: 7, Px: 18542, Aug. 3-17

Mongolia [26695], Am-Passenger, Turns: 5, Px: 19013, May 8-18

Mount Vernon [32130], Ex-German, Turns: 9, Px: 33692, Jul. 28-17

Northern Pacific [12500], Am-Passenger, Turns: 9, Px: 20711, Nov. 1-17

Orizaba [13000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 6, Px: 15712, May 27-18

Pastores [13000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 6, Px: 9928, May 6-18

Plattsburg [10000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 4, Px: 8776, May 25-18

Pocahontas [14500], Ex-German, Turns: 9, Px: 20503, Jul. 25-17

Powhatan [17000], Ex-German, Turns: 7, Px: 14613, Aug. 16-17

Pritisni. Grant [President Grant] [33000], Ex-German, Turns: 8, Px: 39974, Aug. 2-17

Pritisni. Lincoln [President Lincoln] [29000], Ex-German, Turns: 5, Px: 20143, Jul. 25-17

Princess Matoika [17500], Ex-German, Turns: 6, Px: 21216, May 27-18

Rijndam [22070], Dutch Chartered, Turns: 6, Px: 17913, May 1-18

Siboney [11250], Am-Passenger, Turns: 7, Px: 20219, Apr. 8-18

Sierra [10000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 1, Px: 1712, Jul. 1-18

Susquehanna [16950], Ex-German, Turns: 8, Px: 18345, Sep. 5-17

Tenadores [10000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 13, Px: 15698, Apr. 17-18

Von Steuben [22000], Ex-German, Turns: 9, Px: 14347, Jun. 9-17

Wilhelmina [13500], Am-Passenger, Turns: 6, Px: 11053, Jan. 26-18

Zeelandia [12950], Dutch Chartered, Turns: 5, Px: 8349, Apr. 3-18

The same table as above, but sorted by the number of troops handled. This information may be of use to collectors, since there may be a relationship between the number of troops, and the number of possible postcards and letters purchased and/or mailed from these ships. Some of these ships carried very, very few passengers during the War.

Leviathan [69000], Ex-German, Turns: 10, Px: 96804, Jul. 25-17

Geo. Washington [George Washington] [39435], Ex-German, Turns: 9, Px: 48373, Sep. 6-17

Pritisni. Grant [President Grant] [33000], Ex-German, Turns: 8, Px: 39974, Aug. 2-17

America [41500], Ex-German, Turns: 9, Px: 39768, Aug. 6-17

Agamemnon [30000], Ex-German, Turns: 10, Px: 36097, Aug. 21-17

Mount Vernon [32130], Ex-German, Turns: 9, Px: 33692, Jul. 28-17

Great Northern [14000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 10, Px: 28248, Nov. 1-17

Aeolus [22000], Ex-German, Turns: 8, Px: 24770, Aug. 4-17

Martha Washington [14500], Ex-German, Turns: 8, Px: 22311, Jan. 2-18

Covington [41500], Ex-German, Turns: 6, Px: 21628, Jul. 28-17

Princess Matoika [17500], Ex-German, Turns: 6, Px: 21216, May 27-18

Huron [15000], Ex-German, Turns: 8, Px: 20871, Jul. 25-17

Northern Pacific [12500], Am-Passenger, Turns: 9, Px: 20711, Nov. 1-17

Pocahontas [14500], Ex-German, Turns: 9, Px: 20503, Jul. 25-17

Siboney [11250], Am-Passenger, Turns: 7, Px: 20219, Apr. 8-18

Pritisni. Lincoln [President Lincoln] [29000], Ex-German, Turns: 5, Px: 20143, Jul. 25-17

Mongolia [26695], Am-Passenger, Turns: 5, Px: 19013, May 8-18

Mercury [16000], Ex-German, Turns: 7, Px: 18542, Aug. 3-17

Susquehanna [16950], Ex-German, Turns: 8, Px: 18345, Sep. 5-17

Madawaska [15000], Ex-German, Turns: 9, Px: 17931, Aug. 27-17

Rijndam [22070], Dutch Chartered, Turns: 6, Px: 17913, May 1-18

Antigone [15000], Ex-German, Turns: 8, Px: 16526, Sep. 5-17

Henderson [10000], Marine Transport, Turns: 10, Px: 16352, May 24-17

Orizaba [13000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 6, Px: 15712, May 27-18

Tenadores [10000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 13, Px: 15698, Apr. 17-18

Powhatan [17000], Ex-German, Turns: 7, Px: 14613, Aug. 16-17

Manchuria [26500], Am-Passenger, Turns: 4, Px: 14491, Apr. 25-18

Von Steuben [22000], Ex-German, Turns: 9, Px: 14347, Jun. 9-17

Kroonland [22000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 5, Px: 14125, Apr. 25-18

Matsonia [17000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 6, Px: 13329, Mar. 1-18

Finland [22000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 5, Px: 12654, Apr. 26-18

De Kalb (Aux. Cruiser) [14280], Ex-German, Turns: 11, Px: 11334, May 12-17

Wilhelmina [13500], Am-Passenger, Turns: 6, Px: 11053, Jan. 26-18

Maui [17500], Am-Passenger, Turns: 4, Px: 11042, Mar. 6-18

Pastores [13000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 6, Px: 9928, May 6-18

Harrisburg [15000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 4, Px: 9855, May 29-18

H. R. Mallory [11000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 6, Px: 9756, Apr. 17-18

Louisville [14000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 4, Px: 9247, Apr. 27-18

Lenape [7000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 6, Px: 8975, Apr. 24-17

Plattsburg [10000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 4, Px: 8776, May 25-18

Zeelandia [12950], Dutch Chartered, Turns: 5, Px: 8349, Apr. 3-18

Calamares [10000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 5, Px: 7657, Apr. 9-18

K. der Nederlanden [Koningin der Nederlanden] [13600], Dutch Chartered, Turns: 3, Px: 6283, Apr. 4-18

Sierra [10000], Am-Passenger, Turns: 1, Px: 1712, Jul. 1-18

Hancock [10000], Marine Transport, Turns: 2, Px: 1438, ---

Seized German Liners

A number of German ocean liners were interned by the U.S. at the start of the European war (1914). They were seized when the U.S. entered the war (1917) and converted to troopships as quickly as possible, since the U.S. did not have sufficient capacity to carry troops. The ships were renamed from their German names, when appropriate. The listings are headed by the city in which they were interned. Each line lists the ship name, with the [original German ship name] and the (tonnage) of the ship.

Aeolus [Grosser Kurfurst] (13102)

Agamemnon [Kaiser Wilhelm II] (19361)

Geo. Washington [George Washington] (19361)

Huron [Frederich der Grosse] (10771)

Leviathan [Vaterland] (52820)

Madawaska [Koenig Wilhelm] (9410)

Pocahontas [Prinzess Irene] (10893)

President Grant [President Grant] (33000 (book in error gives 18172))

President Lincoln [President Lincoln] (29000 (book in error gives 18172))

Covington [Cincinnati] (16339)

Mount Vernon [Kronprinzessin Cecile] (19503)

Von Steuben [Kronprinz Wilhelm ] (14008)

The following tables show the names of the ships, both the original German and U. S. renaming. NOTE that this table does not show German ships taken as post-War reparations.

Ex-German (Early) Troopship Names

George Washington (George Washington)

Frederich der Grosse (Huron)

Kaiser Wilhelm II (Agamemnon)

Kronprinz Wilhelm (Von Steuben)

Kronprinzessin Cecile (Mount Vernon)

President Grant (President Grant)

President Lincoln (President Lincoln)

Prinzess Irene (Pocahontas)

The same table, but sorted by the U.S. ship name:

Kaiser Wilhelm II (Agamemnon)

George Washington (George Washington)

Frederich der Grosse (Huron)

Kronprinzessin Cecile (Mount Vernon)

Prinzess Irene (Pocahontas)

President Grant (President Grant)

President Lincoln (President Lincoln)

Kronprinz Wilhelm (Von Steuben)

Foreign Ships

A number of foreign ships were also used to move U.S. troops and personnel to and from France.

Duca Degli Abruzzi (Italian)

Ships Used for Troop Returning Only

These lists are long, so they have been moved to their own web page. See: ships used to return American troops after the First World War.

Some images are available of these ships. The Naval Historical Center maintains information on all known ships used by, or part of, the U. S. Navy. Follow the above link, and use their "search" feature to find images of such ships as: Santa Olivia, Pannonia , i Kentuckian.


Oars and sails

The earliest historical evidence of boats is found in Egypt during the 4th millennium bce . A culture nearly completely riparian, Egypt was narrowly aligned along the Nile, totally supported by it, and served by transport on its uninterruptedly navigable surface below the First Cataract (at modern-day Aswān). There are representations of Egyptian boats used to carry obelisks on the Nile from Upper Egypt that were as long as 300 feet (100 metres), longer than any warship constructed in the era of wooden ships.

The Egyptian boats commonly featured sails as well as oars. Because they were confined to the Nile and depended on winds in a narrow channel, recourse to rowing was essential. This became true of most navigation when the Egyptians began to venture out onto the shallow waters of the Mediterranean and Red seas. Most early Nile boats had a single square sail as well as one level, or row, of oarsmen. Quickly, several levels came into use, as it was difficult to maneuver very elongated boats in the open sea. The later Roman two-level bireme and three-level trireme were most common, but sometimes more than a dozen banks of oars were used to propel the largest boats.

Navigation on the sea began among Egyptians as early as the 3rd millennium bce . Voyages to Crete were among the earliest, followed by voyages guided by landmark navigation to Phoenicia and, later, using the early canal that tied the Nile to the Red Sea, by trading journeys sailing down the eastern coast of Africa. According to the 5th-century- bce Greek historian Herodotus, the king of Egypt about 600 bce dispatched a fleet from a Red Sea port that returned to Egypt via the Mediterranean after a journey of more than two years. Cretan and Phoenician voyagers gave greater attention to the specialization of ships for trade.

The basic functions of the warship and cargo ship determined their design. Because fighting ships required speed, adequate space for substantial numbers of fighting men, and the ability to maneuver at any time in any direction, long, narrow rowed ships became the standard for naval warfare. In contrast, because trading ships sought to carry as much tonnage of goods as possible with as small a crew as practicable, the trading vessel became as round a ship as might navigate with facility. The trading vessel required increased freeboard (height between the waterline and upper deck level), as the swell in the larger seas could fairly easily swamp the low-sided galleys propelled by oarsmen. As rowed galleys became higher-sided and featured additional banks of oarsmen, it was discovered that the height of ships caused new problems. Long oars were awkward and quickly lost the force of their sweep. Thus, once kings and traders began to perceive the need for specialized ships, ship design became an important undertaking.


Posljedica

Each of the defeated nations signed a treaty with the Allies, most significantly the Treaty of Versailles which was signed with Germany, and which has been blamed for causing further disruption ever since. There was devastation across Europe: 59 million troops had been mobilized, over 8 million died and over 29 million were injured. Huge quantities of capital had been passed to the now emergent United States and the culture of every European nation was deeply affected and the struggle became known as The Great War or The War to End All Wars.


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