Oceanus


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Oceanus

Naši urednici će pregledati ono što ste podnijeli i odlučiti trebate li izmijeniti članak.

Oceanus, u grčkoj mitologiji, rijeka koja je tekla oko Zemlje (zamišljena kao ravna), na primjer, u Ahilovom štitu opisanom u Homerovoj Ilijada, Knjiga XVIII. Iza nje, na zapadu, nalazila se zemlja bez sunca Cimmerii, zemlja snova i ulaz u podzemni svijet. U Hesiodovim Teogonija, Oceanus je bio najstariji Titan, sin Urana (Nebo) i Gaea (Zemlja), suprug Titan Tethys, i otac 3000 potočnih duhova i 3000 oceana nimfa. U Ilijada, Knjiga XIV., Oceanus je jednom identificiran kao roditelj bogova, a drugi put kao začetnik svih stvari, iako su komentari bili izolirani, ali su utjecali na kasnije razmišljanje. Oceanus se pojavljuje i u Eshilovom Prometej vezan.

U umjetnosti je Oceanus bio uobičajena tema koja se pojavljuje na Françoisovoj vazi (vidjeti Kleitias), Gigantomahiju oltara u Pergamu i brojne rimske sarkofage. Kao zajednička imenica, riječ je dobila gotovo suvremeni osjećaj oceana.

Ovaj je članak posljednji put revidirala i ažurirala Amy Tikkanen, voditeljica ispravki.


Fakultet znanosti o zemlji, oceanu i atmosferi

Istraživačko plovilo (R/V) Oceanus je u vlasništvu Nacionalne zaklade za znanost, a njime upravlja Državno sveučilište Oregon.

Oceanus je istraživačko plovilo srednje veličine namijenjeno ekspedicijama u trajanju od dva do četiri tjedna. Dopremljen je u Woods Hole u studenom 1975., a prvo znanstveno putovanje je bilo u travnju 1976. Godine 1994. brod je podvrgnut velikoj popravci srednjih godina, koja je uključivala izgradnju nove kuće na palubi i nove pilot kuće, zajedno s povećanje laboratorijskog prostora i smještaja za znanstvenike. Oceanus prima posadu od 12 i znanstvenu stranku od 13 do 30 dana na moru.

Oceanus prebačena je u OSU iz Oceanografske institucije Woods Hole u ožujku 2012. kako bi zamijenila sestrinski brod, R/V Wecoma.

Brod je projektirao John W. Gilbert Associates iz Bostona, a konstruirali Peterson Builders iz Sturgeon Baya u Wisconsinu. Ime mu je izvučeno iz grčke mitologije. Titan Oceanus, otac riječnih bogova i morskih nimfa, bio je predstavljen kao veliki tok vode koji okružuje Zemlju. Vjerovalo se da je Oceanus izvor svih vodenih tijela.

Opremljen s tri vitla i dizalicom, Oceanus često se koristi za postavljanje oceanografskih bova i sidrišta te za hidrografska istraživanja, iako je sposoban za sve vrste kemijskih, bioloških i geoloških studija. Oceanus većinu svog vremena proveo radeći u sjevernom Atlantiku, s povremenim putovanjima po Mediteranu, južnom Atlantiku i Karibima. Prelaskom na državno sveučilište Oregon, Oceanus nastavlja svoju znanstvenu misiju po cijelom Pacifiku, s putovanjima u rasponu od Beringovog mora na sjeveru, do ekvatora na jugu i čak na zapadu do Havaja.


Ostale vrste Casio

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Povijest satova Casio Oceanus

Japanska marka Casio osnovana je 1946. godine. Temelje ove slavne robne marke elektroničkih proizvoda za široku potrošnju postavio je inženjer tehnologije proizvodnje Tadao Kashio. Sjedište ovog renomiranog branda nalazi se u japanskoj prefekturi, Tokiju. Casio je od svog početka pružao inovacije u segmentu elektroničkih proizvoda. Casio je marka koja je izumila prvi potpuno električni kompaktni kalkulator na svijetu. Nakon što se uhvatio u koštac s izmišljanjem kalkulatora, Casio je eksponencijalno rastao i doista je postao tržišni stručnjak.

Međutim, kasnije tijekom 1970 -ih zbog rigorozne konkurencije u proizvodnji kalkulatora i zasićenja tržišta, Casio je pribjegao diverzifikaciji proizvodnje. U želji da to učini, ušao je u proizvodnju satova.

Kako bi stekao slavu u industriji satova, 1974. godine lansirao je prvi Casio digitalni kvarcni sat pod imenom Casiotron. Debitiranje ovog sata nije bio lak zadatak za Casio. Umjesto toga, rezultat je intenzivnog istraživanja LCI kvarcnih tehnologija. Međutim, čak i nakon što su bili elektronički, Casio satovi bili su pristupačni.

Iako je Casio G šok sat bio vrlo popularan među znalcima satova, njegova kolekcija Casio Oceanous također ne zaostaje. Casio Oceanus satovi spajaju funkcionalnosti i karakteristike serija Casio G Shock i Waveceptor. Kolekcija Casio Oceanus spaja naprednu tehnologiju i očaravajuću estetiku dizajna. Satovi iz Oceanus kolekcije su na solarni pogon i radio sinkronizirani. Dodavanjem ovih vrhunskih serija ovih satova u svoj katalog, Casio je zasigurno tvrdio da nema premca ni u jednoj drugoj marki luksuznih satova.

Osim što sadrže sofisticirane tehničke karakteristike, satovi Casio Oceanus mame ljubitelje satova svojim privlačnim metalnim izgledom. Ljepota koju odišu ovim Casio solarnim satovima učinkovito zabavlja mase svih dobnih skupina. Odlično se razlikuje od ostalih mehaničkih satova u mnogim aspektima. Za razliku od drugih mehaničkih satova, on posjeduje odredbu o podešavanju vremena pomoću GPS tehnologije. Nadalje, različiti mikromotori ugrađeni u njega kontroliraju njegovo funkcioniranje iznutra.

Značajke i karakteristike Casio Oceanus
Svi uskrsli modeli iz kolekcije Casio Oceanus opremljeni su analognim licem sata. Iako se vjerovalo da je starija verzija opremljena kombiniranim analognim i digitalnim brojčanicima. Štoviše, za kontrolu rada brojčanika na neko vrijeme, štopericu, sekunde, dan u tjednu i sate, satovi su opremljeni s pet nezavisnih motora iznutra. To je prvi sat koji nudi tehnologiju s 5 motora uparenu s atomskom solarnom tehnologijom.

Oceanus satovi čak su vam savršeni suputnici na ekspedicijama u Europu, Sjevernu Ameriku, Japan i Kinu. To je zato što se ovi Casio atomski satovi mogu sami sinkronizirati u skladu s vremenskim signalima navedenih zemalja. Mjesta sinkronizacije za ove gore navedene zemlje su japanski vremenski signal (JJY), američki vremenski signal (WWVB) iz Kolorada i europski vremenski signali iz Engleske (vrijeme iz NPL -a), Njemačke (DCF77) i Kine u gradu Shangqiu, Kina. Nadalje, kako bi vam ponudili vrhunske performanse, Casio atomski satovi opremljeni su površinama od safirnog kristala i titana. Stoga je izrada satova vrlo otporna na ogrebotine. Dok su predani svojim neupitnim performansama, u slučajevima kvara višepojasnog signala, satovi Casio Oceanus podržavaju funkciju automatske sinkronizacije na bilo kojem mjestu na svijetu.

Zbirka Casio Oceanus
Asortiman Casio Oceanus sastoji se od nekoliko vrlo robusnih i ergonomskih modela satova. Satovi dostupni u kolekciji Casio Oceanus su:

Oceanus serija 600
Serija satova Casio Oceanus OCW-T600 najjednostavniji su satovi iz kolekcije Oceanus. Ovi satovi imaju svojstvo otpornosti na vodu do 100 metara i sposobni su prikazivati ​​vrijeme u 29 različitih svjetskih vremenskih zona.

Oceanus CACHALOT
Serija ručnih satova Casio Oceanus Cachalot OCW-P1000-1AJF u osnovi su morski satovi dizajnirani za podvodne sportove. Ovi satovi imaju rotirajući okvir i kronograf za mjerenje vremena jahte.

Oceanus 700 serija
Oceanus OCW-M700 ima analogno lice za biranje bez ikakvog LCD zaslona. Za razliku od ostalih satova Casio Oceanus, on uključuje pomoćni brojčanik za prikaz statusa morskih mijena u trenutnoj vremenskoj zoni. To je jedini model Oceanusa koji podržava ovu značajku.

Oceanus 1000 serija "Manta"
Oceanus Manta jedan je od najskupljih satova iz Oceanus kolekcije. Lansiran 1. lipnja 2007., ovaj Casio sat ima safirni kristal i tehnologiju MULTI-BAND 5. Štoviše, ovaj sat je izuzet od značajki mjerača plime i oseke. Vrlo je sličan stilu satova iz serije 600, ali je tanji i od satova iz serije 700 i 600 iz serije Oceanus.

Osim ovih, model Casio Oceanus ocw-s100-1ajf također je vrlo popularan među ljubiteljima satova. Ovaj Casio sat dostupan je u kućištu veličine 39 mm i ima izuzetna svojstva otporna na udarce. Ovaj model je vrlo klasičan i izgleda vrlo privlačno kada je odjeven na zapešća.

Stoga u svoju kolekciju dodajte ove japanske modele satova Casio Oceanus. I zasigurno ćete ih voljeti razmetati na svojim nježnim zapešćima.


RODITELJ OCEANUSA

Hesiod, Teogonija 132 i dalje (trans. Evelyn-White) (grčki ep C8th ili C7th BC):
& quotOna [Gaia, Zemlja] ležala je s Ouranom (Uran, Nebo) i golim duboko vrtloženim Okeanom (Oceanus), Koiosom (Coeus) i Kriosom (Crius) i Hiperionom i Japetom (Iapetus), Theijom i Rheom, Themisom i Mnemosyneom i zlatom -ovjenčana Phoibe (Phoebe) i ljupka Tethys. Nakon njih rođen je Kronos (Cronus). & Quot

Pseudo-Apolodorus, Biblioteka 1. 2 (prijevod Aldrich) (grčki mitograf C2. Po Kr.):
& quotOuranos (Uran, Nebo). . . rodili su druge sinove na Geu (Zemlja), naime Titane (Titani): Okeanos (Oceanus), Koios (Coeus), Hiperion, Kreios (Crius), Iapetos (Iapetus) i Kronos (Cronus) najmlađe kćeri zvane Titanides: Tethys, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoibe (Phoebe), Dione i Theia. & Quot

Diodorus Siculus, Povijesna knjižnica 5. 66. 1 (prijevod Oldfather) (grčki povjesničar C1. Pr. Kr.):
& quotTitani (Titani) brojali su šest muškaraca i pet žena, rođeni su, kako neki pisci mitova govore, od Urana (Urana) i Gea (Gaea), ali prema drugima, od jednog od Kouretesa (Kureta) i Titaia (Titaea) ), od kojih kao majka izvode ime koje nose. Mužjaci su bili Kronos, Hiperion, Koios (Coeus), Iapetos (Iapetus), Krios (Crius) i Okeanos (Oceanus), a njihove sestre bile su Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoibe (Phoebe) i Tethys. Svaki od njih bio je otkriće stvari od koristi čovječanstvu, a zbog dobročinstva koje su iskazali svim ljudima odlikovane su im počastima i vječnom slavom. & Quot

Pseudo-Hyginus, Predgovor (prijevod Grant) (rimski mitograf C2. Po Kr.):
& quotOd Etera i Terre (Zemlja) [rođene su različite apstrakcije]. . . [Od Caelum (Ouranos, Sky) i Terra (Gaia, Earth) su rođeni?] Oceanus, Themis, Tartarus, Pontus, Titanes. . . Hyperion i Polus [Koios (Coeus)], Saturnus [Kronos (Cronus)], Ops [Rhea], Moneta [Mnemosyne], Dione. & Quot
[N.B. Hyginus ' Predgovor opstaje samo sažeto. Titane treba navesti kao djecu Ouranosa (Caelum) i Gaie, a ne Aither (Terra) i Gaie, ali čini se da je zapis u tom smislu izgubljen u transkripciji.]

Hefest, Eileithyia, Tethys i Oceanus, atenski crnofiguralni dinosi C6. pne., Britanski muzej

DJECA OCEANUS

Hesiod, Teogonija 337 i dalje (trans. Evelyn-White) (grčki ep C8th ili C7th BC):
& quotTetija je Okeanosu (Oceanus) donijela vrtložni Potamoi (rijeke), Neilos (Nil), Alpheios (Alpheus) i duboko vrtložni Eridanos (Eridanus), Strymon i Maiandros (Meander), Istros (Istrus) prekrasnih voda, Phasis i Rhesos (Rhesus) i srebro-vrtložni Akheloios (Achelous), Nessos (Nessus) i Rhodios (Rhodius), Heptaporos (Heptaporus) i Haliakmon (Haliacmon), Grenikos (Grenicus) i Aisepos (Aesepus) i Simoeis, koji je božanski , Hermos (Hermus) i Peneios (Peneus), i Kaikos (Caicus) snažno tekući, i veliki Sangarios (Sangarius), i Ladon, i Parthenios (Parthenius), Euenos (Evenus) i Ardeskos (Ardescus) i Skamandros (Scamander) , koji je svet.
Ona [Tethys] je donijela i rasu osim kćeri [Okeanides (Oceanids)], koje s gospodinom Apolonom i Rijekama drže mlade na čuvanju po cijeloj zemlji, budući da im je dato ovo pravo od Zeusa. To su Peitho, Admete, Ianthe i Elektra (Electra), Doris i Prymno i Ourania (Urania) poput božice, Hippo i Klymene (Clymene), Rhodeia i Kallirhoe (Callirhoe), Zeuxo i Klytia (Clytia) te Idyia i Pasithoe , Plexaura i Galaxaura i ljupka Diona, Melobosis i Thoe, i Polydora uglađena, Kerkeis (Cerceis) ljupkog stasa i volovske oči Plouto (Pluton), Xanthe i Akaste (Acaste), Perzeis i Ianeira, Petraie ljupka, i Menestho, i Europa, Metis i Eurynome, Telesto odjeven u šafran, Khryseis (Chryseis) i Aziju, te privlačne Kalypso (Calypso), Eudora i Tykhe (Tyche), te Amphiro i Okyroe (Ocyroe) i Styx, koji su među svi oni imaju najveću eminenciju. Ovo su najstarije kćeri rođene od Tethys i Okeanos, ali osim njih ima još mnogo drugih, jer postoji tri tisuće Okeanosovih kćeri koje koračaju svjetlom, razbacane nadaleko, svijetla djeca među božicama, i sve su slične nakon zemlje i dubina stajaće vode. & quot

Homerica, Cercopes (iz Suidas s.v. Kerkopes) (prev. Evelyn-White) (grčki ep C8th ili C7th BC):
& quotKerkopes (Cerkopi). To su bila dva brata koji su živjeli na zemlji i koji su prakticirali sve vrste krađe. . . Njihova majka [bila je] Memnonova kći. . . Kerkope su bili sinovi Teje i Okeanos (Oceanus). & Quot

Eshil, Prometej vezan 136 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (grčka tragedija C5. pne.):
& quot [Okeanidi (Oceanidi)] potomci plodnih (polyteknos) Tetis i onog koji svojom besanom strujom okružuje čitavu zemlju, djeca vašeg oca Okeanosa (Oceanus). & Quot

Eshil, Prometej vezan 528 i dalje:
& quot [Okeanidi (Oceanidi)]:] Uz neprestani tok Okeanos (Oceanus), moj otac. & quot

Eshil, Sedam protiv Tebe 304 i dalje:
& quotKoju ćete plodniju ravnicu pronaći umjesto naše [Tebe]. . . ovo duboko prljavo zemljište i voda Dirkea koja je najhranjivija od potoka (potamoi) koje okružuje zemlju (gaiaokhos) Posejdon [tj. Okeanos] i Tethysina djeca izlijevaju. & Quot

Oceanus, grčko-rimski mozaik iz Antiohije C2. Po Kr., Arheološki muzej Hatay

Aristofan, Oblaci 264 i dalje (prijev. O'Neill) (grčka komedija od 5. do 4. godine pr. Kr.):
& quot [Comedy-Play:] Dođi, oh! Nephelai (Oblaci), kojega obožavam, dođite i pokažite se ovom čovjeku, bilo da počivate na svetim vrhovima Olymposa, okrunjenim mrazom, ili ostajete u vrtovima Okeanos (Oceanus), vaš otac, tvoreći sveto Zborovi s nimfajima (nimfe). & Quot

Pseudo-Apolodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 8 (prijevod Aldrich) (grčki mitograf C2. Po Kr.):
& quotTitani (Titani) su imali djecu. Oni iz Okeana (Oceanus) i Tethys zvali su se Okeanides (Oceanidi): Azija, Styx, Elektra (Electra), Doris, Eurynome, Amphitrite i Metis. & Quot

Pseudo-Apolodor, Biblioteka 1. 32:
& quotAli Pherekydes (Pherecydes) [pjesnik 66. pne.] kaže da je on [eleuzinski poljoprivredni heroj Triptolemos] rođen od Okeanos (Oceanus) i Ge [tj. iz Vode i Zemlje]. & quot

Callimachus, himna 3 Artemidi 40 ff (prijevod Mair) (grčki pjesnik C3rd. Pr. Kr.):
& quotI djevica [Artemida] dospjela je do bijele planine Krete (Kreta) olistane šumom odatle do Okeanos (Oceanus) i izabrala je mnoge Nimfaje (nimfe) svih devet godina, sve djevojke još bez pojasa. I rijeci Kairatos (Caeratus) bilo je izuzetno drago, a Tethys je bilo drago što su poslali svoje kćeri da budu sluškinje kćeri Leto. & Quot

Diodorus Siculus, Povijesna knjižnica 4. 69. 1 (prijevod Oldfather) (grčki povjesničar C1. Pr. Kr.):
& quotTo Okeanos (Oceanus) i Tethys, prema mitovima, rođeni su brojni sinovi koji su dali svoja imena Rivers (Potamoi), a među njima je bio Peneios (Peneus), od kojeg je rijeka Peneios u Tesaliji (Tesalija) kasnije dobila njegovo ime. & quot
[N.B. Diodor racionalizira mit-riječni bogovi postaju ljudi koji daju ime rijekama.]

Diodorus Siculus, Povijesna knjižnica 4. 72. 1:
& quotPrema mitovima, Okeanos (Oceanus) i Tethys rodili su određeni broj djece koja su svoja imena dala Rijekama (Potamoi), a među njima su bili Peneios (Peneus) i Asopos (Asopus). & quot

Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 2. 8 (prijevod Fairbanks) (grčki retoričar C3.rd.n.e.):
& quot [Rijeka] Meles će preko svog sina [Homera] dati Peneiosu (Peneusu) da bude & lsquosilver-eddied & rsquo, Titaresios & & lsquonimble & rsquo i & lsquoswift & rsquo, a Enipeus da bude & lsquoquino & -lijepa & rsquo, a on će također dati Ksantosu (Xanthus) da se rodi iz Zeusa, te Okeanosu (Oceanus) da sve rijeke izviru iz njega. & quot

Anonimno (možda Pamprepije iz Panopolisa), Fragmenti (prijevod Stranica, sv. Odabir Papirusa III, br. 140) (grčka poezija C4. Po Kr.):
& quotFontana-nimfa (nimfe pegai & ecirc). . . draga kćeri oca Okeanosa (Oceanus), kraljice plantaže! Kako bi mi trebali vaši streamovi? & Quot

Pseudo-Hyginus, Predgovor (prijevod Grant) (rimski mitograf C2. Po Kr.):
& quotOd Oceanusa i Tethys [rođeni su] Oceanidi-naime yaea, Melite, Ianthe, Admete, Stilbo, Pasiphae, Polyxo, Eurynome, Euagoreis, Rhodope, lyris, Clytia, teschinoeno, clitenneste, Metis, Menippe, Argia. Rijeke istog podrijetla: Strymon, Nile, Euprhates, Tanais, Indus, Cephisus, Ismenus, Axenus, Achelous, Simois, Inachus, Alpheus, Thermodoon, Scamandrus, Tigris, Maeandrus, Orontes. & Quot

Ovidije, Metamorfoze 9. 497 ff (trans. Melville) (rimski ep od 1. do B. prije Krista do 1. pr. Kr.):
& quotBogovi su voljeli svoje sestre, da, doista! Zašto se Saturn [Kronos (Cronus)] oženio Opsom [Rhea], njegovim rodom po krvi, i Oceanusom Tethys. . . Ali bogovi gore sami su sebi zakoni. & Quot

Ovidije, Fasti 5. 79 ff (trans.Boyle) (rimska poezija od 1. do B. prije Krista do 1. po Kr.):
& quotTitan Tethys nekad je bio oženjen Oceanusom, čije prozirne vode šale po širokoj zemlji. Njihovo dijete Pleione spaja se s Atlasom koji diže nebo-tako je priča-i nosi Plejade. & Quot

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 6. 352 ff (trans. Rouse) (grčki ep C5. Po Kr.):
& quot; Limnai (jezera), tekuće kćeri Okeanosa (Oceanus) podigle su svoju površinu. & quot

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 23. 280 ff (trans. Rouse) (grčki ep C5. p. N. E.):
& quot [Kad je Dionysos zapalio rijeku Hydapses:] Okeanos (Oceanus) je također prijetećim riječima zavapio protiv Dionysosa, izlijevajući vodeni huk iz njegova grla s mnogo potoka, i izmičući obale svijeta poplavom riječi koje su dopirale iz njegova vječna usta poput fontane: & lsquoO Tethys! Odrasla osoba i cimerica iz Okeanosa, drevna kao svijet, medicinska sestra izmiješanih voda, samorođena, voljena majka djece, što ćemo učiniti? Sada kišni Zeus plamti u naoružanju protiv mene i vaše djece. Kao što je Asopos (Asopus) zatekao oca Zeusa Kroniona (Cronion) kao svog razarača, u kopiletu u obliku ptice, tako je Hydaspes pronašao Bakkhosa (Bacchus) sina. & Rsquo & quot

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 38. 108 ff:
& quotLoudbooming Okeanos (Oceanus), opasan krugom neba, koji vodi svoju vodenu zemlju obuhvaćajući prijelomnu točku koju kupa, bio je spojen u iskonskoj bračnoj zajednici s Tethys. Vodeni svatovi rodili su Klymene (Clymene), najljepšu od Neiades (Naiads), koju je Tethys dojila na mokrim grudima, svoju najmlađu, djevojku ljupkih ruku. . . Njezin je otac ujedinio djevojčicu s nebeskim kočijašem [Helios, Sunce]. Lakonogi Horai (Horae, Sati) pohvalio je Klymeneinu mladenku s Heliosom Phaesphorosom (Svjetlonoša), Nymphai Neides (Naiadne nimfe) plesale su u vodenoj vjenčanici, plodna djevojka bila je vjenčana u plamenu zajednicu i primila vrućeg mladenca u svoju vezu hladne ruke. . . a Okeanos pored svoje nevjeste Tethys zvučao je njegovu pjesmu svim izvorima grla. & quot

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 142 i dalje:
& quot [Boginja Beroe i grad] zvijezda libanonske zemlje, vršnjakinja Tethysa, trčeći rame uz rame s Okeanom (Oceanus), koji te je rodio u svom krevetu na mnogim fontanama kada se pridružio vodenoj zajednici s Tethys-Beroe istoga imena Amymone kad ju je majka donijela na krevet u dubokim vodama! & Quot

OCEANUS & amp GENESA BOŽJA

Okeanos (Oceanus) ponekad je predstavljan kao iskonske vode iz kojih su nastali Zemlja i kozmos.

Homer, Ilijada 14. 200 ff (trans. Lattimore) (grčki ep C8th BC):
& quot [Hera se obraća Afroditi:] & lsquo Budući da odlazim sada na krajeve velikodušne zemlje u posjet Okeanosu (Oceanus), odakle su bogovi ustali, i Tethys, našoj majci koja me je ljubazno odgojila u vlastitoj kući i brinula se o njoj mene i odveo me iz Rheie, u to vrijeme kad je Zeus širokih obrva potjerao Kronos (Cronus) ispod zemlje i neplodne vode. Otići ću ih posjetiti i riješiti njihovu podjelu nesloge, budući da su se već duže vrijeme držali odvojeni jedno od drugog i od kreveta ljubavi, otkad je u njihove osjećaje ušla ljutnja. Mogu li uvjerljivo osvojiti drago srce u njima i vratiti ih u krevet da se spoje u ljubavi jedno s drugim, zauvijek ću se zvati njima i voljen. & Rsquo & quot

Homer, Ilijada 14. 300 ff:
& quot [Hera se obraća Zeusu:] & lsquoI [Hera] idem na kraj velikodušne zemlje, u posjet Okeanosu (Oceanus), odakle su bogovi ustali, i našoj majci Tethys, koja me ljubazno odgajala u svojoj kući , i brinuo se za mene. Otići ću ih posjetiti i riješiti njihovu podjelu, jer su se već dugo držali odvojeni jedno od drugog i od kreveta ljubavi, otkad je zloba ušla u njihove osjećaje. & Rsquo & quot

Homer, Ilijada 14. 244 i dalje:
& quot [Hypnos, bog sna, obraća se Heri:] & lsquoSvakog drugog boga, čija je rasa besmrtna, olako bih uspavao, čak i potok te rijeke Okeanos (Oceanus), odakle je izniklo sjeme svih besmrtnici. & quot

Aristofan, Ptice 685 ff (prev. O'Neill) (grčka komedija od 5. do 4. godine pr. Kr.):
& "Besmrtnici nisu postojali sve dok Eros (Ljubav) nije okupio sve sastojke svijeta, a iz njihovog braka Ouranos (Uran, Nebo), Okeanos (Okean, Voda), Ge (Gaea, Zemlja) i neprolazna rasa blagoslovljenih. bogovi (theoi) nastao. & quot

Platon, Theaetetus 152e (prev. Fowler) (grčki filozof 4. st. Pr. Kr.):
& quotI o ovoj temi [tj. da su sve stvari izvedene iz strujanja i kretanja] svi filozofi. . . mogu se svrstati u jedan redak-Protagora i Herakleitos (Heraklit) i Empedokles (Empedocles)-i glavni pjesnici u dvije vrste poezije, Epikharmos (Epicharmus), u komediji, a u tragediji, Homer, koji je u linija & lsquoOkeanos (Oceanus) podrijetlo bogova, a Tethys njihova majka, & rsquo je rekao da su sve stvari potomci toka i kretanja. & quot

Orfička pjesma 83 Oceanusu (trans. Taylor) (grčke himne od 3. pne. Do 2. po Kr.):
& quotOkeanos (Oceanus) kojeg zovem, čija priroda ikad proizlazi, iz kojeg su isprva nastali i bogovi i ljudi. & quot

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 22. 280 ff (trans. Rouse) (grčki ep C5. Po Kr.):
& quotTeti! Odrasla osoba i cimerica iz Okeanosa (Oceanus), drevna kao svijet, medicinska sestra izmiješanih voda, samorođena, majka djece puna ljubavi. & Quot

OCEANUS & amp RAT TITANA

Hesiod, Teogonija 398 i dalje (trans. Evelyn-White) (grčki ep C8th ili C7th BC):
& quotStyx. . . je prvi došao u Olympos [na stranu Zeusa protiv Titana (Titana)] kako joj je savjetovao njezin vlastiti otac [Okeanos (Oceanus)]. & quot

Pindar, Ulomak 30 (trans. Sandys) (grčka lirika C5th BC):
& quotPrvo su Moirai (sudbine) u svojim zlatnim kolima doveli nebesku Temidu, mudru po savjetima, sjajnim putem od izvora Okeanos (Oceanus) do svetih stuba Olimposa, gdje će biti iskonska nevjesta Spasitelja Zeusa. & quot
[N.B. Tijekom rata protiv Titana Titanidi (TItaness) su boravili u kući Okeanos zajedno s Herom i drugim božicama.]

Pseudo-Apolodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 3 (prijevod Aldrich) (grčki mitograf C2. Po Kr.):
& quotSada Ge (Gaea, Zemlja). . . nagovorio Titane (Titane) da napadnu njihovog oca. . . Tako su svi osim Okeana (Oceanus) krenuli na Ouranos (Uran, Nebo). & Quot

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 6. 155 ff:
& quotNakon što je prvi Dionis [Zagrej] pokoljen, oče Zeus. napao [Gaia, Zemlja] majku Titana (Titana) osvetničkom markom i zatvorio ubojice rogatog Dionisa [Titane koji su raskomadali bogobojaznog Zagreja] unutar vrata Tartaros [nakon dugog rata]: drveće plamtjela, kosa patnje Gaje (Zemlja) bila je spaljena toplinom. . . Sada je Okeanos (Oceanus) izlivao rijeke suza iz njegovih vodenih očiju, uzdizanje moliteljske molitve. Tada je Zeus suspregao svoj gnjev pri pogledu na sprženu zemlju koju je sažalio i poželio oprati vodom pepeo ruševina i vatrene rane zemlje. Zatim je kišni Zeus pokrio cijelo nebo oblacima i poplavio svu zemlju [u Velikom potopu Deukaliona (Deucalion)]. & Quot

OCEANUS & amp LANAC PROMETEJA

U predstavi Prometej vezan autora Aiskhylosa (Aeschylus), Titan Okeanos (Oceanus) pojavljuje se na sceni kao simpatičan sugrađanin Titan. Njegove kćeri, Okeanide (Oceanide), činile su zbor predstave.

Eshil, Prometej vezan 286 - 397 (prijevod Weir Smyth) (grčka tragedija C5. pne.):
& quot [Uđite u Okeanos (Oceanus) na krilnom konju.] [Prometej je privezan za jednu stenu u planinama Kaukasos (Kavkaz).]
Okeanos: Došao sam do kraja dugog putovanja u svom prolazu do tebe, Prometeje, vođući svojom voljom, bez uzde, ovu pticu sa brzim krilima. Za vašu sudbinu, možda ste sigurni, osjećam suosjećanje. Mislim da me srodstvo na to sputava i, osim krvnih veza, nema nikoga kome bih trebao odati veće poštovanje nego vama. To ćete znati radi jednostavne istine i da nije u meni izgovarati isprazne i prazne riječi, recite mi koju vam pomoć mogu pružiti? Jer nikada nećete reći da imate prijatelja vjernijeg od Okeanosa.
Prometej: Ha! Što imamo ovdje? Pa ste i vi došli zagledati se u moje patnje? Kako ste skupili hrabrost napustiti potok koji nosi vaše ime i spilje sa stijenama koje ste sami napravili i došli u ovu zemlju, majku željeza? Je li to da ste došli pogledati moje stanje i pridružiti svoju tugu mojoj nevolji? Pogledaj me ovdje-spektakl, Zeusov prijatelj, koji mu je pomogao da uspostavi svoju suverenu moć, kroz kakvu sam tjeskobu od njega savijen!
Okeanos: Vidim, Prometej i ja želimo vam dati najbolji savjet, iako ste i sami lukavi. Naučiti spoznati sebe i prilagoditi se novim načinima za novo također je vladar među bogovima. Ako izbacujete riječi tako oštre i tako ogorčene, možda će vas Zeus možda čuti, iako odbačen daleko, visoko u nebesa, i tada će se vaše sadašnje mnoštvo tuga činiti samo djetinjastim sportom. O jadni patniče! Sklonite svoje gnjevno raspoloženje i pokušajte pronaći oslobođenje od ovih bijeda. Možda vam se ovaj savjet čini starim i dosadnim, ali vaša je nevolja, Prometej, samo plaća previše hvalisavog govora. Još uvijek niste naučili poniznost, niti se sagibate pred nesrećom, nego biste radije dodali još više bijeda onima koje imate. Stoga me uzmite za svog učitelja i nemojte dodavati uvrede ozljedama, budući da sada vlada surovi monarh koji nikome nije odgovoran. Zato ću sada otići i vidjeti mogu li vas osloboditi ovih patnji. I neka vas šuti i nemojte previše zamagljivati ​​govor. Ili, može li se dogoditi da, uz svu vašu iznimnu mudrost, ne znate da je kazna nanesena na mahanje jezikom?
Prometej: Zavidim vam jer ste izbjegli krivnju što ste se usudili podijeliti sa mnom u mojim nevoljama. Zato me sada ostavi na miru i neka se to tebe ne tiče. Učinite što želite, ne možete ga nagovoriti jer ga nije lako nagovoriti. Pazite da si ne nanesete štetu misijom koju preuzimate.
Okeanos: Istina, daleko ste sposobniji opomenuti druge od sebe. O tome sudim zapravo, a ne glasinama. Zato nemojte suzdržavati onoga tko je željan poći. Jer siguran sam, da, siguran da će mi Zeus udovoljiti ovom uslugom, da vas oslobodi vaših patnji.
Prometej: Ali ti nisi neiskusan i ne trebam da te poučavam. Spasite se, kao što najbolje znate, dok ja iscrpljujem svoju sadašnju parcelu sve dok ne dođe vrijeme kada će Zeusov um napustiti svoj gnjev.
Okeanos: Zar ne znaš onda, Prometeje, da su riječi liječnici poremećene naravi?
Prometej: Ako netko omekša dušu u doba godine, a ne žuri nasiljem umanjiti njezinu oteklinu.
Okeanos: Kakve nestašluke skrivate kad se odvažite pridružite revnosti? Nauči me ovome.
Prometej: Izgubljeni rad i nepromišljena jednostavnost.
Okeanos: Ostavite me da na to utječem, jer je najpovoljnije, kad je zaista mudro, smatrati se budalom.
Prometej: Vidjet ću da je ova greška moja.
Okeanos: Jasno je da me način vašeg govora nalaže da se vratim kući.
Prometej: Tako da nećeš zadobiti neprijateljstvo za sebe žaleći za mnom.
Okeanos: U očima onoga koji tek sjeda na svoje svemoguće prijestolje?
Prometej: Čuvaj se da ne dođe vrijeme kad se njegovo srce naljuti na tebe.
Okeanos: Tvoje stanje, Prometej, moj je instruktor.
Prometej: Odlazi, odlazi, zadrži svoju sadašnju svrhu.
Okeanos: Tvoj poticaj zadovoljava moju želju za mojim obožavateljima četveronožnih krilatih zvijeri s njegovim krilima na glatkom putu zraka i doista će mu biti drago odmoriti koljena u svom štandu kod kuće. [Izlaz.] & Quot

OCEANUS BOG RIJEKE OCEANUS

Homer, Ilijada 14. 311 ff (trans. Lattimore) (grčki ep C8th BC):
& quotKuća dubokog Okeana (Oceanus). & quot

Homer, Ilijada 20. 5 ff:
& quot [Zeus] je rekao Themisi da pozove sve bogove na okupljanje. Išla je posvuda i rekla im da se probiju do Zeusove kuće. Nije bilo rijeke koja nije bila tamo, osim samo Okeanos (Oceanus). & Quot

Homer, Ilijada 21. 194 i dalje:
& quotNemoćna [rijeka] Akheloios (Achelous) odgovara njegovoj snazi ​​protiv Zeusa, a ne ogromnoj snazi ​​Okeanos (Oceanus) s njegovim dubokim vodama, Okeanos, od kojeg su sve rijeke i cijelo more i svi izvori i svi duboki izvori njihove vode od njega, pa čak se i Okeanos boji munje velikog Zeusa i opasne gromova kad se s neba slomi. & quot

Homer, Odiseja 4. 561 ff (prijevod Shewring) (grčki ep C8th BC):
& quotSkraj svijeta, Elizejska polja. . . Snijeg, oluja i grmljavina ondje nikada ne ulaze, ali za osvježenje muškaraca Okeanos (Oceanus) neprestano odašilje pjevušeći povjetarac sa zapada (aetai zephyroio). & quot

Hesiod, Teogonija 337 i dalje (trans. Evelyn-White) (grčki ep C8th ili C7th BC):
& quotTethys je Okeanosu (Oceanus) donio vrtložni Potamoi (rijeke). . . [i Okeanidi (Oceanidi) koji] jednako brinu o zemlji i dubinama stajaće vode. & quot

Eshil, Prometej vezan 139 i dalje (trans. Weir Smyth) (grčka tragedija C5. pne.):
& quotOkeanos (Oceanus), onaj koji svojom besanom strujom okružuje cijelu zemlju. & quot

Eshil, Prometej vezan 302 i dalje:
& quot [Okeanos (Oceanus)] potok koji nosi vaše ime i spilje sa stijenama koje ste sami napravili [za svoj dom]. & quot

Platon, Cratylus 400d & amp 401e (prijevod Fowler) (grčki filozof 4. st. Pr. Kr.):
& quot [Platon gradi filozofsku etimologiju za imena bogova:]
Sokrates (Sokrat): Raspitajmo se što su ljudi mislili dajući im [bogovima] njihova imena. . . Prvi ljudi koji su dali imena [bogovima] nisu bili obični ljudi, već visoki mislioci i veliki govornici. . . Herakleitos (Heraklit) [filozof od 6. do 5. godine prije Krista] kaže, znate, da se sve stvari pomiču i ništa ne miruje, te uspoređuje svemir s strujom rijeke, govoreći da ne možete dvaput zakoračiti u isti potok. . . Well, don't you think he who gave to the ancestors of the other gods the names &lsquoRhea&rsquo and &lsquoKronos&rsquo (Cronus) [derived by Plato from the Greek words &lsquoflow&rsquo and &lsquotime&rsquo] had the same thought as Herakleitos? Do you think he gave both of them the names of streams merely by chance? Just so Homer, too, says--&lsquoOkeanos (Oceanus) the origin of the gods, and their mother Tethys&rsquo and I believe Hesiod says that also. Orpheus, too, says--&lsquoFair-flowing Okeanos was the first to marry, and he wedded his sister Tethys, daughter of his mother.&rsquo See how they agree with each other and all tend towards the doctrine of Herakleitos."

Aratus, Phaenomena 566 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek astronomical poem C3rd B.C.) :
"Okeanos (Oceanus) himself will give thee signs at either horn--the East or the West--in the many constellations that wheel about him, when from below he sends forth each rising sign."

Orphic Hymn 83 to Oceanus (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) :
"To Okeanos (Oceanus), Fumigation from Aromatics. Okeanos I call, whose nature ever flows, from whom at first both Gods and men arose sire incorruptible, whose waves surround, and earth's all-terminating circle bound: hence every river, hence the spreading sea, and earth's pure bubbling fountains spring from thee. Hear, mighty sire, for boundless bliss is thine, greatest cathartic of the powers divine: earth's friendly limit, fountain of the pole, whose waves wide spreading and circumfluent roll. Approach benevolent, with placid mind, and be forever to thy mystics kind."

Orphic Hymn 11 to Pan :
"Old Okeanos (Oceanus), too, reveres thy [Pan's] high command, whose liquid arms begird the solid land."

Ovid, Metamorphoses 13. 949 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"Tethys and Oceanus . . . [took] away my [the sea-god Glaukos' (Glaucus')] mortal essences. They purified me with a ninefold chant that purges my sins then bade me plunge my body beneath a hundred rivers. Instantly torrents cascaded down from near and far and poured whole seas of waters on my head."

Ovid, Fasti 5. 79 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"Oceanus, whose translucent waters scarf the broad earth."

Statius, Achilleid 1. 50 (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) :
"He [Poseidon] was coming from Oceanus his host, gladdened by the banquet, and his countenance suffused with the nectar of the deep."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 6. 352 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :
"[During the Great Deluge :] Now the barriers of the sevenzoned watery sky were opened, when Zeus poured down his showers. The mountain-torrents roared with fuller fountains of the loudsplashing gulf. The Limnai (Lakes), liquid daughters cut off from Okeanos (Oceanus) raised their surface. The fountains shot spouts of the lower waters of Okeanos into the air."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 8. 110 ff :
"[Hera speaks :] &lsquoI am afraid Kronides (Cronides) [Zeus], who is called my husband and brother, will banish me from heaven for a woman's bed . . . I will leave heaven because of their earthly marriage, I will go to the uttermost bounds of Okeanos (Oceanus) and share the hearth of primeval Tethys thence I will pass to the house of and abide with Ophion (the Snake) [i.e. Okeanos].&rsquo"

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 23. 236 ff :
"[Dionysos calls out to the River Hydaspes when he tries to drown the god's army :] &lsquoIf your Okeanos (Oceanus) makes you so haughty, consider Eridanos (Eridanus) struck by the bolt of Zeus, your brother burnt with fire : a cruel sorrow it was for your watery ancestor [Okeanos], who is girdled by the world's rim, who pours all those mighty streams of water to posses the earth, when he saw his own son burnt up and made no war on Olympos, nor contended with his flood against the firebarbed thunderbolt. Pray spare your waters awhile, or I may see you Hydaspes, burnt up in fiery flames like Eridanos.&rsquo"

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 23. 280 ff :
"[Dionysos set the streams of the river Hydaspes aflame :] Okeanos (Oceanus) also cried out against Dionysos in menacing words, pouring a watery roar from his manystream throat, and deluging the shores of the world with the flood of words which issued from his everlasting mouth like a fountain : &lsquoO Tethys! Agemate and bedmate of Okeanos, ancient as the world, nurse of commingled waters, selfborn, loving mother of children, what shall we do? Now Rainy Zeus blazes in arms against me and your children. Even as Asopos (Asopus) found the father Zeus Kronion (Cronion) his destroyer, in the bastard shape of a bird, so Hydaspes has found Bakkhos (Bacchus) the son. Nay, I will bring my water against he lightnings of Zeus, and drown the fiery Sun in my quenching flood, I will put out the Stars of heaven! Kronion shall see me overwhelm Selene (the Moon) with my roaring streams. Under the region of the Bear, I will wash with my waters the ends of the axle and the dry track of the Wain. The heavenly Dolphin, which long ago swam in my deep sea, I will make to swim once more, and cover him with new seas. I will drag down from heaven the fiery Eridanos (Eridanus) whose course is among the stars, and bring him back to a new home in the Celtic land: he shall be water again, and the sky shall be bare of the river of fire. The starry Fishes that swim on high I will pull in to the sea and make them mine again, to swim in water instead of Olympos. Tethys, awake! We will drown the stars in water, that I may see the Bull, who once swam over a waveless sea, tossed on stormier waves in the paths of the waters after the bed of Europa. Selene herself, bullshaped and horned driver of cattle, may be angry to see my horned bullshaped form. I will travel high into the heaven, that I may behold Kepheus (Cepheus) drenched and the Wagggoner in soaking tunic, as Earthshaker [Poseidon] once did when about Korinthos (Corinth) soaking Ares once boldly shouted defiance of battle against stars! I will swallow the shining Goat, the nurse of Zeus, and I will offer infinite water to the Waterman as a suitable gift. Get ready, Tethys, and you, O Thalassa (Sea)! For Zeus has been delivered of a base son in bull shape, to destroy all Rivers and all creatures together, all blameless: the thyrsus wand has slain the Indians, the torch has burnt Hydaspes!&rsquo
So he cried blustering in a flood of speech from his deep waves. Father Zeus turned aside the menace of his angry son, for he massed the clouds and flung out a thunderclap he stayed the flaming attack of Dionysos, and calmed the anger of boundless Okeanos. Hera also made an infinite noise resound through the air, to restrain the wrath of Dionysos' fiery power. Then old Hydaspes held out a wet hand to merciful Bakkhos, and appealed to the fiery son of Zeus in words that bubbled out of his lips : &lsquo. . . I am ashamed to appear before my father [Okeanos], because the murmuring stream which I draw is mingled with blood, and I pollute Poseidon with clots of gore this it was, only this that armed to strive against Dionysos. By your father, protector of guests and suppliants, have mercy on Hydaspes, now hot and boiling with your fire!&rsquo"

Oceanus and Tethys, Greco-Roman mosaic from Zeugma C1st-2nd A.D., Gaziantep Museum

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 38. 108 ff :
"Loudbooming Okeanos (Oceanus), girdled with the circle of the sky, who leads his water earth-encompassing round the turning point which he bathes, was joined in primeval wedlock with Tethys. The water bride-groom begat Klymene (Clymene), fairest of the Neiades (Naiads), whom Tethys nursed on her wet breast, her youngest, a maiden with lovely arms. For her beauty Helios (the Sun) pined . . . The torch of love was stronger than the blaze of his car and the shining of his rays, when over the bend of the reddened Okeanos as he bathed his fiery form in the eastern waters, he beheld the maiden close by the way, while she swam naked and sported in her father's waves . . . Her father united the girl to the heavenly charioteer [Helios]. The lightfoot Horai (Hours) acclaimed Klymene's bridal with Helios Phaesphoros (Lightbringer), the Nymphai Neides (Naiad Nymphs) [Okeanides] danced around in a watery bridal-bower the fruitful maiden was wedded in a flaming union, and received the hot bridegroom into her cool arms . . . and Okeanos beside his bride Tethys sounded his song with all the fountains of his throat.
As he [Phaethon son of Helios and Klymene (Clymene)] sprang from the childbed, the daughters of Okeanos cleansed him, Klymene's son, in his grandsire's waters, and wrapt him in swaddlings. The Stars (Asteres) in shining movement leapt into the stream of Okeanos which they knew so well, and surrounded the boy, with Selene Eileithyia (our Lady of Labour), sending forth her sparkling gleams . . .
Often in the course of the boy's training Okeanos would have a pretty game, lifting Phaethon on his midbelly and letting him drop down he would throw the boy high in the air, rolling over and over moving in a high path as quick as the wandering wind, and catch him again on his arm then he would shoot him up again, and the boy would avoid the ready hand of Okeanos, and turn a somersault round and round till he splashed into the dark waters, prophet of his own death. The old man groaned when he saw it, recognizing the divine oracle, and hid all in prudent silence, that he might not tear the happy heart of Klymene the loving mother by foretelling the cruel threads of Phaethon's Fate."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 142 ff :
"Tethys, running side by side with Okeanos (Oceanus), who begat thee in his bed of many fountains when joined in watery union with Tethys."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 155 ff :
"Okeanos (Oceanus), first messenger of the laws for the newborn child [Beroe goddess of the city famous for its laws], sent his flood for the childbed round the loins of the world, pouring his girdle of water in an everflowing belt."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 43. 286 ff :
"[Poseidon led the sea-gods into battle against the army of Dionysos :] The Potamoi (Rivers) came roaring into the battle with Dionysos, encouraging their lord, and Okeanos (Oceanus) gaped a watery bellow from his everflowing throat while Poseidon's trumpet sounded to tell of the coming strife."

For MORE information on the cosmic river see THE RIVER OKEANOS

OCEANUS, CALLISTO & THE CONSTELLATION BEAR

Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 177 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Tethys, wife of Oceanus and foster mother of Juno [Hera], forbids its [the constellation of Ursa Major, the Bear] setting in Oceanus."

Ovid, Metamorphoses 2. 508 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"Omnipotens (the Almighty) [Zeus] swept away both son [Arkas (Arcas)] and mother [Kallisto (Callisto), a love of Zeus] . . . whirled in a wind together through the void, and set them in the sky as neighbouring stars [Ursa Major and Ursa Minor]. Juno [Hera], in fury when that concubine shone midst the stars, descended to the sea, to Tethys and old Oceanus, whom the gods greatly revere, and to their questioning replied : &lsquoYou ask why I, Regina Deorum (Queen of the Gods), come hither from the mansions of the sky? I am dethroned another reigns my words are false unless, when night darkens the world, you see, new-honoured in heaven to injure me, twin constellations at the utmost pole, where earth in last and shortest circle turns. Who now would hesitate to insult Juno [Hera]? . . . She whom I forbade to be a woman [by transforming her into a bear], made a goddess! Thus the guilty pay! So great my sovereignty! . . . But you who reared me, if your hearts are touched by my disgrace, debar from your green deeps that sevenfold star that at the price of shame was set in heaven, nor let that prostitute your waters' pure integrity pollute.&rsquo The Sea-gods (Di Mari) gave assent, and Saturnia [Hera] departed heavenwards through the cloudless air with her light chariot.'"

OCEANUS GOD OF THE SEA

Okeanos (Oceanus) was equated with Pontos (Pontus, the Sea) by late classical writers. The association occurred after Greek explorers reached the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, to discover a salty, rather than fresh-water, sea.


Oceanus

Oceanus in Greek mythology, the son of Uranus (Heaven) and Gaia (Earth), brother and husband of Tethys, the personification of the great river believed to encircle the whole world.
Oceanid a sea nymph, any of the daughters of Oceanus and Tethys.

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Molly Williams: the first female firefighter

Recently, while watching an episode of The Alienist, I was curious if the character of Sara Howard, played by Dakota Fanning, was based on a real person. After all, the show was based on events in New York City in late 1800 and included such individuals as Theodore Roosevelt and J.P. Morgan. It appears, Fanning’s character, to some degree, was based on Isabella Goodwin, the first female detective in New York City. While reading about Goodwin, I asked myself who was the first female firefighter. A quick search online revealed that to be Molly Williams.

According to her Wikipedia entry, Molly Williams was an African-American, which meant that she was also the first black person to be a firefighter in New York’s history. Unfortunately, not much was known about Williams, except that “she was held as a slave belonging to a New York City merchant by the name of Benjamin Aymar who was affiliated with the Oceanus Engine Company #11 in 1818.”

English language Wikipedia entry for Molly Williams (screenshot)

The fact that Molly Williams was an enslaved person may explain why hardly any information was recorded about her. But the entry about her in the online encyclopedia did have few clues to which I could cling. What is the history of Oceanus Engine Company 11? Who is Benjamin Aymar? Perhaps answering these questions may shine some light into the life of Molly Williams.

Oceanus Engine Company No. 11 was one of the volunteer fire companies that existed in New York before 1865. According to George William Sheldon (1843-1914) who, in 1882, published The Story of the Volunteer Fire Department of the City of New York, Engine 11 was “Organized before 1783. Located, in 1796, in Hanover Square, and after 1813 in Old Slip. About 1836 removed to 118 Wooster Street, and after 1854 located at 99 Wooster Street. Went out of service in 1865.” In the appendix of his work, Sheldon lists members of the engine companies for the years 1793 and 1796 only.

In 1885, James Frank Kernan (1840-1907) published Reminiscences of the Old Fire Laddies and Volunteer Fire Departments of New York and Brooklyn. Kernan also had an appendix in his work where Oceanus Engine Company 11 was listed. Unfortunately, he only gave a list of officers prior to disbandment of the company in 1865, and no specific list of its prior members.

From Sheldon’s Priča, page 351

Both Sheldon in 1882 and Kernan in 1885, appear to be the earliest authors on the subject of firefighters that mention Molly. Their accounts although tell a similar story, vary in some details. In Sheldon’s book, on pages 46 and 47, I read the following:

“One of the famous ‘volunteers’ of the earlier days was an old negro woman named Molly, a slave of John Aymar (the father of William Aymar). Mr. Aymar, by-the-way, was the last of the old Knickerbockers of New York a fine, trim old gentleman, who continued to wear the style of dress common among the better-to-do old Knickerbockers–a long-tailed coat, knee-breeches, silver shoe-buckles, and the inevitable queue. One of his sons was Benjamin Aymar, the founder of the eminent mercantile house of Aymar & Company. Well, Molly was his slave, and a very distinguished volunteer of No. 11 Engine. She used to be called ‘Volunteer No. 11.’ I can see her now, with her nice calico dress and check apron, a clean bandanna handkerchief neatly folded over her breast, and another wound about her head and rising up like a baby pyramid. Once, during a blinding snow-storm in 1818, there was a fire in William Street, and it was hard work to draw the engine but among the few who had hold of the drag-rope was Molly, pulling away for dear life. This may have been the only time that she took hold of the rope, but afterward, when asked what engine she belonged to, she always replied, ‘I belong to old ‘Leven I allers runs wid dat ole bull-gine.’ You could not look at Molly without being impressed by her really honest face–it was a beaming light-house of good nature.

Within the pages of Kernan’s work, ignoring some of the unfortunate language of the author, I read the following on pages 58 and 59:

While on the subject of “aunties,” I must not forget an incident which occurred many years ago, when one of these faithful creatures particularly distinguished herself. She was a servant in the employ of old Benjamin Aymar, and familiarly known as “Molly.” It was her boast that she was as good a fire laddie as many of the boys who at that time bragged of being such. Her master belonged to 11 engine, and as a natural sequence “Molly’s” sympathies were with that particular “machine.” It is truthfully related of her, that in 1818, while a terrific fire was raging in William Street, she did what few of her sex would have done. A blinding snow-storm was prevailing at the time, and it was almost impossible to drag the engine to the fire or secure members enough to hold the rope. Among the few who helped drag the engine to the fire was “Molly,” and her heroic action on this occasion has been frequently alluded to in the most flattering terms. It used to be her boast, when asked what engine she belonged to, to say, “I belong to ole ‘Leven I allers run wid dat ole bull-gine.” There are some to-day who remember “Molly” quite as well as they do “ole ‘Leven.”

Another historian mentioning Molly was Augustine E. Costello (1848-1909), who in 1887 published Our Firemen. A History of the New York Fire Departments, Volunteer and Paid. Costello makes mention of Molly twice in his work, but strangely, the two accounts vary in their details. First, I find the following on pages 151 and 152:

Among the women who used to minister to the comfort of the laddies was the servant of a member of No. 11 Engine, Mr. Benjamin Aymar. She was known as “Molly.” Molly considered herself to be permanently attached to No. 11, and stood up for the superiority of the machine under all circumstances. She boasted that she belonged to “ole ‘Leven,” and used to say, “I allers runs wid dat ole bullgine.” On one occasion, in 1818, a blinding snowstorm prevailed when a fire broke out in William Street. The boys had the utmost difficulty in dragging their engine through the snow-obstructed streets, and had not men enough on the rope. Molly came along, hitched on to the rope and helped to drag the machine to the fire. This deed of Molly’s was often recounted in the station houses.

Then on page 503 another mention of Molly as follows:

Mr. Pentz’s reminiscences of fire matters in the good old times would fill a respectable volume. One of his earliest recollections as a boy is of seeing Molly, a slave of John Aymar, who was quite a character in her day, helping the firemen to drag old 11 Engine through a snowdrift in William Street in the winter of 1818. It was Molly’s boast that she belonged to “Ole ‘Leben,” and always ran with it.

Mr. Pentz in Costello’s account is Adam Perry Pentz (1811-1887), who came from a long line of firemen. It is important to note here that Pentz died in February 1887, which was the same year when Costello published his work. If Costello interviewed Pentz personally, I wonder what was Pentz’s condition at the time of his reminiscing could I rely on the details of his story?

Aymar Genealogy

Od Aymar of New York by Benjamin Aymar, published in 1903

John Aymar was born on January 23, 1758 in New York to Daniel Aymar (1733-1815) and Ann Magdalene Magny (1738-177?). He was the grandson of Jean Eymar and Francoise Belon. Eymar was a Hugenot and the progenitor of the name in America, having adopted the spelling Aymar in his life time.

As early as 1787, John signed his name John D. Aymar. This is the same John Aymar that is called “the last of the old Knickerbockers of New York” in Molly Williams’ accounts as to him being the “master” of Williams is yet to be verified. He died on October 20, 1832 in New York and was originally buried in St. Thomas’ churchyard, but removed to The Green-Wood Cemetery on May 10, 1864. He was married three times: first to Jane Lagear (1765-1786) on April 14, 1785 second to Judith Quereau (1767-1799) on April 22, 1787 and last to Elizabeth Quereau (1774-1854) on August 14, 1800. He did not have any children with his first wife, and between his second and third wives, had fifteen children as follows:

  1. Hannah (1788-1813)
  2. Daniel (1790-1825)
  3. Benjamin (1791-1876)
  4. William (1794-1794)
  5. Ann Magdalene (1795-1879)
  6. Jane (1797-1828)
  7. John Quereau (1799-1864)
  8. Samuel (1801-1879)
  9. William (1802-1884)
  10. Judith (1805-1888)
  11. Francis (1806-1827)
  12. Elizabeth (1808-1858)
  13. Caroline (1810-1874)
  14. Louisa (1811-1842)
  15. Hannah (1813-1877)

Many Aymar family members who died before 1838, the year when The Green-Wood Cemetery was founded, were removed from their original place of interment and reburied in Green-Wood.

One common trait between Sheldon, Kernan, and Costello is that they depicted Molly as brave and yet uneducated, and as a servant and yet so grateful of her position. In 2018, Kyle T. Bulthuis wrote Tobacconist, Methodist, African, Patriot: Uncovering the Real Peter Williams in Early Republic New York City for New York History journal. Describing historians of 20th Century, he wrote that their “work [was] built upon a long tradition of infantilizing blacks,” such that can be observed in the works of the above mentioned authors.

The style of their works aside, between Sheldon, Kernan, and Costello, none of them give Molly’s surname. So where did Williams come in? It is also hard to distinguish between them about the first name Molly: was it her nickname or actual name? Nothing else is known about her origins either: was it Benjamin Aymar or John Aymar who was “the master” of Molly?

I will return to the issue of surname Williams, but first I had to dive into the Aymar genealogy in order to answer the question of who was the person who enslaved her. The search lead to The Green-Wood Cemetery, where I found fifty persons with that surname laid to rest. The list included two Benjamins and four Johns, who were buried in Section 100, as follows:

  • Benjamin N. Aymar buried in Lot 681 on January 2, 1849
  • Benjamin Aymar buried in Lot 681 on March 19, 1876
  • John Q. Aymar buried in Lot 681 on November 29, 1844
  • John Q. Aymar Jr. buried in Lot 682 on December 2, 1844
  • John D. Aymar buried in Lot 679 on May 10, 1864
  • John Q. Aymar buried in Lot 682 on October 12, 1864

According to the Cemetery’s records, in July 1844, the following Aymar family members purchased lots in Section 100.

  • Lot 679 by William Aymar
  • Lot 680 by Samuel Aymar
  • Lot 681 by Benjamin Aymar
  • Lot 682 by John Q. Aymar

To return to the list of Benjamins and Johns buried in The Green-Wood Cemetery, with help of Aymar of New York, I know the following to be correct: Benjamin N. Aymar (1823-1848) and John Q. Aymar (1819-1843), buried in Lot 681, were sons of Benjamin Aymar (1791-1876), purchaser of the lot John Q. Aymar Jr. (1830-1831), buried in Lot 682 on December 2, 1844, was son of John Q. Aymar (1799-1864), purchaser of the lot and lastly, John D. Aymar (1758-1832), buried in Lot 679 on May 10, 1864, was father of William Aymar (1802-1884), purchaser of the lot.

While looking through the records of persons buried in the four Aymar lots, I saw a name that made me whisper to myself, “It must be her.” On April 22, 1857, Diana Williams was buried in Lot 682 of John Q. Aymar. I was not sure if “Molly” could be short form of Diana, but the records of the cemetery indicated that Diana Williams was born in West Indies, and died on April 21, 1857 at the age of 90 years. This means she was born about 1767, and would have been about 51 years old in 1818 when “a terrific fire was raging in William Street.” Could Diana Williams be the same person as Molly Williams, our first female firefighter? Before I can conclusively say that, there are few other nuances to the story that I have to consider.

From the records of The Green-Wood Cemetery

The four Aymar lots are conjoined and are located on top of the Ocean Hill off of Vision Path from Atlantic Avenue. A gray granite monument faces the path, and as I approached it, the family name AYMAR is clearly visible inscribed on the bottom. On the left panel of the monument, I read: Dinah. Faithful Family Servant.

As early as 1850, Diana Williams was recorded living in the household of John Q. Aymar (1799-1864), brother of Benjamin Aymar. Information about Diana in the Cemetery’s records does not match to what was recorded about her in the census. In 1850, she was recorded as being 80 years old and born in North Carolina and five years later, when the New York State census was enumerated, she was listed as 85 years old servant but born in Virginia.

Diana Williams’ inscription on Aymar family monument, Lot 682, Section 100

From the Aymar genealogy, I know that Benjamin Aymar (1791-1876) was the one who was associated with Oceanus Engine Company No. 11, as his children were not yet born when the story of Molly Williams took place. It is still not clear if Benjamin’s father, John D. Aymar (1758-1832), was the one who had enslaved Molly, or if it was Benjamin himself who was the “employer” of Williams. One thing is certain is that Benjamin, son of John D. Aymar, was the same person who founded Aymar & Company, as mentioned by Sheldon. Benjamin and his brother, John Q., were partners in the firm (see below).

I know Diana Williams was a servant in John Q. Aymar’s household, but I am still not sure if she was the same person as Molly Williams. Sometime in 1820s, John Q. moved into the house of his brother, Benjamin, at 42 Greenwich Street. Is it possible when she was living with Benjamin Aymar, the family called her Molly, and later she moved to John Q. Aymar’s household, she was called Diana/Dinah? Maybe it is a bit of a stretch, but Kernan did write that she was “familiarly known as ‘Molly.'” In any case, there’s much more sleuthing to do on my part. Before I continue the story of Molly Williams, I must turn my attention to Peter Williams.


Tethys Goddess: Ancient Greek Titaness of Primal Fresh Water

Facts about Tethys Goddess of: primal fresh water Parents: Uranus and Gaia Siblings: Titans, the Cyclops, and the Hecantoncheires Consort: Oceanus (Okeanos) Children: Oceanids, including Doris Ptotamoi (river gods such...

by World History Edu · Published April 20, 2021 · Last modified April 21, 2021


Gaul To Britannia, The Crossing of Oceanus Britannicus

Sea travel in ancient times could be a dangerous business and travelling into unfamiliar territory and the uncertainty of what might be encountered, a perilous affair. The shores of Gaul were once considered as being at the end of the world and almost another world. Accounts of Emperor Claudius’ legions on the eve of his invasion of Britain in 43 A.D., tells of them at first flatly refusing to face a voyage to Britannia, this place outside the world with its dangers of being wrecked or castaway on a hostile shore. Although Julius Caesar in 55 B.C. had shown that an invasion across Oceanus Britannicus from Gaul was feasible, Claudius’ army may still have feared that anyone travelling that far could fall off the edge of the earth.

Gesoriacum, Bononia (Boulogne). Vici.org. Creative commons attribution share alike

Following the conquest, Britannia became a Roman province. As a province it developed a number of ports to handle the increase in shipping, including Portus Dubris (Dover), Portus Rutupiae (Richborough), Portus Lemanis ((Lympne) and in Gaul, Gesoriacum. Gesoriacum developed around an expanding port and linked the continent to Britannia. The sea journey across Oceanus Britannicus (the English Channel) from Gesoriacum to the port of Rutupiae in Britannia (Richborough, Kent) was recorded in the Antonine Itinerary as a distance of four-hundred and fifty stadia, 56.25 Roman miles. This was the most direct route to Britannia. It is thought that three hundred and fifty stadia would be closer to the actual distance, however the need to navigate hazards in the channel could account for the the extra one hundred stadia recorded in the Itinerary. Depending on the weather, the journey across the channel to Britannia could take a ship six to eight hours.

Departing Gesoriacum. Vici.org. Creative commons attribution share alike.

For those travellers who were accustomed to sailing the Mediterranean, the weather conditions they could encounter on Oceanus Britannicus would be considerably more hazardous. Oceanus Britannicus was known for its precarious waters, with massive tides and currents accompanied by variable winds which could make for a difficult crossing. The channel during the winter is far more prone to violent winds than the stormiest region of the Mediterranean. Although the frequency of powerful winds blowing through the channel is greatly reduced during the summer, modern records suggest that ships sailing between Britain and the continent in July still expect to encounter strong or gale force winds on two percent of occasions. In the Mediterranean, tides are hardly perceptible in comparison to tides around the coast of Britain, which can rise and fall anywhere between 1.5 to 14 meters twice daily. Romans made ships for these harsher conditions which would withstand the tidal waters of the north western hemispere. Ships were designed with high bows and sterns to protect against heavy seas and storms. These vessels were also built flat bottomed, enabling them to ride in shallow waters and on ebb tides.

Navigation across the channel was aided by pharos. The lighthouse Tour d’Ordre at Gesoriacum and on the opposite coastline, a pair of pharos, momumental structures at a height of over twenty metres, were situated on the headland flanking either side of the major port of Dubris. The remains of one of these lighthouses survives within Dover Castle. The Romans also maintained a fleet, the Classis Britannica, present in the channel from the 1st century A.D. which provided security for crossing vessels. The fleets purpose was to transport men and supplies and patrol the channel keeping the sea routes free of pirates. The fleet with its headquarters in Gesoriacum, the major Roman naval base for the north of the Empire, also had a permanent base at Dubris (Dover) and Lemannis (Lympne).

Roman Pharos, Dover Castle. The Roman lighthouse is the structure to the right of the church.

On arrival in Gaul at the port in Gesoriacum, a traveller would find himself in the midst of a hub of activity: merchant ships and naval vessels in the harbour and the busy shipyards carrying out repairs and maintenance. Journey plans for crossing Oceanus required flexibility. There was no routine sailings and to organise his passage the traveller would set about finding the next available ship. He would also need to be aware that not only unsuitable weather conditions prevented sailings, also on ill-omened days on dates such as the 24 August, 5th October and 8th November, no ship would leave port. Once the next available sailing was found, a deck passage would be booked with the master of the ship, the magister navis.

Ships were merchant vessels not given over to comforts for those passengers on board. There were no cabins, although sometimes small tent-like shelters were used. Before sailing, the ships authorities would always carry out the pre-sailing sacrifice to the gods of a sheep or a bull at the harbour’s temple. Larger ships might have had an altar and a sacrifice could be made on board. If the omens were not right, the sailing would be delayed, positive signs combined with good weather ensured departure. The traveller, anxious for his own personal protection, might also have appealed to Mercury, the god of safe travel. Julius Caesar wrote that Mercury was the most popular god in Gaul and Britannia. One common practice for protection was to wear a brooch depicting a cockerel, herald of each new day, which was associated with the god.

The White Cliffs of Dover. James Web, 1859

Ancient sea journeys could be uncomfortable and fearful. Once on board, the traveller might settle his nerves and occupy himself by talking with other passengers or perhaps by watching the handling of the vessel the helmsman guiding the ship, pushing and pulling on the tiller bars or the sailors trimming the lines of the main sail and the deckhands carrying out their duties.

The journey across Oceanus Britannicus with all its possible hazards was nevertheless, a relatively short crossing. On a fine day, there would be a clear and comforting view of Britannia. Approaching the coast of this remote province, the high chalk cliffs of Dover towered, “stupendous masses of natural bulwarks,” was how they were described by one Roman general. For the traveller it must have been a very welcoming sight.


Oceanus

Template:Deity character Oceanus (Ωκεανός) ili Okeanos was believed to be the world-ocean, or river encircling the world in Greek mythology. He was the Titan God of the Seas, rivers and water, and a child of Oranos and Gaia. His sister was Tethys, and together they created the Potamoi and Oceanids, gods of rivers, streams and springs.

In other tales, Oceanus was portrayed as the 'origin of everything.' He was said to be a river-god whose broad, mighty stream repeatedly flowed in on itself.

During the deposition of his father, Oceanus chose not to side with his five younger brothers. Similarly, Oceanus and the Titanesses remained neutral during the Titanomachy , and when the Titans were defeated, Zeus allowed Oceanus to remain with his task of supplying the rivers and streams. In some tales, he was the son of Nyx.

Oceanus is not in many myths except in the Iliad where he is addressed in a prayer.

Oceanus did not take part in the Titanomachy, but in Rick Riordan's The Last Olympian, the second Titanomachy takes place and he has an undersea battle with Poseidon, Olympian of the seas. When the other Titans lose their part of the war, Oceanus backs off from Poseidon.


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Komentari:

  1. Amarri

    Voljno prihvaćam. Pitanje je zanimljivo, i ja ću sudjelovati u raspravi. Zajedno možemo doći do pravog odgovora. Uvjeren sam.

  2. Samugar

    Sigurno. Bilo je i sa mnom. Razgovarajmo o ovom pitanju.

  3. Atif

    Izuzetna je, jako dobra poruka

  4. Mejinn

    We will have everything we just want! The main thing is not to be afraid!

  5. Etlelooaat

    Po meni ovo nije najbolja varijanta

  6. Mensah

    pobijediti odgovor)



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