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Tajne lijekova Maya otkrivene u ostacima starih biljaka

Tajne lijekova Maya otkrivene u ostacima starih biljaka

Po prvi put ikada, znanstvenici su identificirali biljku koja nije duhan u drevnim Maya kontejnerima za drogu. Znanstvenici kažu da biljni ostaci sugeriraju da su Maje pronašle način da pušenje učini "ugodnijim". Ovo otkriće također baca novo svjetlo na psihoaktivne i ne-psihoaktivne biljke koje su drevne Maje i druga predkolumbijska društva pušili, žvakali ili gušili.

Istraživački tim Sveučilišta Washington, predvođen Mariom Zimmermannom, proučavao je zbirku od 14 minijaturnih keramičkih posuda Maya starih više od 1.000 godina. Neke od posuda nedavno su iskopane, a druge iz muzejskih zbirki, ali sve su nastale na meksičkom poluotoku Yucatán.

Arheolozi koji iskopavaju cist grob na lokalitetu Tamanache, Mérida, Yucatán. ( WSU) Dva od Maya spremnika za drogu analizirana u studiji potječu iz ovog iskopavanja.

Rad koji je objavljen u Scientific Reports -u objašnjava da su istraživači usporedili ostatke koje su pronašli u kontejnerima za drogu Maya sa svježim, ali i sušenim uzorcima dvije različite vrste duhana ( Nicotiana tabacum i N. rustica ), kao i „još šest biljaka koje su povezane s praksama mijenjanja uma kroz mezoameričke etnopovijesne ili etnografske zapise“.

Prvi primjer biljke bez duhana pronađen je u minijaturnim Maya kontejnerima za drogu. (Zimmerman i dr. 2021/ Znanstvena izvješća )

Mini Maya kontejneri za drogu predstavljaju veliko iznenađenje

"Iako je utvrđeno da se duhan uobičajeno koristio u cijeloj Americi prije i poslije kontakta, dokazi o drugim biljkama koje se koriste u medicinske ili vjerske svrhe ostali su uglavnom neistraženi", rekao je Zimmermann u priopćenju za javnost Sveučilišta Washington (WSU). "Metode analize razvijene u suradnji između Odsjeka za antropologiju i Instituta za biološku kemiju daju nam mogućnost da istražimo upotrebu droga u starom svijetu kao nikada prije."

  • Maya animacija? Udahnite novootkrivenu vitalnost drevnoj umjetnosti Maja
  • Droge u starim kulturama: povijest uporabe droga i učinci
  • Novo istraživanje pruža prvi uvid u drevnu mezopotamsku upotrebu droga

Tim je otkrio da postoje kontejneri za drogu Maya s ostacima meksičkog nevena ( Tagetes lucida ). Zimmermann i njegov tim misle da je biljka umiješana kako bi pušenje učinilo "ugodnijim".

Meksički neven. (JRJfin /Adobe Stock)

Znanstvenici napominju da je ova biljka "općenito poznata po svojoj ulozi u ceremonijama za mrtve, za koje se čini da imaju predkolumbovske korijene" u Meksiku i Gvatemali. Međutim, meksički neven navodno se koristi i u zajednicama Huichol u zapadnom Meksiku, gdje se njegovo osušeno lišće puši samo ili u smjesi s duhanom ( N. rustica ).

Nove metode za otkrivanje biljnih spojeva

EurekAlert! izvještava da su Zimmermann i njegovi kolege koristili novu analitičku tehniku ​​temeljenu na UPLC-MS metabolomici, "koja značajno proširuje moguće otkrivanje kemijskih spojeva u usporedbi s prethodnim studijama usmjerenim na biomarkere." Prije su se istraživači morali oslanjati na ograničeniji broj biomarkera, poput nikotina, kotinina i kofeina, u identifikaciji drevnih biljnih ostataka.

David Gang, profesor na Institutu za biološku kemiju WSU-a i koautor studije, rekao je: "Problem je u tome što, iako prisutnost biomarkera poput nikotina pokazuje da je duhan pušen, ne govori vam što je drugo je konzumirana ili pohranjena u artefaktu. Naš pristup ne samo da vam govori, da, pronašli ste biljku koja vas zanima, već vam može reći i što se još konzumiralo. ”

Nova metoda primijenjena u ovoj studiji omogućila je istraživačima da otkriju više od 9000 zaostalih kemijskih svojstava u posudama za drogu drevnih Maja. Sveučilišno priopćenje za javnost navodi da bi se ova metoda mogla primijeniti i za otkrivanje šireg spektra biljnih spojeva u ostacima na drugim spremnicima, cijevima, zdjelama i arheološkim artefaktima. Identifikacija spojeva pomogla bi arheolozima da otkriju koje su biljke pohranjene ili konzumirane iz različitih artefakata.

Čeoni i bočni pogled na tikvicu obloženu Munom (750-900 AD) s karakterističnim ukrasom nazubljenih rubova. ( WSU)

Tražite više tajni u antičkim ostacima

Zimmermann je rekao da on i njegovi kolege na WSU -u trenutno pregovaraju s nekoliko meksičkih institucija kako bi pokušali dobiti pristup drevnijim kontejnerima Maya iz regije Yucatán. Nadaju se da će otkriti i tajne skrivene u ostacima tih spremnika.

U priopćenju WSU -a kaže se da istraživači također pokušavaju primijeniti svoju metodu za analizu organskih ostataka koji su sačuvani u zubnom plaku drevnih ljudskih zuba. Shannon Tushingham, profesorica antropologije na WSU-u i koautorica studije, objasnila je:

„Širimo granice u arheološkoj znanosti kako bismo mogli bolje istražiti duboke vremenske odnose koje su ljudi imali sa širokim rasponom psihoaktivnih biljaka, koje su ljudi konzumirali (i nastavljaju konzumirati) u cijelom svijetu. Postoje mnogi genijalni načini na koje ljudi upravljaju, koriste, manipuliraju i pripremaju autohtone biljke i mješavine biljaka, a arheolozi tek počinju grebati po površini koliko su te prakse bile prastare. ”

Ukop Maya cista s tipičnim keramičkim darovima - tanjur koji pokriva glavu umrlog pojedinca i šalica postavljena vjerojatno s hranom. ( WSU) Metode korištene u analizi ostataka u ovoj studiji mogle bi se primijeniti i na druge drevne artefakte i zube.

Istraživači sa Sveučilišta State Washington objavili su svoje rezultate u Scientific Reports .


Sretne biljke i nasmijani korov: kako su ljudi drevnog svijeta koristili - i zloupotrebljavali - droge

Nekoliko referenci o uzimanju droga u starom svijetu koje postoje postoji rijetko. Tamo gdje se pojavljuju, droge se spominju usputno i usredotočuju se na medicinske i vjerske aspekte, žurno prelazeći svaku rekreacijsku uporabu. Ipak, međunarodna trgovina drogom postojala je još 1000. godine prije Krista, a arheologija je u kombinaciji sa znanošću razjasnila sliku koju su činili pomno zamračili stari pisci i njihovi kasniji prevoditelji.

U antičkom svijetu Mediterana postojalo je više od desetak načina mijenjanja stvarnosti, no dominirala su dva lijeka - opijum i konoplja. Pažljivo istraživanje tijekom posljednja dva desetljeća počelo je otkrivati ​​obrasce u upotrebi ovih lijekova, na što ranije nisu sumnjali čak ni klasični povjesničari iz 20. stoljeća.

Pojava opija

Jedan od prvih tragova koji su stari smatrali da je mak više od lijepe biljke potječe od njegove rasprostranjene upotrebe kao motiva na kipovima i gravurama. Arheolozi su otkrili da su se već 1600. godine prije Krista pravile male tikvice u obliku makovih "kapsula" - ispupčene kugle ispod latica cvijeta koja daje opijum. Oblik ovih umjetnih kapsula dopuštao je razumno nagađanje o tome što se nalazi unutra, ali donedavno je bilo nemoguće biti siguran.

Časopis je 2018. godine Znanost izvijestili su da su nove tehnike za analizu ostataka u iskopanim kapsulama otkrile da unutar biljnog materijala nema samo opija, već ponekad i drugih psihoaktivnih tvari. Ove staklenke i kapsule pronađene su diljem Levanta, Egipta i Bliskog istoka. Njihova ujednačenost sugerira da su bili dio organiziranog sustava proizvodnje i distribucije.

Još ranije, opijum se uzgajao u Mezopotamiji. Neki istraživači ne sumnjaju da su Asirci bili svjesni svojstava biljke. Doista, asirsko ime maka može se pročitati (ovisno o tome kako se tumače klinaste ploče koje ga spominju) kao Hul Gil, što znači "sretna biljka".

Vrčevi s ostacima opijuma pronađeni su i u egipatskim grobnicama, što ne čudi s obzirom na to da se mak intenzivno uzgajao u Egiptu. U doba klasike ekstrakt biljke bio je poznat kao 'Opium Thebiacum' po gradu Waset, koji su Grci poznavali kao Tebu. Druga verzija dobila je naziv Opium Cyrenaicum, nešto drugačija verzija biljke, uzgojene na zapadu u Libiji.

Spavaj vječno

Kod Homera postoji vrlo sugestivan odlomak Odiseja, u kojoj Helen od Troje drogira vino lijekom “koji je odnio bolna sjećanja i zalogaj boli i bijesa. Oni koji su uzimali ovaj lijek otopljen u vinu nisu mogli pustiti suzu ni nakon smrti roditelja. Zaista čak ni kad bi mu brat ili sin bili pod mačem pred očima ”. Ovaj je lijek, rekao je Homer, Heleni poklonila Polydamna, supruga Thona - Egipćanke.

Ime Thon značajno je jer rimski liječnik Galen izvještava da su Egipćani vjerovali da je uporabu opijuma čovječanstvo naučio bog Thoth sa sličnim imenom. Grčki pisac Dioscorides opisuje svoju tehniku ​​berbe: „Oni koji proizvode opijum moraju pričekati dok se rosa ne osuši kako bi ih nožem lagano rezali po vrhu biljke. Paze da ne zarežu iznutra. Sa vanjske strane kapsule prerežite ravno prema dolje. Kad tekućina izađe, obrišite je prstom na žlicu. Vraćajući se kasnije, može se sakupiti više ostataka nakon što se zgusnuo, a sljedećeg dana još više.

Dioscorides također upozorava na predoziranje. "Ubija", kaže otvoreno. Zapravo, mnogi su Rimljani upravo iz tog razloga kupovali opijum. Samoubojstvo nije bio grijeh u rimskom svijetu, a mnogi ljudi koji su patili od starosti i bolesti odlučili su umjesto toga plutati od života na blagom valu opijuma. Malo je vjerojatno da su grčka božanstva Hypnos (bog sna) i „anatos (njegov brat blizanac, bog smrti) oboje slučajno prikazani s vijencima ili buketima maka. Opij je bio uobičajena pomoć za spavanje, piše grčki filozof Theophrastus, "od soka maka i kukutu proizlazi laka i bezbolna smrt".

Rimljani su koristili piće na bazi opijuma zvano "kretsko vino" kao pomoć pri spavanju, a također i "mekonion" iz lišća maka-koji je bio manje snažan. Opijum se mogao kupiti kao male tablete u specijaliziranim štandovima na većini tržnica. U samom gradu Rimu, Galen preporučuje prodavača na maloj ulici Via Sacra u blizini Foruma.

U Capui su prodavači droga zauzeli ozloglašeno područje zvano Seplasia, nakon čega je 'Seplasia' postala opći naziv za lijekove, parfeme i materije koje mijenjaju um. Ciceron ovo upućuje na jezik, naglašavajući dva uglednika: "Nisu pokazali umjerenost koja se obično nalazi u našim konzulima ... njihov hod i ponašanje bili su dostojni Seplazije."

Još 6 načina na koje su stari mijenjali svoju stvarnost

Poznat još 600. godine prije Krista, Ergot nije dobrovoljno uzet. Gljiva je bila česta u raži, a ponekad se nalazila i u drugim žitaricama, uzrokujući delirij, halucinacije i - često - smrt.

Ovjekovječen u Homerovoj Odiseji, u kojoj naslovni junak mora odvući svoju posadu iz 'zemlje lotolozaca'. Psihoaktivni alkaloid u plavim lotosima izaziva blagu euforiju i mir, u kombinaciji s povećanim libidom.

Med iz cvjetova rododendrona sadrži neurotoksine koji uzrokuju promijenjenu svijest, delirij i mučninu. Rekreativno su ga uzimali u staroj Anadoliji, a povremeno i nemarni pčelari drugdje.

Plinije je opisao učinke ove biljke slične pijanstvu, kada se udiše kao dim ili se unosi. Obično se uzimao kao dio koktela halucinogenika u magične ili medicinske svrhe.

Gluho doba noći

Pjesnici poput Ovidija sugeriraju da su vještice koristile velebilje u čarolijama i napicima. Iako je najčešći simptom nakon konzumacije smrt, pažljivo izmjerene doze mogu rezultirati halucinacijama koje traju danima.

Porijeklom iz Sredozemlja, ova vrsta orade proizvodi jasne halucinacije kada se pojede, a možda je konzumirana i u starom Rimu.

Više od starog užeta

Konoplja ima dužu povijest od opijuma, donesena u Europu prije početka snimanja. Došla je iz središnje Azije zajedno s tajanstvenim narodom Yamnaya, a biljka je u sjevernoj i srednjoj Europi više od 5000 godina. Nesumnjivo je bio cijenjen zbog svoje uporabe u izradi užeta i tkanine, ali pronađeni su roštilji koji sadrže ugljenisani kanabis, što pokazuje da su istraživani i manje praktični aspekti biljke. Poznato je da su Kinezi prije najmanje 2.500 godina uzgajali kanabis znatno jače od samoniklog bilja, a proizvod i znanje o tome kako ga napraviti putovali bi putem svile.

U bliskoistočnom gradu Ebla, u današnjoj Siriji, arheolozi su pronašli, čini se, veliku kuhinju nedaleko od gradske palače. Za pripremu se koristilo osam ognjišta i lonci u koje se moglo smjestiti do 70 litara gotovog proizvoda.

Nije bilo tragova ostataka hrane, kao što je to obično slučaj u starim kuhinjama, analiza kontejnera koji su tamo pronađeni ne ostavlja sumnju da se ova prostorija koristila samo za pripremu psihotropnih lijekova. Drugim riječima, stari svijet je imao velike tvornice lijekova prije 3.000 godina.

Grčki liječnik Dioscorides također je bio upoznat s kanabisom i izvijestio je da opsežna upotreba teži sabotiranju spolnog života korisnika, do te mjere da preporučuje upotrebu lijeka za smanjenje seksualne želje u osoba ili situacija u kojima se takvi impulsi mogu smatrati neprikladnima. Još jedan klasični autor zainteresiran za bolji život kroz kemiju bio je rimski filozof Plinije Stariji. Njegovo Prirodna povijest navodi svojstva mnogih biljaka, među njima i "korov koji se smije", za koji kaže da je "opijajući" kada se doda vinu. Galen opisuje kako se konoplja koristila na društvenim okupljanjima kao pomoć "radosti i smijehu". Pola tisućljeća unaprijed, grčki povjesničar Herodot izvijestio je o nečem sličnom.

Čini se da su Skiti koji žive u blizini Crnog mora kombinirali posao sa zadovoljstvom. Herodot - koji je bio izvanredno dobar antropolog, ali i prvi svjetski povjesničar - napominje da su odjeću od konoplje izrađivali toliko fino da ih je bilo nemoguće razlikovati od lana.

"Skiti nakon toga uzimaju sjemenke iz konoplje i bacaju ih na usijano kamenje, gdje [tinjaju] i ispuštaju dim", piše Herodot. “Pokrivaju ovo prostirkama i uvlače se ispod, dok pare izlaze toliko gusto da niti jedno grčko parno kupatilo ne može proizvesti više. Skiti zavijaju od radosti u svom parnom kupatilu. ”

Slijepi za istinu?

Ovaj odlomak je tipičan za spominjanje upotrebe droga u starom svijetu. Je li Herodot doista bio toliko naivan da nije prepoznao utjecaj droge? Ili je postojao tabu o raspravi na tu temu - bilo u klasičnom svijetu ili u samostanima gdje su stari tekstovi prepisivani i sačuvani?

Čini se čudnim da, iako arheološki nalazi ukazuju na to da rekreacijska upotreba droga nije bila rijetka u antici, svi pozivi na nju barem su kosi kao i Herodotovi, a nestaju rijetko čak i u takvim slučajevima.

Čak je i medicinsku uporabu kanabisa teško pronaći u drevnim tekstovima - ali otkrivaju se sada kada arheolozi znaju što tražiti. Na primjer, devedesetih godina prošlog stoljeća u blizini grada Beit Shemesh (u blizini Jeruzalema) pronađena je rimska grobnica 14-godišnje djevojke koja je umrla pri porodu. Pretpostavljalo se da je tvar pronađena u trbušnom području kostura tamjan, sve dok znanstvena analiza nije otkrila da se radi o tetralidrokanabinolu - sastavnom dijelu kanabisa. Čini se vjerojatnim da je lijek upotrijebljen kako bi djevojčici olakšao muke i na kraju joj pomogao pri odlasku iz samog života.

Što se tiče droga u antičkom svijetu, moramo čitati između redova - kao što je to slučaj s toliko povijesti.

Philip Matyszak doktorirao je rimsku povijest na St John's Collegeu u Oxfordu i autor je mnogih knjiga o klasičnoj civilizaciji.


5 odgovora 5

Droga zasigurno nije nova pojava. Dva dobro poznata primjera su opijati i kanabis. Mnogo je napisano o upotrebi hašiša od strane srednjovjekovnih Nizari Ismailita (koji su nam dali riječ "ubojica", izvedena iz arapskog "Haššašin").

Kad sam krajem 1990 -ih studirao ciparsku arheologiju u Birkbecku, napisao sam rad o upotrebi opijata u drevnom istočnom Sredozemlju. Sažeo sam mnoge istaknute točke iz tog rada (s nekoliko ažuriranih veza) u nastavku:

Opijati su zasigurno bili vrlo rasprostranjeni u istočnom Sredozemlju u antici. Najraniji pisani izvor za koji znam je Hesiodova Teogonija, gdje se pretpostavlja da je Prometej pokušao upotrijebiti sok od maka za drogu Zeusa u gradu Mekonê ("makovici") u blizini Korinta.

Najranija upotreba opijata za koju znam u Europi datira iz brončanog doba. Na Kreti su iskopavanja, kako se čini, "svetišta" koja datiraju iz razdoblja minojske post -palače (1.400 - 1.100 pr. Kr.) Otkrila figurice koje je profesor Spyridon Marinatos opisao kao "božicu maka". Pažljivim pregledom makova potvrđuje se da su bili u obliku i boji opijumskog maka [S. Marinatos, 'Minojske božice Gazija', Arheološki časopis (Grčka) 1937., sv. I, str. 278-291].

Britanski muzej čuva brojne male kiparske vrčeve s podložnim prstenom koji su datirani u brončano doba i koji su oblikovani kao mahune obrnutog sjemena maka. Ova vrsta vrča pronađena je u iskopinama diljem istočnog Sredozemlja. Arheolog po imenu Robert Merrillees sugerirao je da je oblik vrča mogao biti oblik oglašavanja njegovog sadržaja, te da je droga mogla biti izvezena iz cijele regije s Cipra.

Analize ostataka provedene na jednoj od staklenki u zbirci Britanskog muzeja doista su otkrile tragove opijata koji su izgleda potvrdili Merrilleesovu teoriju. Međutim, naknadnim analizama iz drugih vrčeva iskopanih u regiji nisu otkriveni nikakvi dokazi o opijatima, pa se sugeriralo da je potvrđeni slučaj rezultat ponovne upotrebe staklenke.

Ipak, jedna napomena opreza. Čak i ako je upotreba opijata bila prilično raširena u istočnom Mediteranu u brončanom dobu (a dokazi nisu uvjerljivi), ne možemo biti sigurni u kojoj su mjeri oni uzeti rekreativno. Upotreba opijata za ublažavanje boli prilično je poznata, ali sjećam se i da je moj učitelj (koji je bio veliki obožavatelj minojske kulture na Kreti) želio istaknuti da se opijati mogu koristiti i kao lijek protiv dijareje , te da je (u to vrijeme) samo jedan od vrčeva ciparskog maka pronađen na Kreti. (Također je istaknula kako se čini da su minojska nalazišta na Kreti i Santoriniju imala zahode povezane sa kanalizacijom s tekućom vodom za odlaganje otpada, i pozvala nas da izvedemo vlastite zaključke). Međutim, da je lijek bio široko dostupan, teško je povjerovati da se ne bi uzimao rekreativno.

EDIT: Dok sam još malo istraživao tu temu, upravo sam pronašao ovaj rad iz Ureda UN -a za drogu i kriminal koji pokriva upotrebu maka i opijata u drevnom istočnom Mediteranu. Nadam se da je ovo korisno.

Završni dio vašeg pitanja, koji je postavio pitanje jesu li neka drevna kraljevstva (ne uključujući kineske ratove opijuma) imala problema s građanima koji zloupotrebljavaju drogu?

U islamskom svijetu alkohol je (i zabranjen je) prema šerijatskom zakonu. To se često tumači kao zabrana svih opojnih sredstava (ne samo alkohola). Usprkos tome, čini se da se praksa pušenja hašiša nastavila kroz povijest islama (protiv različitih stupnjeva otpora u različito vrijeme i na različitim mjestima).

Osim zabrane prema islamskom šerijatskom pravu, nisam upoznat sa bilo kakvim zakonskim zabranama protiv rekreacijske uporabe droga u drevnom ili srednjovjekovnom razdoblju u Europi ili istočnom Sredozemlju. To sugerira da, ako je u tim razdobljima postojao problem s upotrebom droga za rekreaciju, to se nije smatralo dovoljno ozbiljnim da zahtijeva zakonodavstvo.

Nadajmo se da će drugi moći dodati odgovore koji pokrivaju druge droge za rekreaciju u drugim geografskim regijama u starom i srednjovjekovnom svijetu.

Mislim da je jedan od najvećih problema koje ćete imati izraz "rekreacijske droge". Taj je pojam uglavnom novi pojam. Tadašnji ljudi i civilizacije ne bi kategorizirali upotrebu droga na taj način.

Dopustite mi da vam dam dobar primjer, iako mnogo bliži modernom vremenu nego što mislite. Kokain je bio uobičajen lijek protiv bolova, koji se u 1800 -im i ranim 1900 -im prodavao u gotovo svakoj općoj trgovini. Ljudi su ga koristili, a neki su postali ovisni. No, ljudi koji su ga koristili "previše" nisu označeni kao rekreacijski korisnici droga.

Isto vrijedi i za ostale "droge za rekreaciju". Peyote, lonac, opijati i slično mogli su se koristiti za rekreativnu uporabu, ali svi su imali značajnu "stvarnu" upotrebu.

Drugi primjer može biti laudanum. Iako je imao mnoge medicinske namjene, mogao se prekomjerno koristiti. Ljudi koji su je pretjerali, međutim, općenito nisu označeni kao "rekreativci", već kao mentalno bolesni ili nestabilni.

Poanta je sljedeća: "rekreacijske droge" novi su izraz koji znači da droga nema drugu upotrebu osim "zabave". Svaki od "tradicionalnih" lijekova zapravo je imao pravu legalnu medicinsku ili vjersku uporabu. Ljudi koji su zloupotrebljavali te droge ili ih pogrešno koristili spadali su u dvije kategorije (ovo je, naravno, modernije, gdje se moramo držati spisa):

Tek nedavno smo zaista počeli ciljati "rekreacijsku drogu" i "rekreacijsku uporabu droga".

Dakle, da bismo odgovorili na vaše pitanje, postoje civilizacije, stare i nove, koje koriste razne vrste opojnih sredstava iz različitih razloga. Uistinu čest primjer bio bi stari Egipat i njihov "heqet" (pivo), koji se koristio i kao "kontrola" i kao glavna hrana. No, nijedna drevna civilizacija nije doista označila svoju upotrebu droga kao "rekreacijsku". To je potpuno novi koncept.

Drevne civilizacije su s vremena na vrijeme smatrale problem prekomjerne uporabe droga, ali općenito su ga "izliječile" tretirajući problem (ponekad vrlo oštro). Tek u 20. stoljeću prenijeli smo mišljenje na ideju da je upotreba droga moralno, a ne "medicinsko" pitanje. Time je došla ideja da bi uporaba droga mogla biti „rekreativna“. Prije toga, uporaba droga bila je ili samo zabava, sa svrhom, ili znak da je netko bolestan.

Pojašnjenje: Ne želim reći da nema slučajeva da su ljudi kroz povijest zloupotrebljavali drogu. Samo što su ljudi koji bi to učinili učinili to dovoljno rijetko da to nije problem, ili su to učinili toliko da je problem. Ako je to bio problem, onda je osoba bila bolesna ili nestabilna.

Rekreacijski lijek broj jedan u povijesti je etanol. Obično se služi kao pivo ili fermentirani voćni sok.

Jeftino je i jednostavno za napraviti, i uništilo je živote u čitavoj zabilježenoj povijesti.

Također se u većini zabilježene povijesti smatralo samom definicijom dobre zabave. (Na primjer, priča u Bibliji o pretvaranju vode u vino)

Nisam siguran pitate li se samo o Europi i klasičnom svijetu, ali ljudi i carstva Novog svijeta koristili su drogu u smislu koji bi se danas mogao nazvati rekreacijskim, ali vjerojatno bi ga točnije trebalo nazvati vjerskim ili religijsko-političkim. Konzumacija halucinogenih biljaka i životinja bila je dio posebnih ceremonija, ponekad političkih rituala, a ne samo zabava koja ubija vrijeme ili slično:

Halucinogeni lijekovi u predkolumbijskim mezoameričkim kulturama. [Članak na engleskom, španjolskom] Carod-Artal FJ1. Podaci o autoru Sažetak UVOD:

Američki kontinent vrlo je bogat psihoaktivnim biljkama i gljivama, a mnoge su ih pretkolumbijske mezoameričke kulture koristile u čarobne, terapeutske i vjerske svrhe. CILJEVI:

Prikazani su arheološki, etno-povijesni i etnografski dokazi o upotrebi halucinogenih tvari u Mezoamerici. REZULTATI:

Halucinogeni kaktusi, biljke i gljive korišteni su za izazivanje promijenjenih stanja svijesti u ritualima iscjeljivanja i vjerskim obredima. Maje su pile balché (mješavinu meda i ekstrakta Lonchocarpusa) u skupnim ceremonijama kako bi postigle opijenost. Ritualni klistiri i druge psihoaktivne tvari također su korišteni za izazivanje stanja transa. Olmec, Zapotec, Maya i Aztec koristili su pejote, halucinogene gljive (teonanacatl: Psilocybe spp) i sjemenke ololiuhqui (Turbina corymbosa) koje sadrže meskalin, psilocibin i amid lizerginske kiseline. Koža krastače Bufo spp sadrži bufotoksine s halucinogenim svojstvima, a koristila se od Olmečkog razdoblja. Za svoje psihoaktivne učinke korišteni su korov Jimson (Datura stramonium), divlji duhan (Nicotiana rustica), lokvanj (Nymphaea ampla) i Salvia divinorum. Kamenje gljiva iz 3000. godine prije Krista pronađeno je u ritualnom kontekstu u Mezoamerici. Arheološki dokazi o upotrebi pejota datiraju više od 5000 godina. Nekoliko kroničara, uglavnom Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, opisalo je njihove učinke u šesnaestom stoljeću. ZAKLJUČCI:

Upotreba psihoaktivnih tvari bila je uobičajena u predkolumbijskim mezoameričkim društvima. Danas ih lokalni šamani i iscjelitelji još uvijek koriste u ritualnim ceremonijama u Mezoamerici.

Asteci su ritualno konzumirali čarobne gljive:

Nazvan "Teonanácatl" na Nahuatlu (doslovno "božja gljiva" - sastavljen od riječi teo (tl) (bog) i nanácatl (gljiva)) - rod gljiva Psilocybe ima dugu povijest korištenja u Mezoamerici. Pripadnici Aztečke više klase često bi uzimali teonanácatl na festivalima i drugim velikim okupljanjima. Prema riječima Fernanda Alvarada Tezozomoca, nabavka gljiva bila je često težak zadatak. Bili su prilično skupi, ali i vrlo teški za lociranje, što je zahtijevalo cjelonoćne pretrage.

I Fray Bernardino de Sahagún i Fray Toribio de Benavente Motolinia opisuju upotrebu gljiva. Asteci bi pili čokoladu i jeli gljive s medom. Oni koji su sudjelovali u ceremonijama gljiva postili bi prije nego što su unijeli sakrament. Čin uzimanja gljiva poznat je kao monanacahuia, što znači "gljive se".

"Najprije su bile poslužene gljive. Više nisu jele hranu, samo su pile čokoladu tijekom noći. I jele su gljive s medom. Kad su na njih djelovale gljive, tada su zaplesali, a zatim plakali. Ali neki , dok su još vladali svojim osjetilima, ušli i sjeli kraj kuće na svoja mjesta, nisu više učinili, već su samo sjedili kimajući. "

Sakraficirana djeca Inka prije smrti su dobivala velike količine koke i alkohola:

Tri mumije Inka pronađene blizu uzvišenog vrha Volcana Llullaillaca u Argentini bile su toliko dobro očuvane da su ljudsko lice stavile na drevni ritual capacocha - koji je završio njihovom žrtvom.

Sada su tijela 13-godišnje Llullaillaco Maiden i njezinih mlađih pratilaca Llullaillaco Boy i Lightning Girl otkrili da su tvari koje mijenjaju um odigrale ulogu u njihovoj smrti i tijekom cjelogodišnjeg niza ceremonijalnih procesa koji su ih pripremili za posljednje sate .

Pod biokemijskom analizom, djevojačka kosa dala je zapis o tome što je jela i pila u posljednje dvije godine svog života. Čini se da ovi dokazi podupiru povijesne izvještaje o nekolicini odabrane djece koja su sudjelovala u jednogodišnjim svetim obredima - obilježenim u kosi promjenama u hrani, koki i alkoholu - koji bi u konačnici doveli do njihove žrtve. (Povezano: "Uzvišene ambicije Inka.")

Autori napominju da u religijskoj ideologiji Inka koka i alkohol mogu izazvati promijenjena stanja povezana sa svetim. No, tvari su vjerojatno imale i pragmatičniju ulogu, dezorijentirajući i smirujući mlade žrtve na visokom obronku planine kako bi ih bolje prihvatile vlastite mračne sudbine.

I na kraju, naravno, valja napomenuti da su stanovnici Anda tisućama godina žvakali lišće koke kao poticaj, slično kao što ljudi danas koriste kofein kako bi ublažili glad, pomogli usredotočiti se, spriječili umor itd.


Velika vremena u drevnoj Kini otkrivena su u pogrebnom otkriću kanabisa

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Kemijski ostaci marihuane pronađeni su u kadionicama koje su se očito koristile tijekom pogrebnih obreda na planinskom mjestu u zapadnoj Kini oko 500. godine prije Krista, što je možda najstariji dokaz pušenja kanabisa zbog njegovih svojstava koja mijenjaju um.

Dokazi su pronađeni na 10 drvenih roštilja s kamenjem s tragovima opekotina koji su otkriveni u osam grobnica na groblju Jirzankal na planini Pamir u kineskoj regiji Xinjiang, rekli su u srijedu znanstvenici. Grobnice su također nosile ljudske kosture i artefakte, uključujući vrstu kutne harfe koja se koristila u starim pogrebima i žrtvenim obredima.

Znanstvenici su koristili metodu nazvanu plinska kromatografija-masena spektrometrija za identifikaciju organskog materijala sačuvanog u mangalima, otkrivajući kemijski potpis marihuane. Utvrdili su višu razinu THC-a, glavnog psihoaktivnog sastojka biljke, od niskih razina tipično viđenih u divljim biljkama kanabisa, što ukazuje na to da je odabran zbog svojih kvaliteta koje mijenjaju um.

"Možemo početi sastavljati sliku pogrebnih obreda koji su uključivali plamen, ritmičku glazbu i halucinogeni dim, a svi su namjeravali odvesti ljude u promijenjeno stanje uma", napisali su istraživači u studiji objavljenoj u časopisu Science Advances, možda pokušajte komunicirati s božanskim ili mrtvima.

Yimin Yang, arheološki znanstvenik sa Sveučilišta Kineske akademije znanosti i voditelj studije, nazvao je te nalaze najranijim nedvosmislenim dokazom upotrebe marihuane zbog svojih psihoaktivnih svojstava.

"Vjerujemo da su biljke spaljene kako bi izazvale određenu razinu psihoaktivnog učinka, iako te biljke ne bi bile tako snažne kao mnoge moderne uzgojene sorte", dodao je Robert Spengler, direktor Paleoetnobotaničkih laboratorija Instituta Max Planck za znanost o ljudskoj povijesti u Njemačkoj.

"Mislim da ne treba čuditi što su ljudi imali dugu, intimnu povijest s kanabisom, kao što su imali sa svim biljkama koje su se na kraju udomaćile", dodao je Spengler.

Povišene razine THC -a postavljaju pitanje jesu li ljudi koristili divlje sorte kanabisa s prirodno visokim razinama THC -a ili biljke uzgojene da budu jače. Marihuana se nije pušila na isti način kao danas - u cijevima ili umotana u cigarete - već se inhalirala dok je gorjela u roštiljima.

Kanabis, jedan od najčešće korištenih psihoaktivnih droga u svijetu danas, u početku se koristio u drevnoj istočnoj Aziji kao usjev sjemena te za izradu tekstila i konoplje od konoplje. Vrijeme korištenja druge podvrste kanabisa kao lijeka sporno je pitanje među znanstvenicima, ali drevni tekstovi i nedavna arheološka otkrića rasvijetlili su to pitanje.

Herodotus, the ancient Greek historian, wrote in about 440 BC of people, apparently in the Caspian region, inhaling marijuana smoke in a tent as the plant was burned in a bowl with hot stones. The Jirzankal Cemetery findings also fits with other ancient evidence for cannabis use at burial sites in the Altai Mountains of Russia.

“This study is important for understanding the antiquity of drug use,” Spengler said, adding that evidence now points to a wide geographic distribution of marijuana use in the ancient world.

The cemetery site is situated near the ancient Silk Road, indicating that the old trade route linking China and the Middle East may have facilitated the spread of marijuana use as a drug.

The cemetery, reaching across three terraces at a rocky and arid site up to 10,105 feet (3,080 meters) above sea level, includes black and white stone strips created on the landscape using pebbles, marking the tomb surfaces, and circular mounds with rings of stones underneath.

Some buried skulls were perforated and there were signs of fatal cuts and breaks in several bones, suggestive of human sacrifice, though this remains uncertain, the researchers said.

“We know very little about these people beyond what has been recovered from this cemetery,” Spengler said, though he noted that some of the artifacts such as glass beads, metal items and ceramics resemble those from further west in Central Asia, suggesting cultural links.


Entheogenic Use of Cannabis and Hemp

Cannabis has been used in religion contexts as an entheogen in Indian since the Vedic period (2000 BC). Cannabis has been used by shamanic and pagan cultures to ponder deeply religious and philosophical subjects related to their tribe or society, to achieve a form of enlightenment. There are several references in Greek mythology to a powerful drug that eliminated anguish and sorrow. Herodotus wrote about early ceremonial practices by the Scythians using entheogens. Itinerant Hindu saints have used cannabis as an entheogen in the Indian subcontinent for centuries. Mexican, Mayan and Aztec cultures used cannabis, along with other entheogens in religious rituals.

The earliest known reports regarding the sacred status of cannabis in the Indian subcontinent come from the Atharva Veda which mentions cannabis as one of the “five sacred plants… which release us from anxiety” and that a guardian angel resides in its leaves. The Vedas also refer to it as a “source of happiness,” “joy-giver” and “liberator,” and in the Raja Valabba, the gods send hemp to the human race so that they might attain delight, lose fear, and have sexual desires. Many households in India own and grow a cannabis plant to be able to offer cannabis to a passing sadhu (ascetic holy men), and during some evening devotional services it is not uncommon for cannabis to be smoked by everyone present.

Cannabis was often consumed at weddings or festivals honoring Shiva, who is said to have brought it down from the Himalayas. It is still offered to Shiva in temples on Shivaratri day, while devotional meetings called bhajans are occasions for devotees to consume the drug liberally. Yogis or sadhus along with other Hindu mystics have been known to smoke a mixture of cannabis sativa and tobacco in order to enhance meditation.

There are three common types of cannabis used in the Indian subcontinent. The first, bhang, a type of cannabis edible, consists of the leaves and plant tops of the cannabis plant. It is usually consumed as an infusion in beverage form and varies in strength according to how much cannabis is used in the preparation. The second, ganja, consisting of the leaves and the plant tops, is smoked. The third, called charas or hashish, consists of the resinous buds and/or extracted resin from the leaves of the plant. Typically, bhang is the most commonly used form of cannabis in religious festivals.

In Tantric Buddhism, cannabis is taken to facilitate meditation and also heighten awareness of all aspects of the ceremony, with a large oral dosage being taken in time with the ceremony so that the climax of the “high” coincides with the ceremony.

Scholars associated Chinese wu (shamans) with the entheogenic use of cannabis in Central Asian shamanism. The oldest texts of Traditional Chinese Medicine listed herbal uses for cannabis and noted some psychodynamic effects. According to these traditions, if one takes it over a long period of time one can communicate with the spirits, and one’s body becomes light.

In ancient China, medicine has its origin in shamans who were practicing magicians. In northeastern Asia, shamanism was widespread from Neolithic to recent times. In the far north, among the nomadic tribes of Mongolia and Siberia, the magical use of plant medicines through shamanism was widespread and common until rather recent times. After the rise of Confucianism, the ingestion of cannabis for psychoactive, ritualistic purification was eventually suppressed in China and Japan.

Blood, Cannabis, and Meteorites

How Russian scientists cracked the secret of a Vedic ritual drink

An Indra idol at the Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra. Indra enjoyed consuming Soma, according to ancient Indian texts.

One of the most mysterious drinks in the history of tipple is Soma &ndash a drink of ritual importance to the ancient Indians. Drinking Soma was supposed to confer immortality, with the two leading gods Indra and Agni portrayed as consuming it in copious quantities.

The consumption of Soma by ordinary humans is attested in Vedic ritual. The Rig Veda, which was composed more than 5000 year ago, says: &ldquoWe drank soma, we became immortal, we came to the light, we found gods.&rdquo The Iranians call it Hoama in the sacred Avesta.

Although the descendants of the ancient Hindus and Zoroastrians continue to perform their age-old rituals, the identity of the plant from which Soma was extracted or fermented was lost.

Non-psychoactive substitutes came to be used in place of the elusive Soma. Over the past 200 years, a number of candidates have been put forward, including cannabis, rhubarb, ginseng, opium and wild chicory.

Soma detectives

However, Russian archaeologists may have solved the puzzle. In 2009, while digging at a deep burial chamber in the forests of Mongolia, a Russian-Mongolian expedition from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SB RAS) discovered embroidered woollen textiles dating back two millennia.

Although the archaeologists&rsquo work is not yet complete, the first fragments restored have revealed some stunning facts. The fragments of the textile found were parts of a carpet composed of several cloths of dark-red woollen fabric.

It had made quite a journey &ndash the cloth was spun in Syria or Palestine, embroidered in north-western India and ended up in Mongolia. The discovery is nothing less than miraculous because of its improbability.

Natalia V. Polosmak, Chief Researcher, SB RAS, writes: &ldquoFinding it 2000 years later is a pure chance its amazingly good condition is almost a miracle. How it made its way to the grave of a person it was not meant for will long, if not forever, remain a mystery.&rdquo

The embroidery depicts an ancient Zoroastrian ceremony centred around a mushroom. In the middle of the composition, to the left of the altar is the king or priest, who is dressed in a smart, long embroidered kaftan gaping open at the bottom. He is focused on the mushroom in his hands.

Polosmak says the &ldquodivine mushroom&rdquo resembles the well-known psychoactive species psilocybe cubensis. &ldquoThe weight of evidence suggests that soma, the ancient ritual drink, has been prepared from the mushrooms of family strophariaceae which contains the unique nervous system stimulator psilocybin.&rdquo

All researchers agree that ancient Indians and Iranians used for cult purposes a drink containing a psychoactive substance. The debate is about the identity of the drink and how it affected the consciousness of those who consumed it.

Story of the carpet

According to Polosmak, the men depicted on the carpet are either of Indo-Scythians (Saka) or Indo-Parthian stock. They are performing a ritual that indicates they acknowledge a form of Zoroastrianism &ndash proof of this is the symbol of Ahura Mazda, the god of the Iranians, represented by the sacred fire altar.

The mushroom that the king (or priest) is holding in his hands can be an offering to the fire or it can be sanctified by the fire before being used to make the sacred drink.

&ldquoThe north-western India of that time, where, in all the likelihood, the ritual is taking place, was the meeting place of three ethnos, three cultures &ndash Indian, Iranian, and Greek. Each of them had their own gods: tolerance and worshipping not only of one&rsquos own but also of alien gods was a common thing.&rdquo

Polosmak explains further: &ldquoTo get to the root of the consecration unfolding before us, we should pay attention to such seemingly insignificant details as depictions of bees and butterflies strewn all over the cloth. These insects are the most ancient symbols of worship, and used to have meanings very different from the present one.&rdquo

The bee was the symbol of honey, Indra, Vishnu and Krishna. The Atharva Veda &ndash the fourth and last Veda &ndash compares spiritual pursuit with honey making. The antiseptic properties of honey made it critical while preserving some foodstuffs. In Mexico, for example, honey has long been used to preserve mushrooms containing psilocybin.

The butterfly too had connotations of longevity. In Greek mythology, a butterfly personified the goddess of the soul, Psyche. The Greek word psyche means both soul and butterfly. In fine arts, a soul was often depicted as a butterfly either flying out of a funeral fire or travelling to Hades. The word soul often means &ldquodivine fire&rdquo.

&ldquoThe butterflies and bees depicted in the background of the canvas may have symbolised the kingdom of souls &ndash the Other World &ndash the world of ancestors, where the warriors got to after having consumed sacred mushrooms,&rdquo says Polosmak.

&ldquoNow the puzzle fits together. The insects and the mushroom are closely connected and make the surrounding world miraculous.&rdquo Recall what the Rig Veda says: &ldquoWe drank soma, we became immortal, we came to the light, we found gods.&rdquo

This brings to the prescient words of another Russian genius. Indologist and Rig Veda translator Tatiana Yelizarenkova wrote exactly a decade before the Mongolian finds: &ldquoJudging by the Rig Vedic hymns, Soma was not only a stimulating but a hallucinating drink. It is difficult to be more particular not only because none of the candidates satisfies all the Soma properties and matches the Soma descriptions found in the hymns only partially but primarily because the language and style of the Rig Vedic as an archaic cult monument reflecting the poetic features of &lsquoIndo-European poetic speech&rsquo is a formidable obstacle to Soma identification. The answer may be provided by archaeologists and their finds in north-western India, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (and not in the far-away Central Asia).&rdquo

At a pub near you

The mystery of the drink that gave immortality to the gods and vigour to the ancient Indians and Iranians has finally been solved. It remains to be seen if a clever entrepreneur will try and reverse engineer it from the recipe gleaned by Russian researchers from a 2000 year old carpet fragment.

If using any of Russia Beyond's content, partly or in full, always provide an active hyperlink to the original material.


Sadržaj

Soma is a Vedic Sanskrit word that literally means "distill, extract, sprinkle", often connected in the context of rituals. [8]

Soma, and its cognate the Avestan haoma. According to Geldner (1951), the word is derived from an Indo-Iranian root *sav- (Sanskrit sav-/su) "to press", i.e. *sau-ma- is the drink prepared by pressing the stalks of a plant, [9] but the word and the related practices were borrowed by the Indo-Aryans from the Bactria–Margiana Culture (BMAC). [10] [11] Although the word is only attested in Indo-Iranian traditions, Manfred Mayrhofer has proposed a Proto-Indo-European origin from the root *sew(h)-. [12]

The Vedic religion was the religion of some of the Vedic Indo-Aryan tribes, the aryas, [13] [14] who migrated into the Indus River valley region of the Indian subcontinent. [15] The Indo-Aryans were speakers of a branch of the Indo-European language family, which originated in the Sintashta culture and further developed into the Andronovo culture, which in turn developed out of the Kurgan culture of the Central Asian steppes. [16] The Vedic beliefs and practices of the pre-classical era were closely related to the hypothesised Proto-Indo-European religion, [17] [note 1] and shows relations with rituals from the Andronovo culture, from which the Indo-Aryan people descended. [18] According to Anthony, the Old Indic religion probably emerged among Indo-European immigrants in the contact zone between the Zeravshan River (present-day Uzbekistan) and (present-day) Iran. [19] It was "a syncretic mixture of old Central Asian and new Indo-European elements" [19] which borrowed "distinctive religious beliefs and practices" [10] from the Bactria–Margiana Culture (BMAC). [10] This syncretic influence is supported by at least 383 non-Indo-European words that were borrowed from this culture, including the god Indra and the ritual drink Soma. [11] According to Anthony,

Many of the qualities of Indo-Iranian god of might/victory, Verethraghna, were transferred to the adopted god Indra, who became the central deity of the developing Old Indic culture. Indra was the subject of 250 hymns, a quarter of the Rig Veda. He was associated more than any other deity with Soma, a stimulant drug (perhaps derived from Ephedra) probably borrowed from the BMAC religion. His rise to prominence was a peculiar trait of the Old Indic speakers. [20]

In the Vedas, the same word (soma) is used for the drink, the plant, and its deity. Drinking soma produces immortality (Amrita, Rigveda 8.48.3). Indra and Agni are portrayed as consuming soma in copious quantities. In the vedic ideology, Indra drank large amounts of soma while fighting the serpent demon Vritra. The consumption of soma by human beings is well attested in Vedic ritual. The Soma Mandala of the Rigveda is completely dedicated to Soma Pavamana, and is focused on a moment in the ritual when the soma is pressed, strained, mixed with water and milk, and poured into containers. These actions are described as representation a variety of things, including a king conquering territory, the Sun's journey through the cosmos, or a bull running to mate with cows (represented by the milk). The most important myth about Soma is about his theft. In it, Soma was originally held captive in a citadel in heaven by the archer Kṛśānu. A falcon stole Soma, successfully escaping Kṛśānu, and delivered Soma to Manu, the first sacrificer. Additionally, Soma is associated with the moon in the late Rigveda and Middle Vedic period. Sūryā, the daughter of the Sun, is sometimes stated to be the wife of Soma. [21]

ápāma sómam amŕ̥tā abhūma
áganma jyótir ávidāma devā́n
kíṃ nūnám asmā́n kr̥ṇavad árātiḥ
kím u dhūrtír amr̥ta mártiyasya
[22]

Stephanie W. Jamison and Joel P. Brereton translates this as:

We have drunk the soma we have become immortal we have gone to the light we have found the gods.
What can hostility do to us now, and what the malice of a mortal, o immortal one? [23]

Good fruit containing food not any intoxicating drink, we drink you
You are elixir of life, achieve physical strength or light of god,
achieve control over senses
In this situation, what our enemy can do to me?
God, what even violent people can do to me?

Also, consider Rigveda (8.79.2-6) [24] regarding the power of Soma: ". He covers the naked and heals all who are sick. The blind man sees the lame man steps forth. Let those who seek find what they seek: let them receive the treasure. Let him find what was lost before let him push forward the man of truth. " Such is indicative of an experience with an entheogen of some source. (Michael Wood (historian)).(The Story of India)

The finishing of haoma in Zoroastrianism may be glimpsed from the Avesta (particularly in the Hōm Yast, Yasna 9), and Avestan language *hauma also survived as Middle Persian hōm. The plant haoma yielded the essential ingredient for the ritual drink, parahaoma.

In Yasna 9.22, haoma grants "speed and strength to warriors, excellent and righteous sons to those giving birth, spiritual power and knowledge to those who apply themselves to the study of the nasks". As the religion's chief cult divinity he came to be perceived as its divine priest. In Yasna 9.26, Ahura Mazda is said to have invested him with the sacred girdle, and in Yasna 10.89, to have installed haoma as the "swiftly sacrificing zaotar" (Sanskrit hotar) for himself and the Amesha Spenta.

Soma has been mentioned in Chapter 9, verse 20 of Bhagavad Gita:

Those who perform actions (as described in the three Vedas), desiring fruit from these actions, and those who drink the juice of the pure Soma plant, are cleansed and purified of their past sins.
Those who desire heaven, (the Supreme Abode of the Lord known as Indralok) attain heaven and enjoy its divine pleasures by worshipping me through the offering of sacrifices.
Thus, by performing good action (Karma, as outlined by the three Vedas, one will always undoubtedly receive a place in heaven where they will enjoy all of the divine pleasure that are enjoyed by the Deities. [ potreban je citat ] [note 2]

The Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Transcendental Meditation-Sidhi Program involves a notion of "soma", said to be based on the Rigveda. [25] [26]

There has been much speculation as to the original Sauma plant. Candidates that have been suggested include honey, mushrooms, psychoactive and other herbal plants. [27]

When the ritual of somayajna is held today in South India, the plant used is the somalatha (Sanskrit: soma creeper, Sarcostemma acidum) [7] which is procured as a leafless vine.

Since the late 18th century, when Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron and others made portions of the Avesta available to western scholars, several scholars have sought a representative botanical equivalent of the haoma as described in the texts and as used in living Zoroastrian practice. In the late 19th century, the highly conservative Zoroastrians of Yazd (Iran) were found to use ephedra, which was locally known as hum ili homa and which they exported to the Indian Zoroastrians. [28]

During the colonial British era scholarship, cannabis was proposed as the soma candidate by Joseph Chandra Ray, The Soma Plant (1939) [29] and by B. L. Mukherjee (1921). [30]

In the late 1960s, several studies attempted to establish soma as a psychoactive substance. A number of proposals were made, including one in 1968 by the American banker R. Gordon Wasson, an amateur ethnomycologist, who asserted that soma was an inebriant but not cannabis, and suggested fly-agaric mushroom, Amanita muscaria, as the likely candidate. Since its introduction in 1968, this theory has gained both detractors and followers in the anthropological literature. [31] [32] [33] Wasson and his co-author, Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty, drew parallels between Vedic descriptions and reports of Siberian uses of the fly-agaric in shamanic ritual. [34]

In 1989 Harry Falk noted that, in the texts, both haoma i soma were said to enhance alertness and awareness, did not coincide with the consciousness altering effects of an entheogen, and that "there is nothing shamanistic or visionary either in early Vedic or in Old Iranian texts", (Falk, 1989) Falk also asserted that the three varieties of ephedra that yield ephedrine (Ephedra gerardiana, E. major procera i E. intermedia) also have the properties attributed to haoma by the texts of the Avesta. (Falk, 1989) At the conclusion of the 1999 Haoma-Soma workshop in Leiden, Jan E. M. Houben writes: "despite strong attempts to do away with ephedra by those who are eager to see sauma as a hallucinogen, its status as a serious candidate for the Rigvedic Soma and Avestan Haoma still stands" (Houben, 2003).

The Soviet archeologist Viktor Sarianidi wrote that he had discovered vessels and mortars used to prepare soma in Zoroastrian temples in the Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex. He said that the vessels have revealed residues and seed impressions left behind during the preparation of soma. This has not been sustained by subsequent investigations. [35] Alternatively Mark Merlin, who revisited the subject of the identity of soma more than thirty years after originally writing about it [36] stated that there is a need of further study on links between soma and Papaver somniferum. (Merlin, 2008). [37]

U svojoj knjizi Food of the Gods, ethnobotanist Terence McKenna postulates that the most likely candidate for soma is the mushroom Psilocybe cubensis, a hallucinogenic mushroom that grows in cow dung in certain climates. McKenna cites both Wasson's and his own unsuccessful attempts using Amanita muscaria to reach a psychedelic state as evidence that it could not have inspired the worship and praise of soma. McKenna further points out that the 9th mandala of the Rig Veda makes extensive references to the cow as the embodiment of soma. [ potreban je citat ]

According to Michael Wood, the references to immortality and light are characteristics of an entheogenic experience. [38]


4 Roseroot

For millennia, people have used roseroot (Rhodiola rosea) for its medicinal qualities. According to Siberian folklore, drinkers of roseroot tea can live to over 100 years. The ancient Greeks, Vikings, Caucasians, and Mongols were all enamored with it. According to the latest research, roseroot is effective in reducing moderate depression and fatigue. Its efficacy is less than conventional antidepressants like sertraline. However, its favorable benefit-to-risk ratio is much higher.

Since the 1960s, there have been nearly 200 studies on the effect of roseroot on health. For centuries, people have used to drug to combat depression, fatigue, and altitude sickness. The Vikings used it for endurance and increased strength. The ancient Chinese sent expeditions to Siberia specifically in search of the plant. Mongolian doctors use roseroot to treat cancer and tuberculosis. To this day, Central Asians believe roseroot tea is the best medicine for colds and the flu.


7. Food and Drinks

Cruise trips to foreign destinations would not be complete without the foreign culinary experience, and Costa Maya doesn’t disappoint either. The port offers a great variety of popular Mexican and Italian dishes some boutique restaurants will offer you other European themed dishes. Enjoy anything from shrimp fajitas, prawn tacos, freshly caught lobster, cheese quesadilla, delicious guacamole, meat burritos and pizza.

Love chocolate? At Kakaw, which is located in the port area, you can get a tour of the history of chocolate. You will learn how chocolate originated and also have the opportunity to see how it is made. Don’t forget the samples, either!


Sadržaj

Ancient forms of clandestine chemistry included the manufacturing of explosives. [ potreban je citat ]

Another old form of clandestine chemistry is the illegal brewing and distillation of alcohol. This is frequently done to avoid taxation on spirits.

From 1919 to 1933, the United States prohibited the sale, manufacture, or transportation of alcoholic beverages. This opened a door for brewers to supply their own town with alcohol. Just like modern-day drug labs, distilleries were placed in rural areas. Uvjet moonshine generally referred to "corn whiskey", that is, a whiskey-like liquor made from corn. Today, American-made corn whiskey can be labeled or sold under that name, or as Bourbon or Tennessee whiskey, depending on the details of the production process.

Precursor chemicals Edit

Prepared substances (as opposed to those that occur naturally in a consumable form, such as cannabis and psilocybin mushrooms) require reagents. Some drugs, like cocaine and morphine, are extracted from plant sources and refined with the aid of chemicals. Semi-synthetic drugs such as heroin are made starting from alkaloids extracted from plant sources which are the precursors for further synthesis. In the case of heroin, a mixture of alkaloids is extracted from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) by incising its seed capsule, whereupon a milky fluid (the opium 'latex') bleeds out of the incisions which is then left to dry out and scraped off the bulbs, yielding raw opium. Morphine, one of many alkaloids in opium, is then extracted out of the opium by acid-base extraction and turned into heroin by reacting it with acetic anhydride. Other drugs (such as methamphetamine and MDMA) are normally made from commercially available chemicals, though both can also be made from naturally occurring precursors. Methamphetamine can also be made from ephedrine, one of the naturally occurring alkaloids in ephedra (Ephedra sinica). MDMA can be made from safrole, the major constituent of several etheric oils like sassafras. Governments have adopted a strategy of chemical control as part of their overall drug control and enforcement plans. Chemical control offers a means of attacking illicit drug production and disrupting the process before the drugs have entered the market. [ potreban je citat ]

Because many legitimate industrial chemicals such as anhydrous ammonia and iodine are also necessary in the processing and synthesis of most illicitly produced drugs, preventing the diversion of these chemicals from legitimate commerce to illicit drug manufacturing is a difficult job. Governments often place restrictions on the purchase of large quantities of chemicals that can be used in the production of illicit drugs, usually requiring licenses or permits to ensure that the purchaser has a legitimate need for them.

Suppliers of precursor chemicals Edit

Chemicals critical to the production of cocaine, heroin, and synthetic drugs are produced in many countries throughout the world. Many manufacturers and suppliers exist in Europe, China, India, the United States, and a host of other countries.

Historically, chemicals critical to the synthesis or manufacture of illicit drugs are introduced into various venues via legitimate purchases by companies that are registered and licensed to do business as chemical importers or handlers. Once in a country or state, the chemicals are diverted by rogue importers or chemical companies, by criminal organizations and individual violators, or acquired as a result of coercion and/or theft on the part of drug traffickers. In response to stricter international controls, drug traffickers have increasingly [ potreban je citat ] been forced to divert chemicals by mislabeling the containers, forging documents, establishing front companies, using circuitous routing, hijacking shipments, bribing officials, or smuggling products across international borders.

Enforcement of controls on precursor chemicals Edit

General Edit

The Multilateral Chemical Reporting Initiative encourages governments to exchange information on a voluntary basis in order to monitor international chemical shipments. [1] : 8–9 Over the past decade, key international bodies like the Commission on Narcotic Drugs and the U.N. General Assembly's Special Session (UNGASS) have addressed the issue of chemical diversion in conjunction with U.S. efforts. [1] : 9, 67–74 These organizations raised specific concerns about potassium permanganate and acetic anhydride. [2]

To facilitate the international flow of information about precursor chemicals, the United States, through its relationship with the Inter-American Drug Control Abuse Commission (CICAD), continues to evaluate the use of precursor chemicals and assist countries in strengthening controls. [1] : 16 Many nations still lack the capacity to determine whether the import or export of precursor chemicals is related to legitimate needs or illicit drugs. The problem is complicated by the fact that many chemical shipments are either brokered or transshipped through third countries in an attempt to disguise their purpose or destination. [3]

Beginning in July 2001, the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) has opted to organize an international conference with the goal of devising a specific action plan to counter the traffic in MDMA precursor chemicals. [4] : 68 They hope to prevent the diversion of chemicals used in the production of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), including MDMA (ecstasy) and methamphetamine. [4] : 23

In June 2015, the European Commission approved Regulation (EU) 2015/1013 which outlined for the monitoring of drug precursors traded between the Union and third countries. The Regulation also establishes uniform procedures for licensing and registration of operators and users who are listed in a European database tracking drug precursors. [4] : 88

Despite this long history of law enforcement actions, restrictions of chemicals, and even covert military actions, many illicit drugs are still widely available all over the world.

Cocaine Edit

Operation Purple is a U.S. DEA driven international chemical control initiative designed to reduce the illicit manufacture of cocaine in the Andean Region, identifying rogue firms and suspect individuals gathering intelligence on diversion methods, trafficking trends, and shipping routes and taking administrative, civil and/or criminal action as appropriate. Critical to the success of this operation is the communication network that gives notification of shipments and provides the government of the importer sufficient time to verify the legitimacy of the transaction and take appropriate action. The effects of this initiative have been dramatic and far-reaching. Operation Purple has exposed a significant vulnerability among traffickers, and has grown to include almost thirty nations. According to the DEA, Operation Purple has been highly effective at interfering with cocaine production. However, illicit chemists always find new methods to evade the DEA's scrutiny.

In countries where strict chemical controls have been put in place, illicit drug production has been seriously affected. For example, few of the chemicals needed to process coca leaf into cocaine are manufactured in Bolivia or Peru. Most are smuggled in from neighbouring countries with advanced chemical industries or diverted from a smaller number of licit handlers. Increased interdiction of chemicals in Peru and Bolivia has contributed to final product cocaine from those countries being of lower, minimally oxidized quality.

As a result, Bolivian lab operators are now using inferior substitutes such as cement instead of lime and sodium bicarbonate instead of ammonia and recycled solvents like ether. Some non-solvent fuels such as gasoline, kerosene and diesel fuel are even used in place of solvents. Manufacturers are attempting to streamline a production process that virtually eliminates oxidation to produce cocaine base. Some laboratories are not using sulfuric acid during the maceration state consequently, less cocaine alkaloid is extracted from the leaf, producing less cocaine hydrochloride, the powdered cocaine marketed for overseas consumption.

Heroin Edit

Similarly, heroin-producing countries depend on supplies of acetic anhydride (AA) from the international market. This heroin precursor continues to account for the largest volume of internationally seized chemicals, according to the International Narcotics Control Board. Since July 1999, there have been several notable seizures of acetic anhydride in Turkey (amounting to nearly seventeen metric tons) and Turkmenistan (totaling seventy-three metric tons).

Acetic anhydride, the most commonly used chemical agent in heroin processing, is virtually irreplaceable. According to the DEA, Mexico remains the only heroin source route to heroin laboratories in Afghanistan. Authorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan routinely seize ton-quantity shipments of diverted acetic anhydride.

The lack of acetic anhydride has caused clandestine chemists in some countries to substitute it for lower quality precursors such as acetic acid and results in the formation of impure black tar heroin that contains a mixture of drugs not found in heroin made with pure chemicals.

DEA's Operation Topaz is a coordinated international strategy targeting acetic anhydride. In place since March 2001, a total of thirty-one countries are currently organized participants in the program in addition to regional participants. The DEA reports that as of June 2001, some 125 consignments of acetic anhydride had been tracked totaling 618,902,223 kilograms. As of July 2001, there has been approximately 20 shipments of AA totaling 185,000 kilograms either stopped or seized.

Amphetamines Edit

The practice of clandestine chemistry to synthesize controlled substance analogues and circumvent drug laws was first noticed in the late 1960s, as types of drugs became controlled substances in many countries. [5] With the Title 21 United States Code (USC) Controlled Substances Act (CSA) of October 27, 1970 amphetamines became controlled substances in the United States. [6] [7] Prior to this, amphetamine sulfate first became widely available as an over-the-counter (OTC) nasal decongestant inhaler in 1933, marketed by SKF under the brand name Benzedrine. Shortly afterward, physicians began documenting amphetamine's general stimulant properties and subsequently its potential for treating narcolepsy, which prompted SKF in 1938 to begin also manufacturing amphetamine sulfate as tablets. Initially, the frequency of amphetamine use was negligible, however, by 1959 its popularity as a therapeutic agent and also an illicit drug had skyrocketed nationwide, causing the Federal Bureau of Narcotics (FBN) to reclassify amphetamine from OTC to prescription-only.

As of the early 1990s, methamphetamine use was concentrated among young white males in California and nearby states. Since then its use has spread both demographically and geographically. [8] Methamphetamine has been a favorite among various populations including motorcycle gangs, [8] truckers, [9] laborers, soldiers, and ravers. [10] Known as a "club drug", the National Institute on Drug Abuse tracks its incidence of use in children as young as twelve, and the prevalence of users increases with age. [11]

In the 1980s and early 1990s, most methamphetamine production in the United States occurred in small independent laboratories. [8] Phenylacetone, one precursor of methamphetamine, became a Schedule II controlled immediate precursor in 1979. [12] Underground chemists searched for alternative methods for producing methamphetamine. The two predominant methods which appeared both involve the reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine. [13] At the time, neither was a watched chemical, and pills containing the substance could be bought by the thousands without raising any kind of suspicion. [8]

In the 1990s, the DEA recognized that legally imported precursors were being diverted to the production of methamphetamine. Changes to federal regulations in 1988 and throughout the 1990s enabled the DEA to more closely track the ephedrine and pseudoephedrine precursors. [8] Many individual States have enacted precursor control laws which limit the sale of over-the-counter cold medications which contain ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. [14] This made it somewhat more difficult for underground chemists to produce methamphetamine. In May 1995, the DEA shut down two major suppliers of precursors in the United States, seizing 25 metric tons of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine from Clifton Pharmaceuticals and 500 cases of pseudoephedrine from X-Pressive Looks, Inc. (XLI). The immediate market impact suggests that they had been providing more than 50 percent of the precursors used nationally to produce methamphetamine. However, the market rapidly rebounded. [8]

The methamphetamine situation also changed in the mid-1990s as Mexican organized crime became a major player in its production and distribution, operating "super-labs" which produced a substantial percentage of the drugs being sold. [8] According to the DEA, the seizure of 3.5 metric tons of pseudoephedrine in Texas in 1994 revealed that Mexican trafficking groups were producing methamphetamine on an unprecedented scale. [15] More recent reports indicate an ongoing presence of Mexican trafficking. [16]

Although the prevalence of domestic meth labs continues to be high in western states, they have spread throughout the United States. [15] It has been suggested that "do-it-yourself" meth production in rural areas is reflective of a broader DIY approach that includes activities such as hunting, fishing, and fixing one’s cars, trucks, equipment, and house. [10] Toxic chemicals resulting from methamphetamine production may be hoarded or clandestinely dumped, damaging land, water, plant life and wild life, and posing a risk to humans. [15] [10] Waste from methamphetamine labs is frequently dumped on federal, public, and tribal lands. The chemicals involved can explode and clandestine chemistry has been implicated in both house and wild land fires. [15]

Methamphetamine Lab Seizures in the US [17] [18]
Godina Seizures Kg
2004 23,829 1,659
2005 17,619 2,162
2006 9,177 1,804
2007 6,858 1,112
2008 8,810 1,519
2009 12,851 2,012
2010 15,196 2,187
2011 13,390 2,481
2012 11,210 3,898

In Oregon, Brett Sherry of the Oregon Clandestine Drug Lab Cleanup Program has been quoted as stating that only 10-20% of drug labs are discovered by police. [19] Statistics reporting the prevalence of meth labs and arrest of meth producers can vary greatly from county to county and state to state. Factors affecting policing and reporting include funding, specialized training, support from local residents, willingness to make the issue a priority in policing. How information is categorized and tracked may also inflate or minimize the apparent results. Missouri, which has tended to report some of the highest numbers of meth-lab arrests in the country, has pursued an aggressive and highly publicized policing policy, resulting in as many as 205 cases a year in one county. [10] In contrast, West Virginia tends to report and prosecute very few cases, possibly because there the agency that reports a meth lab is held responsible for paying for its cleanup. Cleanup of toxic and hazardous materials at a single site may cost tens of thousands of dollars. This is a disincentive for agencies with limited budgets. [9] Michigan reported an increase in incidents in 2016, following the formation of the Midland County Methamphetamine Protocol Team in 2015. Many of the cases reported involved meth users who were making small amounts of the drug in a simple "one-pot method" for both personal use and sale to others. [20]

DEA El Paso Intelligence Center data is showing a downward trend in the number of clandestine drug labs seized for the illicit manufacture of methamphetamine down from a high of 15,196 in 2010. [21] [22] Drug seizure quantities, on the other hand, are steadily increasing since 2007, according to data from the DEA's System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence (STRIDE) (see table to the right). [23]

Cleanup Edit

Clean up processes were regulated by the EPA as of 2007. [24] The Methamphetamine Remediation Research Act of 2007 required EPA to develop guidelines for remediation of former methamphetamine labs. This creates guidelines for States and local agencies to improve "our national understanding of identifying the point at which former methamphetamine laboratories become clean enough to inhabit again." The legislation also required that EPA periodically update the guidelines, as appropriate, to reflect the best available knowledge and research.

Making a former meth lab site safer for habitation requires two basic efforts:

  • Gross chemical removal: This is the process in which law enforcement or a Drug Enforcement Administration contractors removes the obvious dangers from the site. Obvious dangers include containers of chemicals, equipment, and apparatus that could be used to make illegal drugs, drug paraphernalia, and other illegal items. This process does not cleanup or remove chemical spills, stains or residue that could be harmful to inhabitants. A property that has had only a gross chemical removal is not fit for habitation.
  • Clandestine Remediation: The cleaning of interior structures and, if applicable, the surrounding land, surface waters and groundwater by an EPA approved or National Crime Scene Clean Up Association certified company. This is the process of removing the residue and waste from the site after the gross chemical removal is done. A property that has been remediated should present minimal to no health risk to occupants.

Contamination Edit

Alcoholic drinks Edit

Alcoholic drinks that are known to be contaminated.

Moonshine Edit

Black tar heroin Edit

Black tar heroin is a free base form of heroin that is sticky like tar or hard like coal. Its dark color is the result of crude processing methods that leave behind impurities.

Black Tar as a type holds a variable admixture morphine derivatives—predominantly 6-MAM (6-monoacetylmorphine) which is another result of crude acetylation. The lack of proper reflux during acetylation fails to remove much of the moisture retained in the acetylating agent, glacial acetic acid.

Cocaine paste Edit

Oxi Edit

Oxi (abbr. from Portuguese oxidado) is a stimulant drug based on cocaine paste originally developed in the Brazilian Amazon forest region. [25] It is reportedly a mixture of cocaine paste, gasoline, kerosene and quicklime (calcium oxide). [26]

Krokodil Edit

Illicitly produced desomorphine is typically far from pure and often contains large amounts of toxic substances and contaminants as a result of being "cooked" and used without any significant effort to remove the byproducts and leftovers from synthesis. Injecting any such mixture can cause serious damage to the skin, blood vessels, bone and muscles, sometimes requiring limb amputation in long-term users. [27] Its melting point is 189 °C. [27]

Causes of this damage are from iodine, phosphorus and other toxic substances that are present after synthesis.

Methamphetamine Edit

A common adulterant is dimethyl sulfone, a solvent and cosmetic base without known effect on the nervous system other adulterants include dimethylamphetamine HCl, ephedrine HCl, sodium thiosulfate, sodium chloride, sodium glutamate, and a mixture of caffeine with sodium benzoate. [28]

MPPP Edit

MPTP may be accidentally produced during the manufacture of MPPP. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + ), a metabolite of MPTP, causes rapid onset of irreversible symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease. [29] [30]

PCP Edit

Embalming fluid has been found as a by-product of PCP manufacture. [31] Marijuana cigarettes dipped in embalming fluid, sometimes also laced with PCP are known as fry ili fry sticks. [32]

Clandestine chemistry is not limited to drugs it is also associated with explosives, and other illegal chemicals. Of the explosives manufactured illegally, nitroglycerin and acetone peroxide are easiest to produce due to the ease with which the precursors can be acquired.

Uncle Fester is a writer who commonly writes about different aspects of clandestine chemistry. Secrets of Methamphetamine Manufacture is among one of his most popular books, and is considered required reading for DEA Agents. More of his books deal with other aspects of clandestine chemistry, including explosives, and poisons. Međutim, mnogi smatraju da je Fester neispravan i nepouzdan izvor informacija o tajnoj proizvodnji kemikalija. [ potreban je citat ]


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