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Koliki je postotak preseljenih Armenaca umro?

Koliki je postotak preseljenih Armenaca umro?


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Koliki je postotak onih koji su prisiljeni preseliti zapravo umrli kao posljedica preseljenja?


U "Armeniji: slučaj zaboravljenog genocida", 1972., Dickran H. Boyajian citira zamjenika direktora naselja za izbjeglice, koji je 1916. rekao da je 10% izbjeglica stiglo na odredište.

Američki odvjetnik Jesse B. Jackson izvijestio je da je 85% deportiranih umrlo u jednom od njegovih službenih izvješća.

Johannes Lepsius napisao je dva izvješća u kojima je izjavio da je 90% deportiranih umrlo.

Ove brojke mogu biti prenapuhane. Ako pogledamo "drugu stranu" ovoga, jednog od organizatora genocida, Đemal -paša je u svojim memoarima koristio brojku 600.000.

Talaat -pašino službeno izvješće o genocidu ne uključuje brojke o preseljenju, samo popis nad Armencima i kaže da je 1914. bilo 1.256.403 Armenaca, a 1917. 284.157. To daje ukupnu smrtnost od 75%. Nisu svi Armenci bili prisiljeni na marševe smrti, a mnogi su Armenci ubijeni na druge načine, pa to ne govori mnogo o stopi smrtnosti za preseljenja, ali je jasno da je ona prilično visoka.

Mark citira Arnolda Toynbeea koji je rekao da jest barem 50%.

Dakle, procjene o postotku mrtvih kreću se između vrlo konzervativnih 50% do 90%.


Prema Arnoldu Toynbeeu, najmanje 50 posto [500.000 - 700.000] bilo bi žrtva deportacija. [7]

Wikipedia, koja upućuje Arnold Toynbee, "Sažetak armenske povijesti do i uključujući godinu 1915.", u vikontu Bryceu, predgovor, Postupanje s Armencima u Osmanskom Carstvu 1915-16: Dokumenti predstavljeni vikontu Greju od Fallodona, državnom tajniku za vanjske poslove Vikont Bryce (New York i London: GPPutnamovi sinovi, za Stacionarni ured Njegovog Veličanstva, London, 1916), str. 637-653.


Koliki je postotak preseljenih Armenaca umro? - Povijest

Tijekom Balkanskih ratova 1912. i 1913. godine, multinacionalno i multietničko Osmansko carstvo izgubilo je ogromne dijelove svog teritorija. Grupa na vlasti, Mladi Turci, brinula se o tome kako održati obećanja Carstva o jednakosti za sve narode iz 1908., dok će zaustaviti svaki daljnji gubitak zemlje.

Unutar Mladih Turaka bila je mala skupina ultranacionalista koji nisu podržavali politiku jednakosti. Smatrali su da je jedini način da Carstvo zadrži svoju snagu suočeno s budućim prijetnjama promicanje muslimanske većine u Turcima. U listopadu 1913. ova je mala grupa srušila vladu državnim udarom.

I tako od 1913. nadalje, Osmanskim Carstvom vlada ova klika Mladih Turaka koju vode, ali nisu ograničena na tri pojedinca koja se nazivaju trijumvirat, uključujući i ministra rata Envera Beya, ministra Unutarnjih poslova, Talaat, a treći je bio ministar mornarice ili pomorstva, Đemal -paša.

I tako ta skupina odlučuje, kako se ratni oblaci okupljaju u Europi, da će u slučaju velikog svjetskog sukoba u koji je uključena Njemačka zasigurno pobijediti Njemačka. To je zemlja s kojom se treba povezati, osobito ako će ta zemlja ući u rat s Rusijom, tradicionalnim neprijateljem. Budući da su ekstremni i opsežni teritoriji izgubljeni za Rusiju i njezine surogate, Srbe, Bugare, Rumunje, Grke. I tako, ako stanemo na stranu Nijemaca, ovo je ova zlatna prilika da osvojimo veći dio ovih teritorija koje smo nekad imali i bili izgubljeni.

Čak i prije nego što je Osmansko carstvo ili Turska ušlo u Prvi svjetski rat, vlada je proglasila opću mobilizaciju za sve građane. Prije 1908. Armenci su doista oslobođeni vojne službe jer su bili manjina od nepovjerenja. Tako je dio njihove jednakosti i simbola njihove jednakosti u tome što bi sada bili podložni nacrtu. Dakle, Armenci su sada bili dio vojne strukture. I tisuće Armenaca su bili uključeni, i doista su bili uključeni u najranije vojne sukobe protiv Rusije u turskoj vojsci.

No, nakon što je mladotursko vodstvo odlučilo da je potrebno poduzeti posebne mjere protiv armenskog elementa u Osmanskom Carstvu, započeli su tako da su najprije odvojili sve Armence. Zatim su razoružani i stavljeni u radne bojne. Zapravo, bili su ili toliko maltretirani i loše tretirani da su mnogi od njih umrli od gladi, gladi, žeđi i bolesti. A drugi od njih su u određenoj fazi, kad su obavili svoj posao, tada potpuno ubijeni.

Deportacije Armenaca već su počele u ožujku 1915. godine. No, tek nakon travnja, a zapravo u svibnju, plan je u potpunosti pokrenut. I to je pravi pokret, jer se muška populacija, u gotovo svim slučajevima, vrlo brzo odvaja. To oduzima one ljude koji bi se potencijalno mogli oduprijeti, a ostatak stanovništva ostavlja potpuno ranjivim i bespomoćnim. Muško stanovništvo maršira izvan grada na nepoznato mjesto, ali nedaleko, gdje su oni - mesarski odredi već spremni za njihovo otpremu.

I tako imamo ovo ogromno krvavo kupanje koje se događa, u kojem je, normalno, ispod tijela 200 ili 300 ili 400 ljudi, jedna ili dvije ili tri osobe još uvijek žive i mogu ispuzati i oni su ti koji nam mogu reći što se dogodilo muškarcima iz ovog sela i kako su uništeni ili što im se dogodilo.

Na neki način je možda okrutno reći, ali muškarci su imali sreće jer su ubijeni.

Teret genocida pao je na preostalo civilno stanovništvo, koje čine pretežno žene, djeca i starci. Živjeli su u osjetljivim ratnim zonama. Rečeno im je da postoji privremeno preseljenje. Mogli su se pripremiti za dan ili dva dana da se presele, da će biti zaštićeni na putu i da će na kraju moći doći kući. Očito je to stvorilo ogromnu paniku, a zatim počinje proces marširanja.

Ti se marševi odvijaju u brojnim karavanima. Karavani od 500 ljudi, 800 ljudi, 1000 ljudi iz svakog sela, koji su se na kraju spojili. Stoga odjednom dobivate 4000 ili 5000 ljudi koji marširaju prema jugu, uvijek prema jugu, prema pustinjama Sirije. I onda se tih 5000 ljudi opet istopi na 800 ljudi i 500 ljudi jer ostali umiru na putu. I tako će oni koji prežive ove tjedne i višemjesečne marševe biti mlade-ili više tinejdžerke ili mlade žene mladenke većinom.

A onda su tijekom smrtnih marševa podvrgnuti, opet, zaista ponižavajućim okolnostima. Već su vidjeli veliku dozu okrutnosti. Bilo je to vrijeme kada su majke šišale kosu svojim kćerima i mazivale lice blatom kako ne bi bile privlačne i ne bile im oduzete. No ipak, silovanje je bilo kontinuirano. Za one žene koje su stigle u pustinju, preživjele su samo udajom ili odvođenjem u muslimanska domaćinstva, u one Beduina, posebno u pustinjama, i živjele su dvije godine, tri godine, pet godina, neke od njih za stalno, zauvijek, do kraja života.

Krajem Prvog svjetskog rata 1918. godine nastojali su se spasiti te žene i djeca. No, jedan od najtežih izbora za ove mlade žene bio je što učiniti, jer su u zatočeništvu rodile jedno dijete ili dvoje djece muškarcima s kojima su živjele. Neki od muškaraca bili su čak i ubojice svoje obitelji. I tako, kad je došao trenutak za spašavanje, morali su se suočiti s iznimno teškim izborom, i ako je to bio izbor. Morali su se ili vratiti svojim ljudima bez svojih beba, ili su morali napustiti svoje ljude i ostati sa svojim bebama. Nisu mogli učiniti oboje.

Dakle, kad govorimo o odabirima koji nemaju izbor, to je ono što je preostalo tim ženama nakon rata u vrijeme spašavanja.

Budući da je Njemačka bila stariji saveznik Središnjeg saveza koji je uključivao Osmansko carstvo, oni su iz prve ruke postali svjedoci onoga što se događalo. Armin Wegner, koji je bio sanitetski časnik njemačke vojske, potajno je fotografirao ono što se događalo.

No osim Armina Wegnera bili su oni časnici koji su sudjelovali u genocidu na pruzi Berlin -Bagdad. Štitili su svoje armenske radnike sve dok posao nije završio, nakon čega su se izjasnili o deportaciji i ubijanju vlastitih radnika.

U većini mjesta Armenci su bili bespomoćni. Svatko tko je potencijalno bio osoba koja se mogla uključiti u samoobranu-velika većina tih ljudi već je bila odvedena.

U nekoliko područja pokušali su postaviti barikade i obraniti se. Najpoznatija od njih je priča o Musi Daghu, priča o šest sela u blizini Sredozemnog mora, koja su se umjesto da slijede naredbe o deportaciji, odlučila braniti. I bili su u planinskom položaju gdje su mogli.

Od srpnja do rujna 1915. Armenci su se na planini držali 53 dana s malo oružja, a hrane i vode je sve manje. Preživjele su spasili francuski i britanski brodovi i odvezli ih na sigurno u Port Said u Egiptu.

No, većina stanovništva jednostavno je slijedila naredbe i otišla u smrt bez otpora. I tako na neki način, u ovim trenucima ekstremne tjeskobe, možda u nama postoji želja za samozavaravanjem, želja da vjerujemo u ono što nam govore, želja da vjerujemo da ćemo se samo transportirati za trenutak. Bit ćemo preseljeni, da bismo se na kraju mogli vratiti kući.

A u najgorem slučaju, u najgorem slučaju, neki od nas će umrijeti. Ali ostatak će živjeti kao i uvijek i vratiti se. Koncept potpunog uništenja, genocida, Armencima je bio stran, nisu ga mogli zamisliti. Sada to možemo zamisliti. No tada je to bilo nezamislivo.


Genocid nad Armencima: sve što trebate znati o zvjerstvima iz 1915. godine

James Hookway

Predsjednik Biden službeno je priznao genocid nad Armencima, koji je odnio više od milijun života za vrijeme izbijanja Prvog svjetskog rata, jer su osmanske snage protjerale ili ubile etničke Armene tijekom raspadanja carstva. Masakri i danas izazivaju neprijateljstvo na Bliskom istoku.

Zašto SAD do sada nisu priznale genocid nad Armencima?

Washington je bio oprezan u priznavanju genocida zbog straha od narušavanja odnosa s Turskom. Današnja Turska članica je Sjevernoatlantskog saveza i važan partner na Bliskom istoku. Kongres je izglasao neobavezujuću rezoluciju kojom se ubojstva priznaju genocidom 2019. Prije toga, predsjednik Ronald Reagan, koji je svoju političku karijeru započeo među velikim armensko-američkim stanovništvom u Kaliforniji, u komentarima o holokaustu i drugim temama pokolje je nazvao genocidom zvjerstva. Drugi su predsjednici, međutim, tijekom svog mandata prestali koristiti tu terminologiju.

Kada je bio genocid nad Armencima?

Ubojstva su se dogodila kad je Osmansko Carstvo počelo implodirati. Njene snage pretrpjele su niz razornih poraza nakon ulaska u Prvi svjetski rat na strani Njemačke, a čelnici zemlje odgovorili su preoblikovanjem u etno-nacionalističku državu koja će kasnije postati Turska. Gađali su Armene i druge manjine radi protjerivanja ili još gore. Armenci početak genocida obilježavaju 24. travnja 1915. godine, na dan kada je osmanska vlada uhitila armenske intelektualce i vođe. Naknadno su pogubljeni, dok su Armenci koji su služili u osmanskim oružanim snagama razoružani i ubijeni.

Što se dogodilo nakon toga?

Paravojne snage su iskorijenile čitava sela Armenaca, koji su većinom kršćanski. Drugi Armenci bili su prisiljeni preći na islam, a drugi su vidjeli da im je oduzeta imovina prije nego što su deportirani. Vjeruje se da je stotine tisuća Armenaca umrlo 1915. i 1916. godine kada su iz svojih domova u istočnoj Anadoliji izveli marš u sirijsku pustinju, gdje su pogubljeni ili umrli od gladi ili bolesti. Međunarodno udruženje znanstvenika za genocid procjenjuje da je ukupan broj poginulih više od milijun ljudi. Konvencija Ujedinjenih naroda o genocidu iz 1948. definira genocid kao djela čiji je cilj uništiti u cijelosti ili djelomično određenu nacionalnu, etničku, rasnu ili vjersku skupinu.


Turci se ispričavaju zbog armenskih pokolja

ANKARA, Turska - Grupa od oko 200 turskih intelektualaca u ponedjeljak je na internetu uputila ispriku za masakre nad Armencima u doba Prvog svjetskog rata.

Grupa istaknutih akademika, novinara, književnika i umjetnika izbjegla je korištenje spornog izraza "quotgenocide" u ispriki, umjesto toga upotrijebivši manje eksplozivnu "Veliku katastrofu".

& quot; Moja savjest ne prihvaća da (mi) ostajemo neosjetljivi i negiramo Veliku katastrofu kojoj su Osmanski Armenci bili podvrgnuti 1915. godine & quot; pročitala je ispriku. "Odbacujem ovu nepravdu, sudjelujem u osjećajima i boli moje braće Armenaca i ispričavam im se."

Isprika je znak da su mnogi u Turskoj spremni razbiti dugogodišnji tabu protiv priznavanja Turske krivice za smrt.

Povjesničari procjenjuju da je u posljednjim danima Osmanskog Carstva osmanski Turci ubili do 1,5 milijuna Armenaca u onome što se naširoko smatra prvim genocidom u 20. stoljeću. Armenci su dugo tražili da se smrt prizna genocidom.

Iako Turska ne poriče da je mnogo ljudi umrlo u to doba, zemlja je odbacila termin genocid, rekavši da je broj smrtnih slučajeva prenapuhan, a da su smrti posljedica građanskih nemira tijekom raspada Osmanskog Carstva.

Mrežna isprika
Gotovo 2500 građana također je potpisalo internetsku ispriku, dajući svoju podršku intelektualcima.

Završite s čitanjem ovoga na: MSNBC


Dodatna mjesta koja se mogu istražiti:

Jerusalem Post, 27. kolovoza 07:
Turska: 'Izrael mora natjerati američke Židove da se povuku'
Turska očekuje da će Izrael & quotdeliver & quottirati američke židovske organizacije i osigurati da američki Kongres ne donese rezoluciju koja se okarakterizira kao genocid pokolja nad Armencima tijekom Prvog svjetskog rata, rekao je turski veleposlanik u Izraelu Namik Tan Jerusalem Post Nedjelja. Tan je skratio godišnji odmor i u četvrtak se žurno vratio u Izrael kako bi se pozabavio poništenjem prošlog tjedna Lige za borbu protiv klevete njenog dugogodišnjeg stava po tom pitanju. Turska zabrinjava to što bi prošlotjedna odluka nacionalnog direktora ADL -a Abea Foxmana otvorila nasipe i omogućila donošenje u Kongresu neobavezujuće rezolucije koja poziva akcije Osmanske Turske protiv Armenaca & quotgenocide. & Quot; Tan je rekao da, iako razumije da Kongresne rezolucije o tome neće imati stvarni & quotteeets, & quot; psihološka je važnost bila ogromna. Prihvaćajući rezoluciju, rekao je, "ako negirate prošlost, to znači da kažete da su moji preci učinili nešto nezamislivo. A ljudi koje će ovo ohrabriti upotrijebit će to za pokretanje kampanje protiv Turske i turskog naroda. & Quot

Genocid nad Armencima i Romima, Sveučilište zapadne Engleske
http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/genocide/armromgen.htm

Referenca za izjavu Adolpha Hitlera & quotTko, uostalom, danas govori o uništenju Armenaca? & Quot

Kevork B. Bardakjian, Hitler i armenski genocid (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Zoryan Institute, 1985.).


Armenski 'genocide ': Što se dogodilo, koliko je ljudi umrlo i zašto još uvijek izaziva raspravu?

Kako se približava 100. obljetnica armenskog "genocida" 24. travnja, smrt stotina tisuća ljudi nastavlja poticati međunarodne napetosti.

Masovna ubojstva vojnika Osmanskog carstva tijekom Prvog svjetskog rata nisu osporena, ali se povjesničari i dalje raspravljaju o tome jesu li zločini predstavljali sustavni pokušaj uništavanja etničkih Armenaca.

Preporučeno

Što se dogodilo?

Osmansko carstvo sa sjedištem u današnjoj Turskoj borilo se protiv saveznika u sklopu Četverostrukog saveza u bliskoistočnom kazalištu Prvog svjetskog rata.

Enver -paša, ministar rata, javno je okrivio vojne poraze Armenaca na strani Rusa, a propaganda ih je prikazala kao "petu kolonu" koja radi protiv države.

Po naredbi vlade 1915. godine, armenski vojnici u osmanskoj vojsci demobilizirani su i prebačeni u "radne bojne", gdje su neki pogubljeni ili umrli.

Kad je ruska kavkaska vojska ušla u Anadoliju, osmanske su vlasti počele deportirati etničke Armene iz regije, smatrajući ih prijetnjom nacionalnoj sigurnosti.

Pokolj, izgladnjivanje i smrt koji su uslijedili odnijeli su između 300.000 i 1.5 milijuna armenskih života, prema znatno različitim procjenama.

Kako su umrli?

Suvremena izvješća navode brojna zvjerstva koja su počinili osmanski Turci, uključujući i pokolje pucnjavom, ubadanjem, vješanjem, paljenjem, utapanjem i navodnim predoziranjima drogama.

Stotine tisuća Armenaca umrlo je u prisilnim marševima u sirijsku pustinju gdje su gladovali i umrli od žeđi ili bolesti.

Mnogi od onih koji su preživjeli putovanje stavljeni su u mrežu od 25 logora, gdje su naknadno pronađene masovne grobnice.

Također je prijavljeno da je silovanje i seksualno porobljavanje Armenki rasprostranjeno, pa čak i da su ga aktivno poticali neki vojni zapovjednici.

Što je sporno?

Mnogi suvremeni argumenti o ubojstvima usredotočeni su na izraz "genocid", a Turska ga je odbila upotrijebiti, tvrdeći da smrti nisu bile sustavne i da je izraz skovan nakon Drugoga svjetskog rata te da se ne može primijeniti retroaktivno.

UN -ova Konvencija o genocidu opisuje to kao izvršavanje radnji čiji je cilj "u cijelosti ili djelomično uništiti nacionalnu, etničku, rasnu ili vjersku skupinu", a Raphael Lemkin, koji je taj pojam skovao 1943., naveo je i zločine nad Armencima kao nacistički holokaust u svojim istragama.

Turska je prikazala ubojstva kao dio ratnog kaosa i tvrdi da nije bilo organiziranog pokušaja uništenja kršćanskih Armenaca, iako su druge države tvrdile da je smrt uzrokovana politikom koju je organizirala vlada Mladih Turaka.

Prema Međunarodnom udruženju znanstvenika o genocidu, dokazi pokazuju da je "vlada Osmanskog Carstva započela sustavni genocid nad svojim armenskim građanima i nenaoružanim kršćanskim manjinskim stanovništvom".

"Više od milijun Armenaca istrebljeno je izravnim ubijanjem, gladovanjem, mučenjem i prisilnim marševima smrti", rekla je grupa.

Tko prepoznaje smrt kao genocid?

Vlade 24 zemlje, uključujući Francusku, Italiju, Rusiju i Kanadu, priznaju događaje kao "genocid".

Britanska vlada to ne čini, iako to čine regionalni parlamenti i skupštine Walesa, Sjeverne Irske i Škotske.

Njemačka će izraz koristiti 24. travnja, unatoč intervenciji turskog premijera, a Austrija je to učinila ovaj tjedan.

Papa Franjo nazvao je masakre genocidom ranije ovog mjeseca, zbog čega je Turska pozvala izaslanika Vatikana i opozvala svog.

Zemlje uključujući SAD i Izrael koje ranije nisu koristile taj izraz suočavaju se s pozivima da ga usvoje kako se približava 100. obljetnica.

Zašto se obilježava 24. travnja?

Iako su se smrti nastavile kroz Prvi svjetski rat, 24. travnja 1915. izabran je kao datum početka „genocida“.

To je bio dan kada je osmanska vlada uhitila oko 250 armenskih intelektualaca i vođa zajednice u Carigradu, koji su kasnije pogubljeni.

Je li netko kažnjen?

Nekoliko visokih osmanskih dužnosnika suđeno je u Turskoj 1919. u vezi s zločinima, ali vodeći trojac Mladih Turaka već je pobjegao u inozemstvo i osuđen na smrt u odsutnosti.

Povjesničari od tada dovode u pitanje sudski proces u to vrijeme, kada se turske vlasti optužuju da su pokušale umiriti pobjedničke saveznike.


Stoljeće nakon genocida nad Armencima, poricanje Turske se samo produbljuje

CUNGUS, Turska - Samostan koji se raspada, izgrađen na padini, stoji kao zapušteni spomenik užasne prošlosti. Tako isto i propadajuća crkva s druge strane ovog planinskog sela. Dalje, pukotina je urezana u zemlju, toliko duboka da se gledajući u nju vidi samo crnilo. Progonivši svoju povijest, tamo je prije jednog stoljeća neviđen broj Armenaca pobijen do smrti.

"Bacili su ih u tu rupu, sve muškarce", rekao je 78 -godišnji Vahit Sahin, sjedeći u kafiću u središtu sela, recitujući priče koje su se prenosile generacijama.

Gospodin Sahin se okrenuo u stolcu i pokazao prema samostanu. "Ta je strana bila armenska." Okrenuo se natrag. “Ova strana je bila muslimanska. U početku su bili jako prijateljski nastrojeni jedno prema drugom. ”

Prije stotinu godina, usred preokreta u Prvom svjetskom ratu, ovo selo i bezbroj drugih diljem istočne Anadolije postali su polja ubijanja dok je očajno vodstvo Osmanskog Carstva, izgubivši Balkan i suočavajući se s mogućnošću da izgubi i svoje arapske teritorije, vidjelo prijetnja bliže domu.

Zabrinuti što se armensko kršćansko stanovništvo planira pridružiti Rusiji, primarnom neprijatelju Osmanskih Turaka, dužnosnici su krenuli u ono što su povjesničari nazvali prvim genocidom u 20. stoljeću: Gotovo 1,5 milijuna Armenaca je ubijeno, neki u masakrima poput ovog ovdje , drugi u prisilnim marševima do sirijske pustinje zbog čega su umrli od gladi.

Genocid je bio najveći zločin Velikog rata. Također ostaje da je to najžešće osporavano naslijeđe sukoba, koje su turske vlasti dočekale sa 100 godina šutnje i poricanja. Za preživjele Armene i njihove potomke, genocid je postao središnji marker njihovog identiteta, psihičke rane koje su se prenosile generacijama.

"Armenci su prošli jedno stoljeće, vrišteći svijetu da se to dogodilo", rekao je Gaffur Turkay, čiji je djed, kao dječak, preživio genocid i prihvatila ga je muslimanska obitelj. Gospodin Turkay se posljednjih godina, nakon što je otkrio svoju baštinu, počeo identificirati kao Armenac i obratio se na kršćanstvo. "Želimo biti dio ove zemlje sa svojim izvornim identitetima, baš kao i prije jednog stoljeća", rekao je.

100. obljetnica obilježit će se 24. travnja, na dan kada su Osmanlije okupile skupinu armenskih uglednika u Istanbulu 1915. godine kao prvi korak u onome za što se sada povjesničari slažu bio je širi plan uništenja. Armenci iz Turske i dijaspore spremaju se okupiti na središnjem istanbulskom trgu Taksim kako bi odali počast poginulima. Također će održati koncert na kojem će nastupiti armenski i turski glazbenici.

Slične ceremonije bit će održane u glavnim gradovima diljem svijeta, uključujući i Jerevan, glavni grad Armenije, gdje je Kim Kardashian, koja je armenskog podrijetla, nedavno posjetila sa svojim suprugom, reperom Kanyeom Westom, kako bi istaknula genocid. To što su Europski parlament i papa Franjo nedavno opisali masakre kao genocid dodaje pritisak na Ankaru.

Turska vlada priznaje da su zločini počinjeni, ali kaže da su se dogodili u vrijeme rata, kada je mnogo drugih ljudi umiralo. Dužnosnici odlučno poriču da je ikada postojao plan za sustavno brisanje armenskog stanovništva - općeprihvaćena definicija genocida.

Ankara ne sudjeluje ni u jednom spomen obilježju, niti se čini da je spremna udovoljiti armenskim zahtjevima za ispriku. Umjesto toga, na isti dan godišnjice genocida, turske vlasti zakazale su stogodišnjicu obilježavanja bitke kod Galipolja, događaja koji je pomogao u postavljanju temelja modernog turskog identiteta.

Obljetnica dolazi nakon nekoliko godina u kojima se činilo da je turska vlada ublažila svoj položaj. S procvatom novih organizacija civilnog društva, vlada je postala tolerantnija prema pogledima na povijest koji su se razlikovali od službenih. Prošle je godine predsjednik Recep Tayyip Erdogan, izražavajući sućut Armencima, otišao dalje od bilo kojeg turskog čelnika priznajući bolnu povijest.

No, kako se bližila godišnjica, situacija se vratila u ustaljene obrasce: poricanje Turaka, armenski bijes i mali znak pomirenja. Gospodin Erdogan postao je borbeni, prihvaćajući tradicionalnu priču.

"Armenska dijaspora pokušava ulijevati mržnju prema Turskoj kroz svjetsku kampanju o tvrdnjama o genocidu uoči stogodišnjice 1915. godine", rekao je nedavno gospodin Erdogan. "Kad bismo ispitali kroz što je naša nacija morala proći u posljednjih 100 do 150 godina, otkrili bismo mnogo više patnje od onoga što su prošli Armenci."

U zemlji definiranoj njezinim podjelama, između svjetovnog i vjerskog, bogatih i siromašnih, liberalnih i konzervativnih, naslijeđe genocida nad Armencima ujedinjuje pitanje Turaka. Nedavno je istraživanje koje je proveo Centar za ekonomiju i vanjskopolitičke studije, istambulska istraživačka organizacija, pokazalo da je samo 9 posto Turaka smatralo da bi vlada trebala označiti zločine genocidom i ispričati se za njih.

Osificirani položaj Turske, koji je u suprotnosti s povijesnom naukom, naslijeđe je kako je turska republika osnovana nakon Prvog svjetskog rata. Pod svojim osnivačem Mustafom Kemalom Ataturkom, društvo je ovdje prošlo kroz proces turkifikacije: podvig društvenog inženjeringa koji se temelji na brisanje prošlosti i poricanje multietničke povijesti. Armenski masakri izbrisani su iz povijesti zemlje, da bi se za obične Turke pojavili sedamdesetih godina nakon armenske terorističke kampanje protiv turskih diplomata.

Čak i sada turski udžbenici opisuju Armene kao izdajnike, nazivaju armenski genocid lažima i kažu da su Osmanski Turci poduzeli "potrebne mjere" kako bi se suprotstavili armenskom separatizmu. Soba u istanbulskom vojnom muzeju posvećena je patnjama muslimana od ruku armenskih militanata.

"Jasno je da su armenski revolucionari i pobunjenici namjeravali stati na stranu Rusije", rekao je Thomas de Waal, povjesničar iz Carnegiejeve zadužbine za međunarodni mir koji je nedavno napisao knjigu o genocidu pod naslovom "Velika katastrofa". "Ovo je slučaj kažnjavanja cijele zbog uočene nelojalnosti nekolicine."

Gospodin de Waal opisao je genocid kao "kolektivnu kaznu na masovnom nivou".

Mnogi od čelnika nove turske republike - ali ne i Ataturk - bili su glavni arhitekti genocida, a neki su se obogatili oduzimanjem armenske imovine.

"Naciji nije lako nazvati svoje očeve osnivače ubojicama i lopovima", rekao je Taner Akcam, istaknuti turski povjesničar genocida.

Turska vlada, prije godišnjice, vratila se na stav da bi to pitanje trebalo podvrgnuti daljnjem proučavanju povjesničara, sponzorirajući web stranicu lethistorydecide.org.

Armenci to smatraju uvredom i odvraćanjem jer sugerira da je povijesni zapis neutješan. Činjenice su, međutim, dokumentirane kroz stoljetno učenje, oslanjajući se na osmanske arhive, svjedočenja na suđenjima koja su nakratko izvedena u Istanbulu pod savezničkom okupacijom nakon Prvog svjetskog rata, te svjedočanstva iz tog vremena.

"Pogrešno je tvrditi da postoji povijesni spor", rekao je gospodin de Waal. "Povijesne činjenice dobro su utvrđene."

Činjenice su bile uvelike poznate i dok su se događaji odvijali. U naslovu New York Timesa od 18. kolovoza 1915. pisalo je: "Armenci su poslani da nestanu u pustinji". Naslov iz prosinca glasio je: "Milijun Armenaca ubijeno ili u egzilu".

Međutim, čak su i tada Turci postavljali jezik poricanja. Jedan Turčin je u pismu uredniku objavljenom u The Timesu u listopadu 1915. napisao o "takozvanim" armenskim masakrima. To je isti opis klanja koji danas koriste provladine novine u Turskoj.

Ostavština genocida također je dugo figurirala u američkoj politici, kroz lobiranje nastojanja armenskih organizacija u Sjedinjenim Državama koje su desetljećima tražile priznanje genocida. Predstavnički dom dvaput se približio, 2007. i 2009. godine, na glasovanju o prijedlozima zakona koji osuđuju ubojstva kao genocid, no odbili su ga predsjednici George W. Bush i Obama, koji su se bojali da će te mjere naštetiti američkim odnosima s Turskom.

Predsjednički kandidati, uključujući gospodina Obamu, koristili su riječ "genocid" u kampanji. No, nijedan predsjednik nije to izgovorio (predsjednik Ronald Reagan je 1981. godine izdao pisani proglas u znak sjećanja na Holokaust koji se odnosio na "genocid nad Armencima".) S nadolazećom obljetnicom, gospodin Obama je pod dodatnim pritiskom da iskoristi riječ "genocid" tijekom njegove uobičajene, godišnje izjave 24. travnja.

Stručnjaci kažu da će Obamina odluka ove godine biti komplicirana naporima Sjedinjenih Država da osiguraju veću suradnju Turske u borbi protiv ekstremista Islamske države, poznatih i kao ISIL ili ISIS, u Iraku i Siriji.

Zastupnik Adam B. Schiff, demokrata iz Kalifornije, koji se pridružio drugim zakonodavcima na donošenju rezolucije o priznanju genocida, rekao je da je zabrinut da će "borba protiv ISIS -a i nužnost turske potpore" spriječiti pokušaje priznanja genocida.

Ovdje, na jugoistoku Turske, koji je uglavnom kurdski, igra se druga priča - pomirenje, isprika i iskrena procjena bolne prošlosti.

Kurdi su, rekao je Cengiz Aktar, turski pisac koji je osporio službeni turski narativ po tom pitanju, "bili vrlo uključeni u genocid".

"Oni su bili ubojice", rekao je.

I sada su oni ti koji se namjeravaju suočiti s poviješću. Posljednjih godina lokalne kurdske vlasti u Diyarbakiru, na jugoistoku Turske, pomogle su u obnovi crkve Sourp Giragos, najveće armenske crkve na Bliskom istoku. Od tada je postao središte lokalnih Armenaca, koji su odgojeni da vjeruju da su muslimani i Kurdi i tek sada ponovno otkrivaju svoje obiteljske korijene.

"Pokušavamo vratiti ono što dugujemo", rekao je Abdullah Demirbas, bivši gradonačelnik starog grada Diyarbakira.

U nedostatku potpunog obračuna s poviješću, sukobljeni narativi definirali su zasebna kolektivna sjećanja.

Nedavno poslijepodne u blizini starog samostana ovdje, jedna muslimanka je govorila o "strašnim stvarima koje su Armenci činili muslimanima ovdje", te je rekla da je odrasla slušajući priče o Armencima koji ubijaju trudnice muslimanke u kipućim kantama s džemom.

Mlada učenica koja je stajala u blizini, Zisan Akmese, rekla je da u razredu nikada ne čuju za Armene. "Oni nas uče o Galipolju i ratu Osmanlija u Libiji", rekla je.

Dok su muškarci u kafiću dijelili priče o prošlosti svoje zajednice koje su ispričali njihovi roditelji, jedan je muškarac pokrenuo pitanje povezano s poricanjem Turske. Prepoznavanje genocida, rekao je, moglo bi dovesti do reparacije ili naknade za armensku zemlju koju su Osmanlije zauzele. Taj je čovjek svojim prijateljima rekao da ne govore gostujućem novinaru da je "ovo nemuslimansko područje".

"Oni će doći i uzeti našu zemlju", rekao je.

Later, away from his friends, a 50-year-old man named Behcet Basibuyuk said that he was of Armenian descent and that his grandmother had survived the massacres and was taken in by a local Muslim family. Mr. Basibuyuk said he was proud of his heritage, even though he is often subject to slurs and insults.

“One should not measure a person by his origins or religion, but by what kind of person he is,” he said. “But they don’t do that here.”


There is no way to logically deny the Armenian Genocide

In light of the recent recognition of the Armenian Genocide by U.S. President Joe Biden not one week ago, I’d like to take this time to debunk some common denialist “arguments” spread by “historians” such as Bernard Lewis and Justin McCarthy.

Their main thesis is basically “The Armenians rebelled and killed over a million Turks and Kurds so the Ottomans had to relocate them. Only 40,000 Armenians died in relocation to Syria, where the Ottomans fed and cared for them. Oh yeah and there weren’t even 1.5 million Armenians in the empire so the 1.5 million number is a big lie.”

Summed up in the infographic below:

These “arguments” are littered with holes and fallacies, not least of which is the “they rebelled so we had to deport them” excuse.

Armenians were the last out of 39 Ottoman nations to rebel, remaining loyal when everyone else did.

“In the early 19th century, the Ottoman army had smashed the Kurdish principalities of eastern Anatolia in the view of centralizing reform efforts, but without establishing a new order in their place. The Ottoman governments instead opted for a delegation of force to various rival local actors, who were supposed to keep each other under control and were given specific powers, weapons or privileges.

As a result, many regions were affected by power struggles between provincial administration and military organs, irregular tribal regiments, and local notables. The settlement of nomads and the settlement of the many Muslim refugees from the Crimea, the Caucasus and the Balkans – which were often not given sufficient livelihood and could not otherwise provide than by plunder and stealing – exacerbated the conflicts.
Since the middle of the 19th century, the daily lives of many Armenian villages have been characterized by an excess of everyday violence, robberies and attacks against which the Armenian peasants could scarcely defend themselves, also because they as Christians had no right to carry weapons.

The Armenian Patriarchate, as well as the Armenian National Assembly, sent innumerable petitions to the Ottoman central government asking for punishment of the crimes, which were ignored. At the end of the 1880s and early 1890s, Armenian revolutionary parties were formed, which fought against the autocratic regime of Sultan Abdulhamid II and the reinstatement of the 1876 constitution along with the Young Turk revolutionaries.”

So basically any “revolt for a Greater Armenia” as the denialists claim, was brought on by the Ottomans themselves.

Second, the denialists like to deflect and say “look at all the Turks and Kurds killed by the Armenians. That’s genocide isn’t it??” Well, as tragic as those deaths were, you cannot logically accuse the Armenians, but not the Turks, of genocide.

The approximate definition of “genocide” is as follows: “A concentrated effort by a centralized authority to, in whole or part, remove an ethnic group and/or religion.”

There was no Armenian state at the time of these events the denialists refer to! There was no centralized authority coordinating it. So how can this be a genocide if no one party is organizing it, is the question I ask? (Answer, it’s not and anytime a denialist says this it is not worth taking even 1/10th seriously)

Now as for the “There weren’t even 1.5 million bla bla bla” argument, uh yes there were.

The only sources claiming this were Ottoman records, which were terribly and deliberately flawed.

In response to the insurgency which the Ottomans started, they butchered 200,000 to 400,000 Armenians in the Hamidian Massacres of 1894-1896, and 20,000 to 30,000 Armenians in the Adana Massacre of 1909.

Regarding the deportations and genocide of 1915 and afterwards, Talaat Pasha himself conceded “the death toll was 800,000 but undercount of 30% is likely” and hundreds thousands more were killed in Kars, Igdir etc in 1918-1920.

Therefore the Armenian Genocide’s death toll in actuality is anywhere from 1 million to 2 million, but to be fair, let’s go with 1.5 million.

So yeah, “not even 1.5 million bla bla bla,” guess what, there were.

Second, “there is no document proving genocidal intent of the Ottomans! All there is, is orders to move them.”

First of all the denialists like to corroborate this theory by claiming the so-called “Anadonian Documents” were forgeries, these documents showed killing orders of Armenians but denialists denounce them as forged.

Well surprise surprise they are in reality, very much genuine.

“Turkey is taking advantage of the war in order to thoroughly liquidate its internal foes, i.e., the indigenous Christians, without being thereby disturbed by foreign intervention. What on earth do you want? The question is settled. There are no more Armenians.” – Talat Pasha, in a conversation with Dr. Mordtmann of the German Embassy in June 1915

Denialists can’t deny that.

As well, in many areas all Christians regardless of ethnicity were just deported and massacred, which goes to show absolute genocidal intent.

“In some places, at Mardin for instance, all the Christians without distinction of race or faith have had the same fate.”

Regarding the Muslim dead, (and it’s true there were many), the circumstances around them were different, explained well below.

“Most Muslim civilians died in WWI not at the hands of another ethnicity or government but from starvation. The Ottoman Empire conscripted hundreds of thousands of Muslim men and commandeered food items to feed the war effort. The villages where the men were needed to farm starved to death as men were away for years at a time. Similarly, Muslims fleeing the Russo-Turkish front died due to similar reasons after they were unable to return to their farms.

It’s true and important to acknowledge that the Russian army (and it’s 10–20% Armenian fighters Russia recruited from territory it conquered from Persia in the 1820’s) killed 160k-200k Muslim civilians from 1915–1918. But of the 2–3 million Muslim civilians (also includes Arabs) who died, most of it was due to disease and starvation. There were also a lot more Muslims living in the empire than Christians so number of deaths would be higher even if % percentage was lower.”

So claiming the large number of Muslims dead is due to “the Armenians killing them” is completely unfounded.

Finally “the Armenians have created a genocide industry” this is the only one that is somewhat accurate, but not in the negative, demeaning way it is used in.

The inventor of the word “genocide” specifically referred to the Armenians when using it!

“I became interested in genocide because it happened so many times. It happened to the Armenians, and after the Armenians, Hitler took action.” – Raphael Lemkin.

So in conclusion, there is no way to logically deny the Armenian Genocide.

Thank you President Biden for recognizing the truth.

Alper Bilgin is a Georgian and Anatolian Greek activist for minority rights in Turkey and against Turkish propaganda and Turkification.


Biden and the Armenian Genocide

In front of the Turkish embassy in Washington, D.C., after President Joe Biden recognized the Armenian genocide, April 24, 2021. (Joshua Roberts/Reuters)

Bravo to President Biden for finally using the word “genocide” in commemorating the Armenian Genocide. ( President Reagan referred to “the genocide of the Armenians” a few months after taking office, in a commemoration of the Holocaust, but neither he nor his successors ever did again until today.) I’ll resist the temptation of “even a stopped clock” snark and commend the president unreservedly for doing the right thing.

The reason for our government’s longstanding reluctance to describe the Ottoman Turk regime’s actions as genocide (the word was literally invented to describe the Armenian Genocide) was the need to placate Turkey during the Cold War. Turkey so desperately clings to the lie that no genocide occurred (claiming, accurately but incompletely, that there was a war on and people died on all sides) because without the extermination of the Armenians, and the remaining Greeks and Assyrians in Anatolia, a Turkish national state could not really exist in its current form. In other words, while today’s Turkish Republic did not perpetrate the genocide, it is the direct proizvod of genocide, in a way that is unique in the bloody, nasty course of human history — fundamentally different from Europeans overwhelming the Indians in the Americas, or the Romans in Gaul, or the Bantu in central and southern Africa, or even the Turks themselves pouring into what we now call “Turkey” after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.

So while the Turks’ sensitivity on the subject has a certain logic to it (unlike the ChiCom insistence on “one China”), the dissolution of the Soviet Union freed us from having to cater to them. But we persisted, seeking Turkey’s help in our expeditionary wars in the Middle East. Under President Erdogan, however, Turkey has become what can only be described as an enemy of the United States. Our “alliance” with Turkey, based on the now-all-but-meaningless NATO Treaty of 1949, is a fiction, given Erdogan’s support for and employment of jihadists in Syria, Palestine, Azerbaijan, and Libya, among other reasons.

It does not detract from Biden’s move to note that it was the culmination of a process caused by Turkey’s growing hostility toward the United States. In 2019, for instance, President Trump was still unwilling to use the G word for the usual diplomatic reasons, but congressional Republicans had had enough of Turkey’s antics, and virtually all of them joined Democrats to pass the first-ever resolution affirming the Armenian Genocide.

What’s likely to be Turkey’s response? Panjandrums like John Kerry told us for decades that moving our embassy to Israel’s capital city would result in disaster. It didn’t. The same people told us that describing a defunct regime’s actions as genocide would likewise be disastrous. It won’t.


Sadržaj

Uredi ranu povijest

During the ancient times, there was a small Armenian presence in northern Syria. Under Tigranes the Great, Armenians invaded Syria and the city of Antioch was chosen as one of the four capitals of the short-lived Armenian Empire.

In 301, Christianity became the official religion of Armenia through the efforts of Saint Gregory the Illuminator. Armenian merchants and pilgrims started to visit the earliest Christian centres of Greater Syria including Antioch, Edessa, Nisibis and Jerusalem. Close relations were established between the Armenians and the Christian congregations of Syria after the apostolic era.

Srednji vijek Uredi

During the first half of the 7th century, Armenia was conquered by the Arab Islamic Caliphate. Thousands of Armenians were carried into slavery by the Arab invaders to serve in other regions of the Umayyad Caliphate including their capital Damascus in the Muslim-controlled Syria. [16]

During the 2nd half of the 11th century, Armenia -being under the Byzantine rule- was conquered by the Seljuq Turks. Waves of Armenians left their homeland in order to settle in more stable countries. Most Armenians established themselves in Cilicia where they founded the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. Many other Armenians have preferred to settle in northern Syria. Armenian quarters were formed during the 11th century in Antioch, Aleppo, Ayntab, Marash, Kilis, etc.

Prior to the Siege of Antioch, most Armenians were expelled from Antioch by the Turkish governor of the city Yaghi-Siyan, a move that prompted the Armenians of Antioch, and the rulers of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia to establish close relations with the European Crusades rather than the mostly-Turkish rulers of Syria. Thus, the new rulers of Antioch became the Europeans. Armenian engineers also helped the Crusaders during the Siege of Tyre by manipulating siege engines.

However, the Armenian population of Syria and its surrounding areas has greatly diminished after the invasion of the Mongols under Hulagu Khan in 1260.

After the decline of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the 14th century, a new wave of Armenian migrants from the Cilician and other towns of northern Syria arrived in Aleppo. They have gradually developed their own schools and churches to become a well-organized community during the 15th century with the establishment of the Armenian Diocese of Beroea in Aleppo.

Ottoman Syria Edit

During the early years of the Ottoman rule over Syria, there was relatively smaller Armenian presence in northern Syria due to the military conflicts in the region. A larger community existed in Urfa which is considered part of Greater Syria. The Ottoman Empire had a large indigenous Armenian population in its Eastern Anatolia region, from where some Armenians moved to Aleppo in search of economic opportunity. Later on, many Armenian families moved from Western Armenia to Aleppo escaping the Turkish oppression. Thus, large numbers of Armenians from Arapgir, Sasun, Hromgla, Zeitun, Marash and New Julfa arrived in Aleppo during the 17th century. Another wave of migrants from Karin arrived in Aleppo in 1737. There were also families from Yerevan. [17]

Armenian population increased in Aleppo. By the end of the 19th century, the Mazloumian family established the "Ararat hotel" that became a renowned international establishment and renamed Baron Hotel.

Under the Ottomans, Syrians and many other ethnic groups lived in a religious and culturally pluralist society, with each community exercising a degree of local autonomy:

Under the Ottomans, the area known today as Syria hadn't been a single entity but rather a collection of "wilayats," or provinces, that at times included areas of modern-day Lebanon and Israel. Nor was the population homogenous. The wilayats of Ottoman Syria each comprised an array of ethnicities, cultural identifications and economic structures. After 400 years of rule under the Ottomans, certain particularities of the political system became ingrained. In modern-day Syria before the civil war, cities were divided into culturally distinct quarters: one where you would find the Armenians, another populated by Assyrians. I especially remember the Kurdish markets, where vendors would come dressed in their bright colors to sell fruits and vegetables from the countryside.

In fact, the way in which Syria was governed reinforced the autonomy of these distinct ethnic and religious communities. The Ottomans enforced a policy of pluralism, intended to appease different nations and quell the rise of nationalist movements, in which Jews, Christians and Muslims were all empowered to assert their own identities and therefore had no need to vie for power. Each religious community, known as a "millet," had a representative in Istanbul and was allowed to organize its own affairs, including its people's education, social services and charities and even some of the legal standards by which they lived. The millet controlled all internal disputes such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, and the distribution and collection of taxes. The residue of this community-specific system remained in modern Syria for example, everyone knew you went to the Armenian quarter to get your silver. [18]

Armenian genocide and the 20th century Edit

Although the Armenians have had a long history in Syria, most arrived there during the Armenian genocide committed by the Ottoman Empire. The main killing fields of Armenians were located in the Syrian desert of Deir ez-Zor (Euphrates Valley). During the Genocide, More than a million Armenians were killed and hundreds of thousands were displaced from historic Armenia. The native Arabs didn't hesitate to shelter and support persecuted Armenians. Arabs and Armenians have traditionally had good relations, especially after they sheltered the Armenians during the Armenian genocide. There was also a minor Arab genocide in Anatolia at the same time, which meant they had affinity with one another.

Aleppo's large Christian population swelled with the influx of Armenian and Assyrian Christian refugees during the early 20th-century and after the Armenian genocide and Assyrian genocide of 1915. After the arrival of the first groups of Armenian refugees coming from the death camps in Deir ez Zor and historic Armenia (1915–1922) the population of Aleppo in 1922 counted 156,748 of whom Muslims were 97,600 (62.26%), native Christians -mostly Catholics- 22,117 (14.11%), Jews 6,580 (4.20%), Europeans 2,652 (1.70%), Armenian refugees 20,007 (12.76%) and others 7,792 (4.97%). [19] [20]

The second period of Armenian flow towards Aleppo was marked by the withdrawal of the French troops from Cilicia in 1923. [21] That wave brought more than 40,000 Armenian refugees to Aleppo between 1923 and 1925, and the population of the city skyrocketed up to 210,000 by the end of 1925, with Armenians forming more than 25% of the population. [22]

According to the historical data presented by Al-Ghazzi, the vast majority of the Aleppine Christians were Catholics until the 1920s. The growth of the Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Christian communities is tied in with the arrival of the Armenian and Assyrian genocide survivors from Cilicia and Southern Turkey, as well as large numbers of Orthodox Greeks from the Sanjak of Alexandretta who arrived in Aleppo later on after the annexation of the Sanjak in 1939 by Turkey.

In 1944, Aleppo's population was around 325,000, with 112,110 (34.5%) Christians among which Armenians counted 60,200. Armenians formed more than half of the Christian community in Aleppo until 1947, when many groups of them left for Soviet Armenia to take advantage of the Armenian Repatriation Process (1946–1967).

In an interview with Radikal, Rober Koptaş, editor-in-chief of the Agos Armenian newspaper, said that the Armenians under Assad felt relatively safe. [23] The Armenians, according to The Economist, lived in a safe haven in Syria which made Armenians more sympathetic for Assad during the Syrian Civil War. [24]

According to the Ministry of Diaspora of Armenia, the estimated number of Armenians in Syria is 100,000, with more than 60,000 of them centralized in Aleppo, [3] with other estimates by Armenian foundations in Syria putting the number of Armenians in Syria around 70–80,000. [25] [26] However, Since the start of the Syrian Civil War, 16,623 Syrian citizens of ethnic Armenian background have arrived in Armenia, of whom about 13,000 displaced persons remained and found protection in Armenia as of July 2015. The government is offering several protection options including simplified naturalization by Armenian descent (15,000 persons acquired Armenian citizenship), accelerated asylum procedures and facilitated short, mid and long-term residence permits. [27]

According to Hranush Hakobyan only 15,000 Armenians are left in Syria and the rest have been settled in Armenia or Nagorno Karabakh, [28] with another 8,000 having left for Lebanon, and others going to destinations including Europe, the United States and Canada. [29] [30] However, Armenian foundations in Syria estimate around 35,000 are left based on rough estimates, including a method which multiplies the number of students enrolled in Armenian minority schools by 3 or 4, since minors would only take up around 25-30% of an age pyramid. [31]

Armenians in Syria are present in both rural and Urban areas. The villages of Kessab and Yakubiyah and Ghnemiyeh had Armenian majority prior to the civil war, and both are located near the contested border region of Hatay Province. [32] Kessab was attacked and looted in an ambush by Syrian Rebels who were given passage through Hatay province by Turkey,(although they deny this claim) and Yacubiyah had their Armenian population expelled by Al Nusra. [33] [34] Excluding those villages, Armenians are primarily urban. Most Armenians of Syria live in Aleppo, with other cities including Latakia, Damascus, Qamishli, Raqqa, Tell Abyad, Al-Hasakah, Deir ez Zor, Al-Malikiyah and Ras al-Ayn, although some of which have had their populations expelled such as Raqqa and Deir ez Zor. In Aleppo, the Armenian quarter was targeted by rebel forces. [35] In 2015, the local St. Rita Catholic Armenian church was also destroyed, according to unconfirmed reports at that time, by rebel fighters. [36]


What percentage of relocated Armenians died? - Povijest

This is a documentary that analyzes the Armenian genocide theory and uses witnesses, historians, researchers, professors, and archival evidence to show that the Armenian genocide is nothing more than an untrue one-sided version of history that omits much of history and exaggerates and fabricates ideas of hate and deceit to a world audience. It uncovers the truth about the Armenian genocide and represents both stories very well. It has numerous interviews with Armenians as well, some of whom have opposing views to the documentary's main perspective. Unlike the highly publicized Armenian documentaries that barely give the other side a chance to tell their story and uses dramatization and exaggeration to convince the viewer, this documentary uses archival information and numerous sources to persuade the viewer.

Sari Gelin Documentary: Part 1

Sari Gelin Documentary: Part 2

Sari Gelin Documentary: Part 3

Sari Gelin Documentary: Part 4

Sari Gelin Documentary: Part 5

Sari Gelin Documentary: Part 6

Sari Gelin Documentary: Part 7

Mesrop II Mutafian - Armenian Archbishop of Istanbul

The Armenian Archbishop of Istanbul, Turkey. He says that the Armenian genocide is not real because the Turks were treating the Armenians well for so many centuries.

Dr. Jeffry Lewis

British history professor in Oxford University England, tells us that the Ottoman government was not involved in ordering any mass killings of Armenians.

George H. W. Bush

The president of the United States during the early 1990s speaks highly of the Ottomans and about their generosity towards the Jewish community that had to escape from Spain during the Inquisition.

Samuel A. Weems

Retired American Judge, Samuel A. Weems is the author of the book "Armenia: A Christian Terrorist State". He speaks of the fake Hitler quote that Armenians use to declare that Hitler got the motivation to kill the Jews from the Turks killing of the Armenians. He says that the Hitler quote is completely false and that it should be noted that Armenians were declared Aryan pure nation by Hitler and that the Armenians were very big fans of Hitler during World War II.

Dr. Justin McCarthy

A professor of history in the University of Louisville, in the United States and an expert in demographics. Tells us about the events of 1900s were that of two nations fighting each other and the statistics prove that 1.5 million Armenians did not die during World War I and in fact many survived.
Justin McCarthy

Dr. Andrew Mango

British history professor in University of London in England, tells us that the Armenian genocide is not true at all.
Dr. Andrew Mango

Hrant Dink

Armenian journalist in Turkey that is the chief editor of AGOS Armenian journal in Turkey. He says

Dr. Kallerya Bellova

Dr. Stefano Trinchese

An Italian history professor in the University of Chieti, says that if the Ottomans ruled over places like Greece and Bulgaria for over 600 years, why doesn't anyone in Eastern Europe speak Turkish? He explains that this is because the Ottomans promoted religious freedom and did not force its language on its conquered people.

Hatchadurian Hatchid Abedi

An elderly Armenian in Yerevan who said that the Turks were good to us. He said they were not responsible for genocide, but that the Kurds had done terrible things to his Armenian countrymen.

Dr. Ashod Sogomonian

A professor in the Yerevan State University talks about his people.

Professor Dr. Sarahi Sonyel

A history professor in the Near East University in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. He tells about the French legion's Armenian units who were led by General Antronik, who slaughtered thousands of Muslims in Eastern Anatolia during the 1900s.

Dr. Vamik Volkan

A Turkish-American professor in the University of Virginia talks about why the Armenian genocide is false, and how Armenians from age 2 are brainwashed and raised to accept the genocide and to never question it.

Professor Dr. Levon Marashlian

A California Armenian in the University of Glendale, who claims the Armenian genocide is real.

Dr. Yusuf Halacoglu

President of the Turkish Historical Institute in Turkey, discusses his perspectives on the issue.

Dr. Avv. Augusto Sinagra

An Italian history professor at Nell University in Rome, Italy. He says that the Armenians being relocated did have elderly among them that could not survive the relocation travel, but this is not an action of the Ottoman government to exterminate an ethnic group. The state had spent money on food, water, preparation, and soldiers to guard the Armenians from gangs and bandits. Why go to all this trouble if they had wanted to kill an ethnicity? He says that the Armenian genocide is a historical lie.

Assc. Professor Husamettin Yildirim

A Turkish Researcher and Historian in Turkey says that if 1.5 million Armenians were massacred by the Ottomans, please come and show us a mass grave. He continues by saying "Show us a spot and we'll dig there too".

Sandra Fei

An Italian member of parliament says that the Armenians have angst against Turks not because of the Armenian genocide issue, but simply because of religious differences.

Barry Jacobs

Jewish Committee Director explains that the Holocaust is unique and is proven and that the Armenian genocide is not a real genocide because it has not been proven and it is not the same at all.

Ferzare Tanligil

Wife of the deceased Turkish Diplomat (who died to Armenian terrorists) talks about her relationship with her Armenian friends. She says that the Armenians bow their head when they speak with her, because they know they are guilty.

Erich Feigl

An Austrian Historian-Researcher in Austria, who makes logical points about why the Armenian genocide cannot be true.

Souren Kataroian

An archbishop in the Allepo Armenian church in Syria, who believes that 1.5 million Armenians died in the relocation.

Bruce Fein

American Attorney at International Law in Washington D.C., discusses the relationship of Armenians and Turks.

Professor Radick Martirossian

An Armenian professor in Yerevan State University, talks about European nations that took roles in the events in Eastern Anatolia.

Israfil Memmedar

Historian in Baku Azerbaijan that speaks of cities and villages that were wiped off the map by Armenian rebels.

Kamuran Gurun

A Turkish Retired Ambassador of Turkey, says that you cannot claim the relocation orders of Armenians to be a crime, when it was war-time and a community that was actively and openly helping the enemy was threatening your nation.

Danageni Danoian

An elderly Armenian woman who tells of her experience in 1915, and how disease was rampant in those days and how her family traveled through the Middle East during the conflict.

Sarkis Garabetian

An Armenian survivor of World War I who was under the relocation orders, talks about how his family arrived in Syria and Lebanon and how well they survived.

Nurse Tatiana Karameli

A student in Moscow Medical school who worked in the Russian red-cross recounts in her memoirs the atrocities of Armenians. She says that the rebels named Arshak and Antranik were committing horrible atrocities in 1917 to the Turks in Bayburt and Ispir.

Abbas Gunes

An elderly Turkish witness who saw the horrors of what Armenian rebels did to his fellow villagers. He tells of how his elder brother was decapitated.

Mehmet Saar (Age 110 in 2006)

A witness to the Armenian massacres in Eastern Anatolia during World War I, he speaks in vivid detail about the victims in his village.

Professor Hikari Egane

A history professor in the University of Kyoto Kitsumeikan. She says that she simply has to apply for permission to get access into the Turkish-Ottoman archives and 3 days later she can easily review all the documents she wants.

Mehmet Aksal (Age 105 in 2006)

A witness to the Armenian massacres in Eastern Anatolia during World War I, he speaks in vivid detail about the victims in his village.

Mesture Kilic (Age 111 in 2007)

Tells about her experience where she witnessed the Armenian rebels take a baby from her mother and threw the baby to the ceiling. The brain was splattered on the ceiling, and men from the cities came and took notes and left.

Sirri Husseyinoglu (Age 90 in 1986)

A Turkish witness of the atrocities of Armenian general Antronik in the 1900s. He tells of the evils these rebels did to the Turkish villagers around Eastern Anatolia.

Sefa Vagisoglu (Age 96 in 2006)

A Turkish witness of atrocities by the Armenians in Eastern Anatolia.

Francois Rochebloine

MP of UDF in France says that French parliament has accepted the Armenian genocide resolution, but of course the Turks are not literally blamed for a genocide.

Mgr. Bedros Miriatian

An Archbishop in Aleppo Catholic Church who believes in the genocide.

Gunduz Aktan

A Retired Ambassador of Turkey tells us his perspective on the issue.

Michel Pelchat

Senator in Paris, France says that he was against the French parliamentary resolution on the Armenian genocide. On kaže:

Bernadette Isaac Sibelle

MP of UDF in Paris, France. She says that it is abnormal to judge history between two non-French communities in the French parliament.

Vera Costratini

A scholar in the University of Venice. She says that there has never been a problem for her to study in the Turkish-Ottoman archives because they are open to the public just like Italy's archives.

Assc. Professor Yusuf Sarinay

Professor of history and works in the Prime Ministry State Archives in Turkey. Says that Hilmar Kayser and Araf Sarafiyan who name their research as the "Armenian genocide study" have visited the Ottoman archives and finds it interesting that they took so many copies of the documents. It clearly shows that even Armenians are allowed inside the archives of the Ottomans to prove or disprove the Armenian genocide theory. However, documents and archives dealing with the Armenian-Turkish events in World War I are still locked up in many nations especially in Armenia.

Hilmar Kayser

A German researcher who has visited the Ottoman archives and believes in the Armenian genocide yet has taken 5900 photocopies of Ottoman archival documents.

Ara Sarafyan

A British historian of Armenian origin and leader in Armenian genocide allegations, has visited the Ottoman archives and has taken 3000 photocopies. He also says that he has written a letter to the Armenian government asking for permission to read the Armenian archives, but he has never received a reply. He says he would be very happy to read the Armenian archives. He also had announced once that he would meet with Turkish historians to have a joint-investigation on the genocide issue, but later changed his mind.

Dr. Turkkaya Ataov

A historian in Turkey who exposes the false fabricated Talaat Pasha telegrams that supposedly was the ordering of the Armenian killings by the government. However, Ataov says that the codes on the telegram are made-up, and do not represent the codes of the time, and Talaat Pasha was never in Aleppo at the time of the telegram being sent, he was in Istanbul.


Gledaj video: Ko je započeo rat na Kavkazu? Otkrivamo pozadinu sukoba Armenija-Azerbejdžan (Svibanj 2022).