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Obnova Julija Cezara

Obnova Julija Cezara


Antistius je svoje otkriće dostavio rimskom narodu na mjestu važnih političkih najava- forumu. Osim što je prvi zabilježeni prikaz doktora koji djeluje kao vještak ubojstva, događaj nam daje riječ & acirc € ˜forensic & acirc € ˜ -& acirc € ˜s foruma & rsquo. 2000 godina kasnije, taj se izraz ponovno primijenio na vrlo različitu vrstu obdukcije.

Godine 2003. tim modernih stručnjaka predvođen talijanskim forenzičkim istražiteljem Lucianom Garafanom odlučio je provesti vlastitu digitalnu obdukciju. Koristeći specijalizirani softver za izradu trodimenzionalne rekonstrukcije leša Caesar & rsquos, uzeli su drevne dokaze- uključujući originalnu obdukciju i ponovno stvorili okolnosti ubojstva. Suvremeni tim patologa, policijskih profila i klasičnih povjesničara tada je krenuo vidjeti što bi mogli zaključiti.

Koristeći Antistius & rsquos račun, Cezar & rsquos ozljede nanesene su na 3D rekonstrukciju. Ovo je učinjeno, Garafano je iskoristio svoje iskustvo nasilja mafije kako bi ponovno stvorio napad.

Primijenjeno je više scenarija, a Garafano je zaključio da je nemoguće za 23 muškarca da svi utaknu noževe u & rdquo. Zapravo, bilo je vjerojatnije da je između 5-10 muškaraca aktivno sudjelovalo u ubojstvu, a da su ostali formirali paravan oko njih kako bi spriječili intervenciju drugih senatora.

Smrt Julija Cezara. Google slike


Sadržaj

Gaj Julije Cezar rođen je u patricijskoj obitelji, gens Julia, koji je tvrdio da potječe od Julusa, sina legendarnog trojanskog princa Eneje, navodno sina božice Venere. [6] Julije su albanskog podrijetla, spominju se kao jedna od vodećih albanskih kuća, koje su se naselile u Rimu sredinom 7. stoljeća prije Krista, nakon uništenja Alba Longe. Dobili su status patricija, zajedno s drugim plemenitim albanskim obiteljima. [7] Julii su također postojali u ranom razdoblju u Bovillaeu, o čemu svjedoči vrlo drevni natpis na oltaru u kazalištu tog grada, koji govori o njihovom prinošenju žrtava prema lege Albana, ili albanski obredi. [8] [9] [10] The cognomen "Cezar" je nastao, prema Pliniju Starijem, od pretka koji je rođen carskim rezom (od latinskog glagola "rezati", caedere, caes-). [11] The Historia Augusta predlaže tri alternativna objašnjenja: da je prvi Cezar imao gustu kosu kose ("carski") da je imao svijetle sive oči ("oculis caesiis") ili da je ubio slona tijekom Punskih ratova ("caesai" na mavarskom) u bitci. [12] Caesar je izdao novčiće sa slikama slonova, što ukazuje na to da se zalagao za potonje tumačenje njegova imena.

Unatoč svom drevnom podrijetlu, Julii Caesares nisu bili osobito politički utjecajni, iako su u ranom 1. stoljeću prije Krista uživali u oživljavanju svojih političkih bogatstava. [13] Cezarov otac, također zvan Gaj Julije Cezar, upravljao je azijskom provincijom, [14] a njegova sestra Julija, Cezarova teta, udala se za Gaja Mariusa, jednu od najistaknutijih ličnosti u Republici. [15] Njegova majka, Aurelia Cotta, potjecala je iz utjecajne obitelji. O Cezarovom djetinjstvu malo je zapisano. [16]

85. godine prije Krista, Cezarov otac iznenada je umro [17], čime je Cezar postao glava obitelji u 16. godini. Njegovo punoljetstvo poklopilo se s građanskim ratom između njegovog ujaka Gaja Mariusa i njegova suparnika Lucija Kornelija Sule. Obje su strane izvršile krvave čistke svojih političkih protivnika kad god su bili u usponu. Marius i njegov saveznik Lucije Kornelije Cinna imali su kontrolu nad gradom kada je Cezar nominiran za novog flamen dialis (veliki svećenik Jupitera), [18] i bio je oženjen Cinninom kćerkom Kornelijom. [19] [20]

Nakon Sulline konačne pobjede, Cezarove veze sa starim režimom učinile su ga metom za novi. Oduzeto mu je nasljedstvo, miraz njegove žene i svećenstvo, no odbio se razvesti od Kornelije i umjesto toga bio je prisiljen skrivati ​​se. [21] Prijetnja protiv njega ukinuta je intervencijom obitelji njegove majke, koja je uključivala pristaše Sulle i djevica Vestal. Sulla je nevoljko popustio i navodno je izjavio da je u Cezaru vidio mnoge Marije. [16] Gubitak svećeništva omogućio mu je vojnu karijeru, budući da velikom svećeniku Jupitera nije bilo dopušteno dodirnuti konja, spavati tri noći izvan vlastitog kreveta ili jednu noć izvan Rima, niti pogledati vojsku. [22]

Cezar je smatrao da bi bilo daleko sigurnije daleko od Sule ako se diktator predomisli, pa je napustio Rim i pridružio se vojsci, služeći pod vodstvom Marka Minucija Termusa u Aziji i Servilija Izarika u Kilikiji. Služio je s odlikom, osvojivši Građansku krunu za svoj dio u opsadi Mitilene. Otišao je na misiju u Bitiniju kako bi osigurao pomoć flote kralja Nikomeda, ali je toliko dugo proveo na Nikomedovom dvoru da su se pojavile glasine o aferi s kraljem, što je Cezar žestoko nijekao do kraja života. [23]

Čuvši za Sullinu smrt 78. prije Krista, Cezar se osjećao dovoljno sigurnim da se vrati u Rim. Nedostajalo mu je sredstava jer mu je nasljedstvo oduzeto, ali je stekao skromnu kuću u Suburi, rimskom naselju niže klase. [24] Okrenuo se pravnom zagovaranju i postao poznat po svom iznimnom govorništvu popraćenom strastvenim gestama i oštrim glasom te nemilosrdnom progonu bivših guvernera ozloglašenih zbog iznuđivanja i korupcije.

Na putu preko Egejskog mora, [25] Cezara su oteli gusari i držali ga u zatočeništvu. [26] [27] Tijekom svog zatočeništva zadržao je stav superiornosti. Gusari su tražili otkupninu od 20 talenata srebra, ali on je inzistirao da traže 50. [28] [29] Nakon što je otkupnina plaćena, Cezar je podigao flotu, progonio i zarobio gusare, prije nego što ih je zatvorio. Dao ih je razapeti na svoju vlast, kao što je obećao dok je bio u zatočeništvu [30] - obećanje koje su gusari shvatili kao šalu. Kao znak popustljivosti, prvo su mu prerezali grkljan. Ubrzo je ponovno pozvan u vojnu akciju u Aziji, podigavši ​​grupu pomoćnika kako bi odbio upad s istoka. [31]

Po povratku u Rim izabran je za vojnog tribuna, što je bio prvi korak u političkoj karijeri. On je izabran kvestor 69. prije Krista [32], a tijekom te godine održao je pogrebnu riječ za svoju tetu Juliju, uključujući slike njezinog supruga Mariusa, neviđene od Sulinih dana, u pogrebnoj povorci. Te je godine umrla i njegova supruga Cornelia. [33] Cezar je otišao na službu svoje kvestorije u Hispaniju nakon pogreba svoje žene, u proljeće ili rano ljeto 69. pr. [34] Dok je bio tamo, priča se da je naišao na kip Aleksandra Velikog i s nezadovoljstvom shvatio da je sada u dobi kada je Aleksandru svijet bio pod nogama, dok je postigao relativno malo. Na povratku 67. pr. Kr. [35] oženio se Pompejom, unukom Sulle, od koje se kasnije razveo 61. prije Krista nakon njezina umiješanosti u skandal Bona Dea. [36] Godine 65. prije Krista izabran je curule eedile, te uprizorio raskošne igre koje su mu osvojile daljnju pozornost i podršku javnosti. [37]

63. prije Krista kandidirao se za izbor na mjesto pontifex maximus, glavni svećenik rimske državne religije. On se borio protiv dva moćna senatora. Optužbe za podmićivanje iznosile su sve strane. Caesar je udobno pobijedio, unatoč većem iskustvu i položaju svojih protivnika. [38] Ciceron je te godine bio konzul i otkrio je Catilininu zavjeru da preuzme kontrolu nad republikom, nekoliko senatora optužilo je Cezara za umiješanost u zavjeru. [39]

Nakon služenja kao pretor 62. prije Krista, Cezar je imenovan da upravlja Hispanijom Ulterior (zapadni dio Pirinejskog poluotoka) kao propretor, [40] [41] [42] iako neki izvori sugeriraju da je on imao prokonzularne ovlasti. [43] [44] Još uvijek je bio u velikom dugu i trebao je zadovoljiti svoje vjerovnike prije nego što je mogao otići. Obratio se Marku Liciniju Crassusu, najbogatijem čovjeku u Rimu. Crassus je platio neke Cezarove dugove i djelovao kao jamac za druge, u zamjenu za političku podršku u svom protivljenju interesima Pompeja. Ipak, kako bi izbjegao postati privatni građanin i stoga bio otvoren za kazneni progon zbog svojih dugova, Cezar je otišao u svoju pokrajinu prije nego što je prestalo njegovo pretorstvo. U Hispaniji je osvojio dva lokalna plemena i bio je hvaljen kao imperator svojim je postrojbama reformirao zakon o dugovima i visoko cijenio svoje namjesništvo. [45]

Cezar je bio hvaljen imperator 60. pr. Kr. (i opet kasnije 45. pr. Kr.). U Rimskoj Republici to je bila počasna titula koju su preuzeli određeni vojni zapovjednici. Nakon posebno velike pobjede, vojske će na terenu proglasiti svog zapovjednika imperator, aklamacija neophodna da se general podnese u Senat za trijumf. Međutim, Cezar se također želio kandidirati za konzula, najvišu sudiju u republici. Ako bi slavio trijumf, morao bi ostati vojnik i ostati izvan grada do svečanosti, ali da bi se kandidirao za izbor, morao bi postaviti zapovjedništvo i ući u Rim kao privatni građanin. Nije mogao učiniti oboje u raspoloživom vremenu. Zatražio je od Senata dopuštenje da stoji u odsutnosti, ali je Cato prijedlog blokirao. Suočen s izborom između trijumfa i konzulata, Cezar je izabrao konzulat. [46]

60. godine prije Krista, Cezar je tražio izbor za konzula 59. godine prije Krista, zajedno s još dva kandidata. Izbori su bili jadni - čak se i Cato, s reputacijom nepotkupljivosti, pribjegao podmićivanju u korist jednog od Cezarovih protivnika. Caesar je pobijedio, zajedno s konzervativcem Marcusom Bibulusom. [47]

Cezar je već bio u političkom dugu Marka Licinija Crassa, ali je također učinio ustupke Pompeju. Pompej i Crassus bili su u sukobu desetljeće, pa ih je Cezar pokušao pomiriti. Njih troje imali su dovoljno novca i političkog utjecaja za kontrolu javnih poslova. Taj neformalni savez, poznat kao Prvi trijumvirat ("vladavina trojice muškaraca"), zacementiran je udajom Pompeja za Cezarovu kćer Juliju. [48] ​​Cezar se također ponovno oženio, ovaj put Calpurnia, koja je bila kći drugog moćnog senatora. [49]

Cezar je predložio zakon o preraspodjeli javne zemlje sirotinji - silom oružja, ako je potrebno - prijedlog koji su podržali Pompej i Crassus, čime je trijumvirat postao javan. Pompej je napunio grad vojnicima, što je zastrašilo protivnike trijumvirata. Bibulus je pokušao proglasiti predskazanja nepovoljnim i tako poništiti novi zakon, ali su ga s foruma istjerali Cezarovi naoružani pristaše. Njegovim liktorima slomljene su veze, ranjena su dva visoka suca u pratnji, a na njega je bačena kanta izmeta. U strahu za svoj život, povukao se u svoju kuću do kraja godine, objavljujući povremene proglase loših predznaka. Ovi pokušaji pokazali su se neučinkovitima u ometanju Cezarova zakonodavstva. Rimski satiričari oduvijek su tu godinu nazivali "konzulstvom Julija i Cezara". [50]

Kad je Cezar prvi put izabran, aristokracija je pokušala ograničiti njegovu buduću moć dodjelom šuma i pašnjaka Italije, a ne namjesništvom u jednoj provinciji, jer je njegova vojna zapovjedna dužnost nakon njegove godine na vlasti bila gotova. [51] Uz pomoć političkih saveznika, Cezar je osigurao prolaz lex Vatinia, dajući mu namjesništvo nad Cisalpinskom Galijom (sjeverna Italija) i Ilirikom (jugoistočna Europa). [52] Na poticaj Pompeja i njegova tasta Pisa, Transalpska Galija (južna Francuska) dodana je kasnije nakon prerane smrti njezina guvernera, dajući mu zapovjedništvo nad četiri legije. [52] Mandat njegova guvernera, a time i imunitet od kaznenog progona, određen je na pet godina, a ne na uobičajeni. [53] [54] Kad je njegov konzulat prestao, Cezar je za dlaku izbjegao kazneni progon zbog nepravilnosti u svojoj godini, te je brzo otišao u svoju provinciju. [55]

Osvajanje Galije

Cezar je još uvijek bio u dugovima, ali bilo je potrebno zaraditi novac kao namjesnik, bilo iznudom [56] ili vojnim avanturizmom. Cezar je pod svojim zapovjedništvom imao četiri legije, dvije njegove provincije graničile su s neosvojenim teritorijem, a za dijelove Galije se znalo da su nestabilni. Neke od rimskih galskih saveznika porazili su njihovi suparnici u bitci kod Magetobrige, uz pomoć kontingenta germanskih plemena. Rimljani su se bojali da se ova plemena spremaju za migraciju na jug, bliže Italiji, te da su imali ratne namjere. Cezar je podigao dvije nove legije i pobijedio ta plemena. [57]

Kao odgovor na ranije Cezarove aktivnosti, plemena na sjeveroistoku počela su se naoružavati. Cezar je to tretirao kao agresivan potez i, nakon neuvjerljivog angažmana protiv ujedinjenih plemena, osvojio je plemena po dio. U međuvremenu je jedna od njegovih legija započela osvajanje plemena na krajnjem sjeveru, točno nasuprot Britanije. [58] Tijekom proljeća 56. godine prije Krista, Triumviri su održali konferenciju, jer je Rim bio u nemiru, a Cezarov politički savez se raspadao. Konferencija u Lucci obnovila je Prvi trijumvirat i produžila Cezarovo namjesništvo za još pet godina. [59] Osvajanje sjevera ubrzo je dovršeno, dok je ostalo nekoliko džepova otpora. [60] Cezar je sada imao sigurnu bazu iz koje je mogao započeti invaziju na Britaniju.

55. godine prije Krista, Cezar je odbio upad dva germanska plemena u Galiju, a zatim je izgradio most preko Rajne i pokazao silu na germanskom teritoriju, prije nego što se vratio i demontirao most. Kasno tog ljeta, nakon što je pokorio druga dva plemena, prešao je u Britaniju tvrdeći da su Britanci prethodne godine pomogli jednom od njegovih neprijatelja, vjerojatno Venetima iz Bretanje. [61] Njegovo je znanje o Britaniji bilo loše, pa iako je stekao plažu na obali, nije mogao dalje napredovati. Napao je s plaže i uništio neka sela, a zatim se vratio u Galiju na zimu. [62] Vratio se sljedeće godine, bolje pripremljen i s većom snagom, i postigao više. Napredovao je u unutrašnjosti i uspostavio nekoliko saveza, ali loša žetva dovela je do rasprostranjene pobune u Galiji, prisiljavajući Cezara da posljednji put napusti Britaniju. [63]

Dok je Cezar bio u Britaniji, njegova kći Julia, Pompejeva žena, umrla je pri porodu. Cezar je pokušao ponovno osigurati Pompejevu potporu nudeći mu svoju pranećakinju u braku, ali Pompej je to odbio. 53. godine prije Krista Crassus je ubijen zbog neuspješne invazije na istok. Rim je bio na rubu građanskog rata. Pompej je imenovan jedinim konzulom kao hitna mjera, a oženio se kćerkom političkog protivnika Cezara. Triumvirat je bio mrtav. [64]

Iako su galska plemena bila vojno jaka kao i Rimljani, unutarnja podjela među Galima jamčila je Cezarovu laku pobjedu. Vercingetorixov pokušaj 52. godine prije Krista da ih ujedini protiv rimske invazije došao je prekasno. [65] [66] Pokazao se oštroumnim zapovjednikom, pobijedivši Cezara u bitci kod Gergovije, ali Cezarova složena opsadna djela u bitci kod Alesije konačno su ga natjerala na predaju. [67] Unatoč raspršenim ratovima sljedeće godine, [68] Galija je učinkovito osvojena. Plutarh je tvrdio da se tijekom Galskih ratova vojska borila protiv tri milijuna ljudi (od kojih je milijun poginulo, a još milijun je porobljeno), pokorila 300 plemena i uništila 800 gradova. [69] Suvremeni povjesničari osporavaju brojke žrtava. [70]

Građanski rat

Godine 50. prije Krista, Senat (predvođen Pompejem) naredio je Cezaru da raspusti svoju vojsku i vrati se u Rim jer mu je bio guvernerski mandat. [71] Cezar je mislio da će biti procesuiran ako uđe u Rim bez imuniteta koji uživa sudac. Pompej je Cezara optužio za neposlušnost i izdaju. Dana 10. siječnja 49. prije Krista, Cezar je prešao rijeku Rubicon (graničnu granicu Italije) sa samo jednom legijom, Legio XIII Gemina, i zapalio građanski rat. Nakon prelaska Rubikona, Cezar je, prema Plutarhu i Svetoniju, navodno citirao atenskog dramatičara Menandra, na grčkom, "kocka je bačena". [72] Erasmus, međutim, primjećuje da bi točniji latinski prijevod grčkog imperativnog raspoloženja bio "alea iacta esto", neka kocka se baci. [73] Pompej i mnogi iz Senata pobjegli su na jug, imajući malo povjerenja u Pompejeve novopodignute trupe. Pompej, unatoč velikom broju Cezara, koji je sa sobom imao samo trinaestu legiju, nije se namjeravao boriti. Cezar je progonio Pompeja, nadajući se da će zarobiti Pompeja prije nego što mu legije pobjegnu. [74]

Pompej je uspio pobjeći prije nego što ga je Cezar uspio zarobiti. Krenuvši prema Hispaniji, Cezar je napustio Italiju pod kontrolom Marka Antonija. Nakon zadivljujućih 27-dnevnih marševa, Cezar je porazio Pompejeve poručnike, a zatim se vratio na istok, kako bi izazvao Pompeja u Iliriji, gdje je 10. srpnja 48. prije Krista u bitci kod Dirahija Cezar jedva izbjegao katastrofalan poraz. U iznimno kratkom angažmanu kasnije te godine, odlučno je porazio Pompeja kod Farsala u Grčkoj 9. kolovoza 48. pr. [75]

U Rimu je Cezar imenovan diktatorom, [78] s Markom Antonijem kao svojim gospodarom konja (drugi po zapovijedi). Cezar je predsjedao vlastitim izborom za drugog konzulata, a zatim je, nakon 11 dana, dao ostavku na tu diktaturu. [78] [79] Cezar je zatim progonio Pompeja u Egipat, stigavši ​​ubrzo nakon ubojstva generala. Tamo je Cezaru predstavljena Pompejeva odsječena glava i brtveni prsten, koji ih je primio sa suzama. [80] Zatim je dao ubiti Pompeyeve ubojice. [81]

Cezar se tada uključio u egipatski građanski rat između dječjeg faraona i njegove sestre, supruge i kraljice ko-regentice Kleopatre. Možda je zbog faraonove uloge u Pompejevu ubojstvu Cezar stao na stranu Kleopatre. Izdržao je opsadu Aleksandrije, a kasnije je pobijedio faraonove snage u bitci za Nil 47. godine prije Krista i za vladara postavio Kleopatru. Cezar i Kleopatra slavili su pobjedu trijumfalnom povorkom na Nilu u proljeće 47. pr. Kraljevsku teglenicu pratilo je 400 dodatnih brodova, a Cezar je upoznat s luksuznim načinom života egipatskih faraona. [82]

Cezar i Kleopatra nisu bili u braku. Cezar je nastavio svoju vezu s Kleopatrom tijekom posljednjeg braka - u rimskim očima to nije predstavljalo preljub - i vjerojatno je dobio sina po imenu Cezarion. Kleopatra je više puta posjećivala Rim, boraveći u Cezarovoj vili izvan Rima preko Tibra. [82]

Kasno 48. prije Krista, Cezar je ponovno imenovan diktatorom, s mandatom od jedne godine. [79] Nakon što je prvih mjeseci 47. godine prije Krista proveo u Egiptu, Cezar je otišao na Bliski istok, gdje je uništio pontskog kralja njegova pobjeda bila je tako brza i potpuna da se rugao Pompejevim prethodnim pobjedama nad tako siromašnim neprijateljima. [83] Na putu za Pont, Cezar je od 27. do 29. svibnja 47. prije Krista (25. - 27. svibnja greg.) Posjetio Tarsus, gdje je naišao na oduševljenu podršku, ali gdje ga je, prema Ciceronu, Cassius u ovom trenutku planirao ubiti . [84] [85] [86] Odatle je otišao u Afriku kako bi se pozabavio ostacima Pompejevih senatorskih pristaša. Pobijedio ga je Titus Labienus u Ruspini 4. siječnja 46. pr. Kr., Ali se oporavio i stekao značajnu pobjedu u Thapsusu 6. travnja 46. prije Krista nad Katonom, koji je tada počinio samoubojstvo. [87]

Nakon ove pobjede imenovan je diktatorom na 10 godina. [88] Pompejevi sinovi pobjegli su u Hispaniju, Cezar ih je potjerao i pobijedio posljednje ostatke protivljenja u bitci za Mundu u ožujku 45. pr. [89] Tijekom tog vremena, Cezar je izabran u svoj treći i četvrti mandat za konzula 46. godine prije Krista i 45. godine prije Krista (ovaj zadnji put bez kolege).

Dok je još vodio kampanju u Hispaniji, Senat je počeo odavati počasti Cezaru. Cezar nije zabranio svoje neprijatelje, već je oprostio gotovo sve, i nije mu bilo ozbiljnog protivljenja javnosti. U travnju su održane velike igre i slavlja u čast Cezarove pobjede na Mundi. Plutarh piše da su mnogi Rimljani smatrali da je trijumf koji je održan nakon Cezarove pobjede loš ukus, jer oni poraženi u građanskom ratu nisu bili stranci, već sumještani Rimljani. [90] Na Cezarov povratak u Italiju u rujnu 45. prije Krista, on je podnio svoju oporuku, imenujući svog unuka Gaja Oktavija (Oktavijan, kasnije poznat kao August Cezar) kao svog glavnog nasljednika, ostavljajući svoje ogromno imanje i imanje uključujući i njegovo ime. Cezar je također napisao da će, ako je Oktavijan umro prije Cezara, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus biti sljedeći nasljedni nasljednik. [91] U oporuci je također ostavio značajan dar građanima Rima.

Između prelaska Rubikona 49. godine prije Krista i atentata 44. godine prije Krista, Cezar je uspostavio novi ustav koji je namjeravao postići tri odvojena cilja. [92] Prvo, htio je potisnuti sav oružani otpor u provincijama i tako vratiti red u Republiku. Drugo, želio je stvoriti snažnu središnju vlast u Rimu. Konačno, htio je spojiti sve pokrajine u jedinstvenu kohezivnu cjelinu. [92]

Prvi cilj postignut je kada je Cezar pobijedio Pompeja i njegove pristaše. [92] Da bi postigao druga dva cilja, trebao je osigurati da njegova kontrola nad vladom bude neosporna, [93] pa je preuzeo te ovlasti povećavajući vlastiti autoritet i umanjujući autoritet drugih rimskih političkih institucija. Konačno, donio je niz reformi koje su trebale riješiti nekoliko dugo zanemarenih pitanja, od kojih je najvažnije bila njegova reforma kalendara. [94]

Diktatura

Kad se Cezar vratio u Rim, Senat mu je dodijelio trijumfe za njegove pobjede, navodno one nad Galijom, Egiptom, Farnakesom i Jubom, a ne nad svojim rimskim protivnicima. [ potreban je citat ] Kad je Arsinoja IV, bivša egipatska kraljica, paradirala u lancima, gledatelji su se divili njezinu dostojanstvenom držanju i bili su sažaljeni. [95] Održane su trijumfalne igre, u lovu na zvijeri u koje je bilo uključeno 400 lavova, te natjecanjima gladijatora. Vođena je pomorska bitka na poplavljenom bazenu na Marsovom polju. [96] U Cirkusu Maximus dvije su se vojske ratnih zarobljenika - svaka od 2000 ljudi, 200 konja i 20 slonova - borile do smrti. Ponovno su se žalili neki promatrači, ovaj put na Cezarovu rasipničku rasipnost. Izbio je nered, koji je prestao tek kad je Cezar dao dva žrtve koje su svećenici žrtvovali na Marsovom polju. [96]

Nakon trijumfa, Cezar je krenuo u usvajanje ambiciozne zakonodavne agende. [96] Naredio je da se izvrši popis stanovništva, što je prisililo smanjenje dole žita, te je odredio da porotnici mogu doći samo iz Senata ili konjičkih redova. Donio je dodatni zakon koji je ograničavao kupnju određenog luksuza. Nakon toga, donio je zakon koji je nagradio obitelji za mnogo djece, kako bi se ubrzalo ponovno naseljavanje Italije. Zatim je zabranio profesionalne cehove, osim onih iz davnine, budući da su mnogi od njih bili subverzivni politički klubovi. Zatim je donio zakon o ograničenju mandata koji se primjenjuje na guvernere. Donio je zakon o restrukturiranju duga, koji je na kraju eliminirao oko četvrtinu svih dugova. [96]

Tada je, među mnogim drugim javnim radovima, izgrađen Cezarov forum s hramom Venere Genetrix. [97] Cezar je također strogo regulirao otkup žita koje subvencionira država i smanjio broj primatelja na fiksni broj, koji su svi upisani u poseban registar. [98] Od 47. do 44. pr. Kr., Napravio je planove za raspodjelu zemlje na oko 15.000 svojih veterana. [99]

Najvažnija promjena bila je njegova reforma kalendara. Tadašnji rimski kalendar bio je reguliran kretanjem mjeseca. Zamijenivši ga egipatskim kalendarom, temeljenim na suncu, rimski su ga poljoprivrednici mogli koristiti kao osnovu za dosljednu sezonsku sadnju iz godine u godinu. Odredio je duljinu godine na 365,25 dana dodavanjem interkalarnog/prijestupnog dana krajem veljače svake četvrte godine. [94]

Kako bi kalendar uskladio s godišnjim dobima, donio je odluku da se tri dodatna mjeseca ubace u 46. godinu prije Krista (obični interkalarni mjesec krajem veljače, a dva dodatna mjeseca nakon studenog). Tako je julijanski kalendar otvoren 1. siječnja 45. pr. [94] [96] Ovaj kalendar je gotovo identičan trenutnom zapadnom kalendaru.

Neposredno prije atentata, prošao je još nekoliko reformi. [96] On je imenovao službenike koji će provesti njegove zemljišne reforme i naredio obnovu Kartagine i Korinta. Također je proširio latinska prava u cijelom rimskom svijetu, a zatim je ukinuo porezni sustav i vratio se na raniju verziju koja je gradovima dopuštala da prikupljaju danak kako god žele, umjesto da im trebaju rimski posrednici. Njegov je atentat spriječio daljnje i veće planove, koji su uključivali izgradnju neviđenog hrama na Marsu, ogromnog kazališta i knjižnice u razmjeru Aleksandrijske knjižnice. [96]

Također je htio Ostiju pretvoriti u veliku luku i presjeći kanal kroz Korintsku prevlaku. Vojno je želio osvojiti Dačane i Parte te se osvetiti za gubitak u Carrhaeu. Tako je pokrenuo masovnu mobilizaciju. Neposredno prije njegova ubojstva, Senat ga je proglasio doživotnim cenzorom i Ocem domovine, a mjesec Quintilis preimenovan je u srpanj njemu u čast. [96]

Dodijeljene su mu dodatne počasti, koje su kasnije korištene za opravdanje njegova ubojstva kao mogućeg božanskog monarha: izdani su novčići s njegovom slikom, a njegov kip postavljen je uz kraljeve. Dobio je zlatnu stolicu u Senatu, bilo mu je dopušteno nositi trijumfalnu haljinu kad god je odabrao, a ponuđen mu je i oblik poluzvaničnog ili popularnog kulta, s Markom Antonijem kao svojim visokim svećenikom. [96]

Političke reforme

Povijest Cezarovih političkih imenovanja složena je i neizvjesna. Cezar je držao i diktaturu i tribunat, ali se izmjenjivao između konzulata i prokonzulata. [93] Čini se da su njegove ovlasti unutar države počivale na ovim magistratima. [93] Prvi je put imenovan diktatorom 49. godine prije Krista, vjerojatno za predsjedavanje izborima, ali je u roku od 11 dana podnio ostavku na svoju diktaturu. 48. godine prije Krista ponovno je imenovan diktatorom, samo ovaj put na neodređeno vrijeme, a 46. godine prije Krista imenovan je diktatorom na 10 godina. [100]

48. godine prije Krista Cezar je dobio stalne tribunističke ovlasti, [101] [ neuspješna provjera ] što je njegovu osobu učinilo svetom i omogućilo mu da uloži veto na Senat, [101] iako su ga barem jednom prilikom tribuni pokušali ometati. Tribini koji su izvršili prekršaje u ovom slučaju izvedeni su pred Senat i lišeni su svog položaja. [101] Ovo nije bio prvi put da je Cezar prekršio sakralnost tribuna. Nakon što je prvi put krenuo na Rim 49. godine prije Krista, nasilno je otvorio riznicu, iako je na jednom tribunu bio pečat. Nakon opoziva dva opstruktivna tribuna, Cezar se, možda i ne iznenađuje, nije suočio s daljnjim protivljenjem drugih članova Tribunicijskog učilišta. [101]

Kad se Cezar 47. godine prije Krista vratio u Rim, redovi Senata bili su ozbiljno iscrpljeni, pa je iskoristio svoja cenzorska ovlaštenja za imenovanje mnogih novih senatora, što je na kraju povećalo članstvo u Senatu na 900. [102] Sva imenovanja bila su njegova partizani, što je senatorskoj aristokraciji oduzelo ugled i učinilo Senat sve podređenijim prema njemu. [103] Kako bi minimizirao rizik da bi ga drugi general mogao pokušati osporiti, [100] Cezar je donio zakon koji je namjesnike podvrgao ograničenjima mandata. [100]

46. ​​godine prije Krista, Cezar je sebi dao titulu "prefekta morala", što je bio ured koji je bio nov samo po imenu, budući da su njegove ovlasti bile identične onima u cenzori. [101] Dakle, mogao je imati cenzorske ovlasti, a da se tehnički ne podvrgava istim provjerama kojima su bili podvrgnuti obični cenzori, te je te ovlasti iskoristio da Senat napuni svojim partizanima. Također je stvorio presedan, koji su slijedili njegovi carski nasljednici, od zahtijevanja da mu Senat dodijeli različite titule i počasti. Primjerice, dobio je titulu "Oca Domovine" i "imperator". [100]

Kovanice su imale njegovu sličnost, a on je dobio pravo prvo govoriti na sjednicama Senata. [100] Cezar je zatim povećavao broj sudaca koji su birani svake godine, što je stvorilo veliki broj iskusnih sudaca, i dopustilo Cezaru da nagradi svoje pristaše. [102]

Cezar je čak poduzeo korake da Italiju pretvori u provinciju, te da čvršće poveže ostale pokrajine carstva u jednu kohezivnu cjelinu. Taj proces spajanja cijelog Rimskog Carstva u jednu jedinicu, umjesto da ga održi kao mrežu nejednakih kneževina, na kraju bi dovršio Cezarov nasljednik, car August.

U listopadu 45. prije Krista, Cezar je dao ostavku na mjesto jedinog konzula, te je do kraja godine olakšao izbor dvojice nasljednika, čime je teoretski vraćen redovni konzulat, budući da ustav nije priznavao niti jednog konzula bez kolege. [102] U veljači 44. godine prije Krista, mjesec dana prije njegova ubojstva, zauvijek je imenovan diktatorom. Pod Cezarom su značajne ovlasti imali njegovi poručnici [100], uglavnom zato što je Cezar često bio izvan Italije. [100]

Pred kraj života Cezar se počeo pripremati za rat protiv Partskog carstva. Budući da bi njegovo odsustvo iz Rima moglo ograničiti njegovu mogućnost postavljanja vlastitih konzula, donio je zakon koji mu je dopuštao imenovanje svih sudaca, svih konzula i tribuna. [102] To je zapravo preokrenulo suce iz predstavnika naroda u predstavnike diktatora. [102]

Atentat

Na ožujske dane (15. ožujka, vidi rimski kalendar) 44. godine prije Krista, Cezar se trebao pojaviti na sjednici Senata. Nekoliko senatora urotilo se za atentat na Cezara. Mark Antony, koji je prethodne noći maglovito saznao za zaplet od prestravljenog osloboditelj po imenu Servilius Casca, i plašeći se najgoreg, otišao je odvesti Cezara na čelo. Zavjerenici su, međutim, to predvidjeli i, bojeći se da će Antonije priskočiti Cezaru u pomoć, dogovorili su ga da ga Trebonije presretne baš kad se približio portiku Pompejevog kazališta, gdje se trebala održati sjednica, i pritvore ga vani (Međutim, Plutarh tu radnju odgađanja Antonija dodjeljuje Brutu Albinu). Kad je čuo komešanje iz vijeća Senata, Antonije je pobjegao. [104]

Prema Plutarhu, dok je Cezar stigao u Senat, Tillius Cimber mu je podnio peticiju za opoziv brata izgnanika. [105] Ostali urotnici okupili su se kako bi ponudili podršku. I Plutarh i Svetonije kažu da mu je Cezar mahnuo, ali Cimber ga je uhvatio za ramena i spustio Cezarovu tuniku. Cezar je tada zavapio Cimberu: "Zašto, ovo je nasilje!" ("Ista quidem vis est!"). [106]

Casca je istodobno izvadio svoj bodež i bacio pogled diktatorovom vratu. Cezar se brzo okrenuo i uhvatio Cascu za ruku. Prema Plutarhu, rekao je na latinskom: "Casca, zlikovče, što to radiš?" [107] Casca je, uplašeno, viknuo: "Upomoć, brate!" na grčkom ("ἀδελφέ, βοήθει", "adelphe, boethei"). U nekoliko trenutaka cijela skupina, uključujući Bruta, napala je diktatora. Cezar je pokušao pobjeći, ali, zaslijepljen krvlju, spotaknuo se i pao, ljudi su ga nastavili ubadati dok je bespomoćno ležao na donjim stepenicama the portico. According to Eutropius, around 60 men participated in the assassination. He was stabbed 23 times. [108]

According to Suetonius, a physician later established that only one wound, the second one to his chest, had been lethal. [109] The dictator's last words are not known with certainty, and are a contested subject among scholars and historians alike. Suetonius reports that others have said Caesar's last words were the Greek phrase " καὶ σύ, τέκνον " [110] (transliterated as "Kai sy, teknon?": "You too, child?" in English). However, Suetonius' own opinion was that Caesar said nothing. [111]

Plutarch also reports that Caesar said nothing, pulling his toga over his head when he saw Brutus among the conspirators. [112] The version best known in the English-speaking world is the Latin phrase "Et tu, Brute?" ("And you, Brutus?", commonly rendered as "You too, Brutus?") [113] [114] best known from Shakespeare's Julije Cezar, where it actually forms the first half of a macaronic line: "Et tu, Brute? Then fall, Caesar." This version was already popular when the play was written, as it appears in Richard Edes's Latin play Caesar Interfectus of 1582 and The True Tragedie of Richarde Duke of Yorke & etc. of 1595, Shakespeare's source work for other plays. [115]

According to Plutarch, after the assassination, Brutus stepped forward as if to say something to his fellow senators they, however, fled the building. [116] Brutus and his companions then marched to the Capitol while crying out to their beloved city: "People of Rome, we are once again free!" They were met with silence, as the citizens of Rome had locked themselves inside their houses as soon as the rumour of what had taken place had begun to spread. Caesar's dead body lay where it fell on the Senate floor for nearly three hours before other officials arrived to remove it.

Caesar's body was cremated. A crowd which had gathered at the cremation started a fire, which badly damaged the forum and neighbouring buildings. On the site of his cremation, the Temple of Caesar was erected a few years later (at the east side of the main square of the Roman Forum). Only its altar now remains. [117] A life-size wax statue of Caesar was later erected in the forum displaying the 23 stab wounds.

In the chaos following the death of Caesar, Mark Antony, Octavian (later Augustus Caesar), and others fought a series of five civil wars, which would culminate in the formation of the Roman Empire.

Aftermath of the assassination

The result unforeseen by the assassins was that Caesar's death precipitated the end of the Roman Republic. [118] The Roman middle and lower classes, with whom Caesar was immensely popular and had been since before Gaul, became enraged that a small group of aristocrats had killed their champion. Antony, who had been drifting apart from Caesar, capitalised on the grief of the Roman mob and threatened to unleash them on the Optimates, perhaps with the intent of taking control of Rome himself. To his surprise and chagrin, Caesar had named his grandnephew Gaius Octavius his sole heir (hence the name Octavian), bequeathing him the immensely potent Caesar name and making him one of the wealthiest citizens in the Republic. [119]

The crowd at the funeral boiled over, throwing dry branches, furniture, and even clothing on to Caesar's funeral pyre, causing the flames to spin out of control, seriously damaging the Forum. The mob then attacked the houses of Brutus and Cassius, where they were repelled only with considerable difficulty, ultimately providing the spark for the civil war, fulfilling at least in part Antony's threat against the aristocrats. [120] Antony did not foresee the ultimate outcome of the next series of civil wars, particularly with regard to Caesar's adopted heir. Octavian, aged only 18 when Caesar died, proved to have considerable political skills, and while Antony dealt with Decimus Brutus in the first round of the new civil wars, Octavian consolidated his tenuous position.

To combat Brutus and Cassius, who were massing an enormous army in Greece, Antony needed soldiers, the cash from Caesar's war chests, and the legitimacy that Caesar's name would provide for any action he took against them. With the passage of the lex Titia on 27 November 43 BC, [121] the Second Triumvirate was officially formed, composed of Antony, Octavian, and Caesar's loyal cavalry commander Lepidus. [122] It formally deified Caesar as Divus Iulius in 42 BC, and Caesar Octavian henceforth became Divi filius ("Son of the divine"). [123]

Because Caesar's clemency had resulted in his murder, the Second Triumvirate reinstated the practice of proscription, abandoned since Sulla. [124] It engaged in the legally sanctioned killing of a large number of its opponents to secure funding for its 45 legions in the second civil war against Brutus and Cassius. [125] Antony and Octavian defeated them at Philippi. [126]

Afterward, Mark Antony formed an alliance with Caesar's lover, Cleopatra, intending to use the fabulously wealthy Egypt as a base to dominate Rome. A third civil war broke out between Octavian on one hand and Antony and Cleopatra on the other. This final civil war, culminating in the latter's defeat at Actium in 31 BC and suicide in Egypt in 30 BC, resulted in the permanent ascendancy of Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor, under the name Caesar Augustus, a name conveying religious, rather than political, authority. [127]

Julius Caesar had been preparing to invade Parthia, the Caucasus, and Scythia, and then march back to Germania through Eastern Europe. These plans were thwarted by his assassination. [128] His successors did attempt the conquests of Parthia and Germania, but without lasting results.

Deification

Julius Caesar was the first historical Roman to be officially deified. He was posthumously granted the title Divus Iulius (the divine/deified Julius) by decree of the Roman Senate on 1 January 42 BC. The appearance of a comet during games in his honour was taken as confirmation of his divinity. Though his temple was not dedicated until after his death, he may have received divine honours during his lifetime: [129] and shortly before his assassination, Mark Antony had been appointed as his flamen (priest). [130] Both Octavian and Mark Antony promoted the cult of Divus Iulius. After the death of Caesar, Octavian, as the adoptive son of Caesar, assumed the title of Divi Filius (Son of the Divine).

Health and physical appearance

Based on remarks by Plutarch, [131] Caesar is sometimes thought to have suffered from epilepsy. Modern scholarship is sharply divided on the subject, and some scholars believe that he was plagued by malaria, particularly during the Sullan proscriptions of the 80s. [132] Other scholars contend his epileptic seizures were due to a parasitic infection in the brain by a tapeworm. [133] [134]

Caesar had four documented episodes of what may have been complex partial seizures. He may additionally have had absence seizures in his youth. The earliest accounts of these seizures were made by the biographer Suetonius, who was born after Caesar died. The claim of epilepsy is countered among some medical historians by a claim of hypoglycemia, which can cause epileptoid seizures. [135] [136] [137]

In 2003, psychiatrist Harbour F. Hodder published what he termed as the "Caesar Complex" theory, arguing that Caesar was a sufferer of temporal lobe epilepsy and the debilitating symptoms of the condition were a factor in Caesar's conscious decision to forgo personal safety in the days leading up to his assassination. [138]

A line from Shakespeare has sometimes been taken to mean that he was deaf in one ear: "Come on my right hand, for this ear is deaf". [139] No classical source mentions hearing impairment in connection with Caesar. The playwright may have been making metaphorical use of a passage in Plutarch that does not refer to deafness at all, but rather to a gesture Alexander of Macedon customarily made. By covering his ear, Alexander indicated that he had turned his attention from an accusation in order to hear the defence. [140]

Francesco M. Galassi and Hutan Ashrafian suggest that Caesar's behavioral manifestations—headaches, vertigo, falls (possibly caused by muscle weakness due to nerve damage), sensory deficit, giddiness and insensibility—and syncopal episodes were the results of cerebrovascular episodes, not epilepsy. Pliny the Elder reports in his Prirodna povijest that Caesar's father and forefather died without apparent cause while putting on their shoes. These events can be more readily associated with cardiovascular complications from a stroke episode or lethal heart attack. Caesar possibly had a genetic predisposition for cardiovascular disease. [141]

Suetonius, writing more than a century after Caesar's death, describes Caesar as "tall of stature with a fair complexion, shapely limbs, a somewhat full face, and keen black eyes". [142]

Name and family

The name Gaius Julius Caesar

Using the Latin alphabet of the period, which lacked the letters J i U, Caesar's name would be rendered GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR the form CAIVS is also attested, using the older Roman representation of G po C. The standard abbreviation was C. IVLIVS CÆSAR, reflecting the older spelling. (The letterform Æ is a ligature of the letters A i E, and is often used in Latin inscriptions to save space.)

In Classical Latin, it was pronounced [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuːl.i.ʊs ˈkae̯sar]. In the days of the late Roman Republic, many historical writings were done in Greek, a language most educated Romans studied. Young wealthy Roman boys were often taught by Greek slaves and sometimes sent to Athens for advanced training, as was Caesar's principal assassin, Brutus. In Greek, during Caesar's time, his family name was written Καίσαρ (Kaísar), reflecting its contemporary pronunciation. Thus, his name is pronounced in a similar way to the pronunciation of the German Kajzer.

In Vulgar Latin, the original diphthong [ae̯] first began to be pronounced as a simple long vowel [ɛː] . Then, the plosive /k/ before front vowels began, due to palatalization, to be pronounced as an affricate, hence renderings like [ˈtʃeːsar] in Italian and [ˈtseːzar] in German regional pronunciations of Latin, as well as the title of Tsar. With the evolution of the Romance languages, the affricate [ts] became a fricative [s] (thus, [ˈseːsar] ) in many regional pronunciations, including the French one, from which the modern English pronunciation is derived.

Caesar's cognomen itself became a title it was promulgated by the Bible, which contains the famous verse "Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's, and unto God the things that are God's". The title became, from the late first millennium, Kajzer in German and Tsar or Czar in the Slavic languages. The last Tsar in nominal power was Simeon II of Bulgaria, whose reign ended in 1946. This means that for approximately two thousand years, there was at least one head of state bearing his name.

Obitelj

  • Father Gaius Julius Caesar (proconsul of Asia) (proconsul of Asia in 90s BC)
  • Mother Aurelia (one of the Aurelii Cottae)
  • First marriage to Cornelia (Cinnilla), from 84 BC until her death in 69 or 68 BC
  • Second marriage to Pompeia, from 67 BC until he divorced her around 61 BC over the Bona Dea scandal
  • Third marriage to Calpurnia, from 59 BC until Caesar's death
    , by Cornelia, born in 83 or 82 BC , by Cleopatra VII, born 47 BC, and killed at age 17 by Caesar's adopted son Octavianus.
  • Posthumously adopted: Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, his great-nephew by blood (grandson of Julia, his sister), who later became Emperor Augustus.
    (born 85 BC): The historian Plutarch notes that Caesar believed Brutus to have been his illegitimate son, as his mother Servilia had been Caesar's lover during their youth. [144] Caesar would have been 15 years old when Brutus was born. (born ca. 60s BC), the daughter of Caesar's lover Servilia was believed by Cicero among other contemporaries, to be Caesar's natural daughter. (born ca. 85–81 BC): On several occasions Caesar expressed how he loved Decimus Brutus like a son. This Brutus was also named an heir of Caesar in case Octavius had died before the latter. Ronald Syme argued that if a Brutus was the natural son of Caesar, Decimus was more likely than Marcus. [145]

Grandchild from Julia and Pompey, dead at several days, unnamed. [146]

    , mother of Caesarion , mother of Brutus , queen of Mauretania and wife of Bogudes
    (married to his paternal aunt Julia) (his relative through Antony's mother Julia) (his third cousin)

Rumors of passive homosexuality

Roman society viewed the passive role during sexual activity, regardless of gender, to be a sign of submission or inferiority. Indeed, Suetonius says that in Caesar's Gallic triumph, his soldiers sang that, "Caesar may have conquered the Gauls, but Nicomedes conquered Caesar." [147] According to Cicero, Bibulus, Gaius Memmius, and others (mainly Caesar's enemies), he had an affair with Nicomedes IV of Bithynia early in his career. The stories were repeated, referring to Caesar as the Queen of Bithynia, by some Roman politicians as a way to humiliate him. Caesar himself denied the accusations repeatedly throughout his lifetime, and according to Cassius Dio, even under oath on one occasion. [148] This form of slander was popular during this time in the Roman Republic to demean and discredit political opponents.

Catullus wrote two poems suggesting that Caesar and his engineer Mamurra were lovers, [149] but later apologised. [150]

Mark Antony charged that Octavian had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favors. Suetonius described Antony's accusation of an affair with Octavian as political slander. Octavian eventually became the first Roman Emperor as Augustus. [151]

During his lifetime, Caesar was regarded as one of the best orators and prose authors in Latin —even Cicero spoke highly of Caesar's rhetoric and style. [152] Only Caesar's war commentaries have survived. A few sentences from other works are quoted by other authors. Among his lost works are his funeral oration for his paternal aunt Julia and his Anticato, a document written to defame Cato in response to Cicero's published praise. Poems by Julius Caesar are also mentioned in ancient sources. [153]

Memoari

  • The Commentarii de Bello Gallico, usually known in English as The Gallic Wars, seven books each covering one year of his campaigns in Gaul and southern Britain in the 50s BC, with the eighth book written by Aulus Hirtius on the last two years.
  • The Commentarii de Bello Civili (Građanski rat), events of the Civil War from Caesar's perspective, until immediately after Pompey's death in Egypt.

Other works historically have been attributed to Caesar, but their authorship is in doubt:

  • De Bello Alexandrino (On the Alexandrine War), campaign in Alexandria
  • De Bello Africo (On the African War), campaigns in North Africa and
  • De Bello Hispaniensi (On the Hispanic War), campaigns in the Iberian Peninsula.

These narratives were written and published annually during or just after the actual campaigns, as a sort of "dispatches from the front." They were important in shaping Caesar's public image and enhancing his reputation when he was away from Rome for long periods. They may have been presented as public readings. [154] As a model of clear and direct Latin style, The Gallic Wars traditionally has been studied by first- or second-year Latin students.

Historiography

The texts written by Caesar, an autobiography of the most important events of his public life, are the most complete primary source for the reconstruction of his biography. However, Caesar wrote those texts with his political career in mind, so historians must filter the exaggerations and bias contained in it. [155] The Roman emperor Augustus began a cult of personality of Caesar, which described Augustus as Caesar's political heir. The modern historiography is influenced by the Octavian traditions, such as when Caesar's epoch is considered a turning point in the history of the Roman Empire. Still, historians try to filter the Octavian bias. [156]

Many rulers in history became interested in the historiography of Caesar. Napoleon III wrote the scholarly work Histoire de Jules César, which was not finished. The second volume listed previous rulers interested in the topic. Charles VIII ordered a monk to prepare a translation of the Galski ratovi in 1480. Charles V ordered a topographic study in France, to place The Gallic Wars in context which created forty high-quality maps of the conflict. The contemporary Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent catalogued the surviving editions of the Komentare, and translated them to Turkish language. Henry IV and Louis XIII of France translated the first two commentaries and the last two respectively Louis XIV retranslated the first one afterwards. [157]

Politika

Julius Caesar is seen as the main example of Caesarism, a form of political rule led by a charismatic strongman whose rule is based upon a cult of personality, whose rationale is the need to rule by force, establishing a violent social order, and being a regime involving prominence of the military in the government. [158] Other people in history, such as the French Napoleon Bonaparte and the Italian Benito Mussolini, have defined themselves as Caesarists. [159] [160] Bonaparte did not focus only on Caesar's military career but also on his relation with the masses, a predecessor to populism. [161] The word is also used in a pejorative manner by critics of this type of political rule.

Depictions

Bust in Naples National Archaeological Museum, photograph published in 1902


The first wife: Cornelia

The first of Julius Caesar’s wives was Cornelia, daughter of the four-time consul Lucio Cornelio Cinna. They were married in 84 B.C. when Caesar was fifteen or sixteen, and she was about thirteen or fourteen, until 69 B.C.

During the fifteen years that the marriage lasted (a third of which they spent separated), the young couple had to live challenging moments. When Caesar did not want to give in to pressure from Lucio Cornelio Sulla (the dictator at the time) to get a divorce, Cornelia’s dowry was confiscated, and they had to flee to avoid arrest. On that occasion, only the intervention of Aurelia’s family, Julio Caesar’s mother, saved them from losing their lives.

Sometime between 78 and 75 B.C., Cornelia gave birth to Julia the only legitimate descendant Julius Caesar would have in his entire life. Years later, in 59 B.C., Julia would marry Pompey the Great to strengthen the First Triumvirate ties.

It was likely a happy union, which does not mean that Caesar had numerous relationships with women of all walks of life. It was commonly accepted that aristocratic husbands sought to satisfy their libido in other women’s arms, often prostitutes. Still, this did not mean that many couples were not very much in love and had an active sex life.

In 69 B.C., before Caesar left Rome to serve as a quaestor (a public official) in Hispania, Cornelia died in childbirth, and her stillborn did not survive either.

It was not uncommon for older women from noble families to receive grandiose public funerals. Still, the decision to hold one for Cornelia drew attention because she was still very young.

Since many understood it as a sign of genuine affection from a man with a good heart to his wife, his gesture was very well received by the people. However, Caesar indeed took advantage of the event for political gain by reminding the crowd how honorable his lineage was and his family’s services to the state.


Why Julius Caesar Built a Bridge Over The Rhine And Destroyed it 18 Days Later

In the early summer of 55 BC Julius Caesar had already begun his conquest of Gaul three years earlier. At that time the eastern border of the new provinces was located on the Rhine. The Germanic tribes on the eastern side of the river launched incursions to the west under the protection provided by this natural border.

But on the other side of the river there were also tribes allied with Rome, like the Ubians. They offered Caesar ships for the legions to cross the river and attack the Germanic tribes.

The Ubians, too, who from all the nations beyond the Rhine, had sent ambassadors to Caesar and formed an alliance and given hostages, earnestly begged “to bring them help, because they were gravely oppressed by the Suebi or, if other matters prevented him, let him at least transport his army up the Rhine ' that this would be enough for their present help and their hope for the future (…) They promised a large number of ships to transport the army.

Julius Caesar, Comments on the Gallic War IV.16

Caesar's Rhine Bridge, by John Soane (1814)

However, Caesar rejected the offer and decided to build a bridge instead. In doing so, he would demonstrate not only his support for the Ubian allies, but also Rome's ability to carry the war whenever it wished across the border. Also, as he wrote, that he considered ships unsafe, this was more consistent with his own dignity and that of the Roman people.

Caesar, for the reasons I have mentioned, had resolved to cross the Rhine but not to cross it in ships that he did not consider sufficiently safe, nor did he consider consistent with his own dignity or that of the Roman people. Therefore, although he had the greatest difficulty in forming a bridge, due to the breadth, speed and depth of the river, he felt that he should try it himself, or that his army should not be led in any other way.

Julius Caesar, Comments on the Gallic War IV.17

The construction was carried out between present-day Andernach and Neuwied, downstream from Koblenz, an area where the depth of the river would be up to 9 meters. Watchtowers were erected on both banks to protect the entrances, and piles and barriers were placed upriver as a measure of protection against attacks and debris carried by the current.

Caesar's 40,000 soldiers built the bridge in just 10 days on double wooden piles that were driven into the riverbed, dropping a huge and heavy stone on them as a mace. The construction system ensured that the greater the flow, the harder the bridge was held together.

Illustration of Caesar’s Rhine Bridge from “History of Rome, and of the Roman people, from its origin to the invasion of the barbarians" (1883)

Two foot-and-a-half thick logs pointed at the bottom, and as long as the river was deep, were locked together with two feet of separation these were inserted and fitted with devices into the river, and were driven with mallets, not perpendicularly like posts, but inclined and stretched out towards the river current. Then further down, at a distance of forty feet, he would set in front of the first two others locked in the same way and struck against the force and current of the river. Both, in addition, were kept firmly separated by beams two feet thick (the space occupied by the junction of the piles), placed at their ends between two brackets on each side, and consequently that these were in different directions and fixed on opposite sides to each other, so great was the force of the work,

Julius Caesar, Comments on the Gallic War IV.17

It is not known who was the engineer responsible for this new bridge construction technique, which had never been used before. Cicero suggests in a letter that his name was Mumarra, although we cannot rule out the possibility that it was Marcus Vitruvius Polio (the architect who was the author of the famous Ten Books of Architecture ), who was meeting Caesar. It is estimated that the length of this bridge could have been between 140 and 400 meters, and its width between 7 and 9 meters.

Once it was finished, Caesar crossed with his troops to the other bank, where the Ubians were waiting for him. Then he learned that the tribes of the Sicambrians and the Suevi had withdrawn to the East, in anticipation of his arrival. Not being able to present a battle and after destroying some villages, Caesar decided to turn around, cross again the bridge and knock it down behind him. It had lasted 18 days.

A scale model of Caesar’s Rhine Bridge at The Museo Della Civilta Romana in Rome. Fotografija: MrJennings/Flickr

Two years later history repeated itself. Near the place where the first bridge had been and about 2 kilometers to the north (possibly next to the current Urmitz), Caesar built a second, although this time he did not elaborate on the details.

Having decided on these matters, he began to build a bridge a little higher than the place where he had earlier transported his army. Once the plan is known and established, the work is carried out in a few days due to the great effort of the soldiers. Having left a strong guard on the bridge on the side of the Trier, so that no commotion would occur between them, he led the rest of the forces and the cavalry.

Julius Caesar, Comments on the Gallic War VI.9

As before, the Suebi, seeing what was coming their way, retreated to the East again, abandoning their villages and hiding in the forests. Caesar returned to Gaul and again destroyed the bridge. Only this time he only knocked down the end that touched the eastern shore, erecting defense towers to protect the rest of the bridge.

In order not to completely free the barbarians from the fear of their return, and in order to delay his warriors, having driven back his army, he broke, over a distance of 200 feet, the far end of the bridge, which connected him to the Ubian shore, and at the end of the bridge he erected four-story towers, and placed a guard of twelve cohorts for the purpose of defending the bridge, and reinforced the place with considerable fortifications.

Julius Caesar, Commentary on the Gallic War VI.29

Reconstruction of a Roman pile driver, used to build the Rhine bridge at Ehrenbreitstein Fortress in Koblenz, Germany. Fotografija: Holger Weinandt/Wikimedia Commons

Caesar's strategy produced the desired effect. It demonstrated the power of Rome and her ability to cross the Rhine at will at any time. Thus Julius Caesar secured the borders of Gaul, and for several centuries the Germans refrained from crossing them.

It also allowed the Roman colonization of the Rhine Valley, where permanent bridges would later be built in Castra Vetera (Xanten), Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (Colonia), Confluentes (Coblenz) and Moguntiacum (Mainz).

Archaeological excavations carried out in the late 19th century in the Andernach-Neuwied area found remains of pilings in the Rhine (their analysis in the 20th century showed that they had been cut down in the middle of the 1st century BC), which may belong to Caesar's bridges, although the place of its location has never been able to be determined exactly.

As for the Ubians, in 39 BC Marco Vipsanio Agrippa finally transferred them to the west bank of the Rhine in payment their longstanding loyalty, as they had been asking for a long time, fearing reprisals from neighboring tribes. They remained loyal to Rome throughout its history, eventually mixing with the Franks who gave rise to new kingdoms in Gaul during the Middle Ages.

This article was originally published in La Brújula Verde. It has been translated from Spanish and republished with permission.


3 Pics: What Julius Caesar actually looked like: New Science 3D reconstruction

[Spears sent me this one. This is fascinating. Most people don’t seem to have an idea of what real leaders and great generals actually looked like. They aren’t necessarily handsome. In this case, a birth problem may have affected the size of his head. One friend of mine has a theory that we’re ruled by people with big heads, and this new sculpture of Caesar would certainly fit his theory!! All that matters is that the work must be accurate. This then would be the face of one of the greatest white men who ever lived. His feats were incredible. The Romans were used to doing amazing stuff, but his feats exceeded even those! He was a true warrior and a great leader whom men died for willingly. You don’t get that kind of loyalty without extreme ability. In that sense, Caesar and Napoleon are identical. You’re looking at the face of one of the greatest military minds of all time.

The scientist says that Caesar was about corpses – and indeed that is true! The Romans were a white people who killed their enemies by the million even though they only had swords, spears and a few other devices! They created a civilisation that was 1,000 years ahead of the rest of Europe! We must become like them again! That is what Hitler was trying to do. WHITE WARRIORS create CIVILISATIONS!

NB: I’ve also put a translation of the original Dutch article below the first one because it contains a bunch of additional details. Jan]

Julius Caesar, the reviled and revered Roman emperor, has gotten a new look, thanks to a recent 3D reconstruction of his face and head.

The National Museum of Antiquities in the Netherlands unveiled the new bust Friday, giving viewers a fascinating image of what Caesar would have looked like in real life — complete with a huge bump covering part of his head.

“So he has a crazy bulge on his head,” said physical anthropologist Maja d’Hollosy, the person behind the reconstruction, according to Dutch newspaper, HLN.

The reconstruction was made on the basis of a 3D scan of a marble portrait in the museum’s collection.

“The piece of sculpture is pretty damaged,” the museum said in a news release. “That is why it was decided to supplement the disappeared parts, such as nose and chin, on the basis of second portraiti of Julius Caesar: the so-called Tusculum bust.”

The museum said the 3D reconstrcution will be on display until the end of August.

Here is a direct translation from the original Dutch because the other stories do not contain many details:-

The Roman ruler Julius Caesar, murdered on March 15 of the year 44 BC, has a new face. Physical anthropologist Maja d’Hollosy made it for the National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden, where it is unveiled today and can still be seen for free.

The bust was the idea of ??archaeologist Tom Buijtendorp, whose book “Caesar in the Low Countries” was published at the same time. D’Hollosy used, among other things, his research results that have now been published. She went on for the face of Caesar further from two busts, one from Leiden and one from Turin, and from coins with Caesar from his own time. Especially the head in Turin seems certain that it is made alive and reasonably realistic, says Buijtendorp. “So he has a crazy bulge on his head. A doctor said that such a thing occurs in a heavy delivery. You do not invent that as an artist. And realistic portraits were in fashion “.

The image in Leiden is very similar to that in Turin, although the most powerful man of his time lost a piece of his forehead, mouth and nose. D’Hollosy made a 3d print of the head from Leiden. There she took off the top layer and then applied a new one, using clay and silicone rubber. That way Julius got a lifelike face. “I do not let him look happy and friendly. He was a general who was about corpses, “says d’Hollosy.


New 3D reconstruction of Caesar

This is rediculous. They just guessed like anyone else. "Lets take all the descriptions and statues and then blow up his forehead like a hot air balloon. Da. that's what he looked like." He looks like Mr. Mackey. There is zero chance in hell that he looked like an over-inflated beach ball. I choose to keep thinking about rugged, slightly balding Caesar with a human-sized head.

You're telling me thats not the face of somebody who demands the result of their soldiers? /s

This is the ideal caesarian head. You may not like it, but this is what peak gravitas looks like.

His face looks really small in comparison to his head lol

There’s no way this is accurate, right? It looks like a perfect model that someone inflated.

Coming from Pixar this summer. Finding Pompey

Tag line: “He just wanted to be Consul.”

I thought so too, but still interesting to see, I think. The dimensions need to be it a bit more balanced, as all things should be.

What is this reconstruction based on? Caesar was cremated and we have no remains or a skull from which to form something like this

Looks like they took the hundreds of relatively life-like statues and images of Caesar, turned them sideways, and adjusted the "freakish birdiness" factor upward by about four for no God-damned reason at all.

According to the article (Dutch), the Tusculum Portrait, except with some artist's interpretation.

Not my Caesar! Edit: spelling

No wonder the Senate hated him. He’s a heqing beach ball!!

Image from the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden (Dutch Imperial Museum of Antiquity). More photos can be found in this article (also Dutch).

Sorry, I don't have the time to translate the articles right now.

3D reconstruction of face Caesar: 'Just someone you can come across at the supermarket'

A new 3D reconstruction of the head of Julius Caesar shows a remarkably ordinary man. The image is based on recent research, but leaves much to be guessed about.

His cheeks have sunken and deep lines are running through his skin. Despite his frown, his eyes are quite soft and his mouth is soft. In relation to his narrow face, his bald skull is strikingly large, and there is a strange bump on it.

This new performance by Julius Caesar takes some getting used to. It is a 3D reconstruction, presented yesterday at the National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden. The everyday appearance, ostensibly of flesh and blood, looks a lot more approachable than the strict soldier on images from Antiquity or the angular manners from Asterix and Obelix. It fits into a trend of museums that bring (pre) historical persons to life through reconstructions based on excavated skulls. Only the reconstruction in Leiden does not have a skull, but antique busts as a starting point. Caesar's skull has been lost.

So, lean and with receding hairline, Caesar may have looked shortly before he was killed in 44 BC. Can, emphasize the archaeologists responsible for the reconstruction, Tom Buijtendorp and Maja d'Hollosy. They based their images on a bust in the archaeological museum in Turin. According to Buijtendorp, this is a rough copy of a fairly faithful, vanished image. "On the bust of Turin there is a lump on the right side of the skull," he explains. 'Such a bump is a typical remnant of a heavy birth,' showed pediatric surgeon Van Lindert of the Radboud UMC. A sculptor would not think of such a thing, so that argues for the veracity of the original. '

On the authority of Buijtendorp, d'Hollosy, specialist in facial reconstructions, used the Turin bust as one of her sources of information. A scan of a bust from the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden served as a basis. A couple of millimeters were 'peeled off' and then they applied layers of 'skin' again by hand.

'In addition, there is always some interpretation', explains d'Hollosy. 'The space for the eyes on the bust of Leiden, for example, was ridiculously large. I have reduced it to a normal size. And the nose of the Turin bust was strangely narrow. It is now made just as wide as the remains of the nose on the statue from Leiden. '

That such an interpretation is necessary, says PhD student Sam Heijnen, who is doing research at the Radboud University on imperial portraits: ɽuring Caesar's life, it was in order to make really real images, including wrinkles. But that did not make them truthful yet. These images were also full of symbolism. "Saskia Stevens, senior of Utrecht University, explains:" Men like Caesar wanted to show that they had always worked hard for the Roman cause. That's why they liked to show themselves tough and wrinkly: that fitted in with the ideal of a dedicated, sober soldier. We do not know how well such an image represented the person. '

Buijtendorp acknowledges these uncertainties: 'This reconstruction mainly challenges the prevailing image of Caesar. He is truer than the well-known symmetrical Caesar statues with their full hairdo. But the image is not the absolute truth either. '

Stevens is enthusiastic about the result, with all the triumphs: 'I find this very attractive to a general public. Instead of those strict white images you suddenly see a person someone you might encounter in the supermarket. & quot


Mar 15, 44 BCE: Julius Caesar Assassinated

On March 15, 44 B.C.E., Julius Caesar, dictator of Rome, was stabbed to death by dozens of senators.

Arts and Music, Social Studies, World History

Death of Caesar

Julius Caesar was assassinated by about 40 Roman senators on the "ides of March" (March 15) 44 BCE. Caesar's death resulted in a long series of civil wars that ended in the death of the Roman Republic and the birth of the Roman Empire.

Painting by Jean-Leon Gerome, courtesy the Walters Art Museum

On March 15, 44 B.C.E., Julius Caesar was stabbed to death in Rome, Italy. Caesar was the dictator of the Roman Republic, and his assassins were Roman senators, fellow politicians who helped shape Roman policy and government.

Julius Caesar was immensely popular with the people of Rome. He was a successful military leader who expanded the republic to include parts of what are now Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland, and Belgium. Caesar was also a popular author who wrote about his travels, theories, and political views.

Many members of the Senate, a group of appointed (not elected) political leaders, resented Caesar&rsquos popularity and arrogance. After Caesar attained the status of dictator for life in 44 B.C.E., these officials decided to strike the ultimate blow against his power. A group of as many as 60 conspirators decided to assassinate Caesar at the meeting of the Senate on March 15, the ides of March. Collectively, the group stabbed Caesar a reported 23 times, killing the Roman leader.

The death of Julius Caesar ultimately had the opposite impact of what his assassins hoped. Much of the Roman public hated the senators for the assassination, and a series of civil wars ensued. In the end, Caesar&rsquos grandnephew and adoptive son Octavian emerged as Rome&rsquos leader. He renamed himself Augustus Caesar. The reign of Augustus marked the end of the Roman Republic and the start of the Roman Empire.


The Battle of Gergovia

The Gallic tribes called a general council at Bibracte and declared Vercingetorix as the supreme commander of the allied Gallic forces. He demanded 15,000 cavalry which he planned to use to destroy the grain and hay supplies of the Romans. Vercingetorix also ordered his allies to burn their corn as part of his scorched earth policy. The next aim was to attack the Roman province in the knowledge that if the region fell, the Roman commander was marooned.

Lucius Caesar was in charge of defending the province, and he had 22 cohorts at his disposal. Vercingetorix began to shadow Julius Caesar&rsquos movements as the Roman commander was marching across the margins of Lingones territory. Caesar was attempting to get to the province to prevent any major attack. However, Vercingetorix was within nine miles of Caesar&rsquos camp and called a staff conference.

Statue of Vercingetorix &ndash Renegade Tribune

The Gallic leader thought that Caesar was looking to concede the campaign by retreating for safety. He believed the Romans would return with an even bigger force, so Vercingetorix called on his army to attack as soon as possible. The plan was to use cavalry to swoop down on the supply train and either slow the legionnaires down or force them to abandon their supplies.

Alas, Vercingetorix&rsquos plan backfired at the Battle of Gergovia when his initial cavalry charge failed. Caesar probably expected the Gauls to follow up with infantry but in reality, the Gallic infantry was too far from the action to have an impact. Caesar quickly realized the enemy&rsquos mistake and forced its cavalry to retreat. However, he refused to commit his infantry and Vercingetorix was able to retreat to Alesia, the capital of the Mandubii. The attack at Gergovia was poorly planned and executed, but worse was to come for Vercingetorix as he was totally outmaneuvered by Caesar in the next conflict.


Writing the First Long-Lived Extortion Law

Caesar's Lex Iulia De Repetundis (The Extortion Law of the Julians) was not the first law against extortion: that is generally cited as the Lex Bembina Repetundarum, and usually attributed to Gaius Gracchus in 95 BCE. Caesar's extortion law remained a fundamental guide for the conduct of Roman magistrates for at least the next five centuries.

Written in 59 BCE, the law restricted the number of gifts that a magistrate could receive during his term in a province and ensured that governors had their accounts balanced when they left.