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Ilich Ramirez Sanchez (Šakal Carlos) 1949.-

Ilich Ramirez Sanchez (Šakal Carlos) 1949.-

Ilich Ramirez Sanchez (Šalos Carlos) 1949.-

Do događaja od 11. rujna, Šakal Carlos bio je bez sumnje najpoznatiji međunarodni terorist na svijetu. Vješt, inteligentan terorist za iznajmljivanje, bio je jedan od najtraženijih ljudi na svijetu nekoliko desetljeća i utjelovio je zapadnjačku ideju terorista. Rođen kao Ilich Ramirez Sanchez u državi Táchira, Venezuela, 12. listopada 1949., Carlos je bio sin uspješnog marksističkog odvjetnika i imao je bogati odgoj s ocem koji je htio hraniti marksističku ideologiju svojih sinova i tradicionalno katoličku majku. Bilo je prirodno da se mladi Ramirez zainteresira za komunizam i tadašnje južnoameričke komunističke heroje, poput Che Guevare.

Do svoje 17. godine Carlos je već bio uključen u revolucionarne grupe svoje zemlje i pokazao je znatan potencijal. Zbog toga i očevog utjecaja, uskoro se školovao u kubanskom kampu Mantanzas, proučavajući gerilsko ratovanje i tehnike sabotaže, kao i vještine bombi i oružja, zahvaljujući svojim trenerima KGB -a.

Kad su mu se roditelji razveli, preselio se u London s majkom i braćom te započeo playboyevski način života, miješao se na zabavama u veleposlanstvima i stvarao kontakte koji bi mu dobro poslužili u budućoj karijeri, te učio kako se miješati u gornji dio društva. Godinama kasnije mnogi njegovi prijatelji iz tog razdoblja bili bi šokirani kad bi saznali da je razdragani mladi dječak s ukusom za dame doista bio ubojica. Utjecaj njegova oca nastavio je pomagati Carlosu i njegovoj braći jer su uspjeli dobiti mjesta na moskovskom sveučilištu Patrice Lumumba. Ovdje je nastavio studentski stil života vina, žena i pjesme, a najvjerojatnije ga je regrutirao KGB.

Godine 1969. izbačen je iz komunističke partije Venezuele nakon što je podržao pobunjeničku skupinu koja je pala u nemilost. Godine 1970. Carlos je izbačen sa sveučilišta nakon što se pridružio frakciji arapskih studenata koji su prosvjedovali na ulici, prosvjedu koji se smatrao antisovjetskim. Ovo je bio početak njegove duge upletenosti u arapski terorizam. Još na sveučilištu upoznao je brojne palestinske studente koji su bili odlučni u namjeri da dobiju neovisnu državu čak i ako to znači međunarodni terorizam. Nakon što je protjeran pridružio se Marksističkoj narodnoj fronti za oslobođenje Palestine (PFLP) skupini poznatoj po nizu otmica zrakoplovnih tvrtki. Do srpnja 1970. Ramirez je bio u kampu za obuku u Jordanu, a nakon sastanka s zapovjednikom PFLP-a Abu-Sharifom postao je poznat kao Šakal Carlos. PFLP je ojačao i počeo stvarati saveze s drugim terorističkim skupinama, poput bande Baader-Meinhof i Talijanske crvene brigade. Carlosov ugled u organizaciji narastao je nakon "Crnog rujna" gdje se borio protiv jordanske vojske pokušavajući očistiti njihovu zemlju od terorista.

1971. vidio je Carlosa u Londonu kako se ponovno miješao s visokim društvom dok je tajno prikupljao podatke o ljudima vrijednim ubojstva ili otmice. Na Olimpijskim igrama u Münchenu 1972. godine napadnut je izraelski sportaš, a iako Carlos nije bio umiješan, posljedice su bile da ga stave na kartu. U znak odmazde, izraelska tajna služba ubila je visokog člana PFLP-a pa je Carlosu naređeno da uzvrati udarom na uglednog člana židovske zajednice u Londonu, Edwarda Sieffa, predsjednika Marks & Spencera. U prosincu 1973. Carlos je otišao u Sieffovu kuću i ubio ga, na sreću ne smrtonosno. Carlosu je to prethodilo napadom ručne bombe na londonsko sjedište izraelske banke i bombom automobila u Parizu 1972., u kojoj su ozlijeđene 63 osobe. Rođen je njegov međunarodni ugled.

Carlos je to nastavio premještanjem svoje baze operacija u Pariz gdje je izveo tri napada bombama automobila na pro-izraelske novine i napad granatom zaštitnog znaka na restoran Deux Magots ubivši 2 i ozlijedivši 34. Ova tehnika ulaska, bacanja granate a odlazak je pokazao Carlosovu hrabrost i posebnu hladnokrvnu bezobzirnost. Njegov najpoznatiji napad dogodio se u Austriji u prosincu 1975. Ovdje su Carlos i mali bend upali na sastanak OPEC -a ubivši sigurnosne detalje i uzevši 70 ljudi za taoce. Šokirani, austrijske vlasti pregovarale su i nakon što su emitirale političku poruku i privukle ogromnu pozornost svjetskih medija, Carlos i njegova banda napustili su avion oslobađajući taoce u Alžiru kada su sletjeli. PFLP su bili ljuti što Carlos nije ubio taoce i svojim statusom slavne osobe te ga protjerao, ali šuška se da je Carlos pokupio milijun dolara od libijskog predsjednika pukovnika Gadafija za napad na OPEC. 1976. bio je uključen u krađu zrakoplova Air Francea u Ugandu, što je dovelo do čuvenog napada izraelskih specijalnih snaga na Entebbe i preuzimanja francuskog veleposlanstva u Haagu, što je rezultiralo dvije smrti (zbog čega je Carlos na kraju bio izvedena na sud). Carlos je bio poznat kao majstor prerušavanja, koristeći lažne putovnice i kreditne kartice često je provlačio mrežu hvatanja i izbjegavao pokušaje atentata. U tom razdoblju okrivljeni su mnogi napadi, otmice i bombardiranja ili su povezani s njim s malo stvarnih dokaza.

Carlos je sada postao slobodni terorist, okupljajući teroriste iz raznih europskih i arapskih zemalja u svoju Organizaciju arapske oružane borbe. 1979. Carlos se oženio njemačkom teroristkinjom Magdalenom Kopp. Razdoblje medenog mjeseca nije dugo trajalo 1982. godine kada je par pokušao minirati francusku nuklearnu elektranu granatama RPG-7. Napad nije uspio i nedugo nakon što su Kopp i još jedan terorist uhićeni. Odlučan u namjeri da oslobodi svoju suprugu, Carlos je izveo nekoliko napada na francusku imovinu diljem svijeta, ali nije uspio svojoj ženi izboriti slobodu.

Mreža se sada približavala Carlosu jer su ga francuska tajna služba i CIA odlučili uhvatiti. Kako je Hladni rat došao kraju, njegovi stari zagovornici u sovjetskom bloku više mu nisu bili voljni pomoći, a 1985. vidio ga je kako se skriva u Siriji. Sada je bio previše poznat da bi ga itko mogao zaposliti. Do 90 -ih godina Carlos je bio stalno u pokretu i konačno je zarobljen 14. kolovoza 1994. u Sudanu, u dobi od 45 godina, još uvijek do svojih starih hobija pića i ženskarstva.

Šakal je tijekom svoje karijere bio predložak zapadnjačke ideje o međunarodnom terorizmu - odvažan, nemilosrdan, sposoban miješati se u društvo na svim razinama i s darom za jezike. Ne treba zaboraviti da je on odgovoran za smrt više od 80 ljudi. Sudilo mu se zbog ubojstva dvaju francuskih agenata i doušnika libanonske policije koje je ubio 1975. kada su ga pokušali uhvatiti. Osuđen je na doživotni zatvor 1997. Od 1970-ih bio je stalni trn u oku francuskim i zapadnim vlastima i nadahnuće za dvije generacije potencijalnih terorista. Nekima je bio borac za slobodu, drugima nemilosrdan ubojica i plaćenik. Carlos zasigurno nije bio ludi ubojica pasa, što pokazuje i oslobađanje talaca OPEC -a, ali također nije štetio ubijanju civila. Jako motiviran ideologijom od malih nogu i s dobrim obrazovanjem i obrazovanjem nije se imao potrebu okrenuti terorizmu, već je to odlučio. Uživajući u svom životnom stilu i imidžu dječaka, volio je sebe vidjeti kao alternativu Jamesa Bonda, a mnogi sumnjaju da je roman Fredericka Forsytha, Dan šakala, temelji se na poznatom teroristu kao i dva filma temeljena na knjizi. Za one koji proučavaju borbu protiv terorizma, Carlos ilustrira kakvu štetu može nanijeti jedan dobro obrazovan i motiviran čovjek, lekciju koju je Bin Laden gorko potkrijepio i događajima od 11. rujna. Govoreći iz svoje zatvorske ćelije u Francuskoj, Carlos je imenovao Bin Ladena svojim prirodnim nasljednikom za nastavak borbe protiv zapadnog imperijalizma


Praćenje šakala: Potraga za Carlosom, najtraženijim čovjekom na svijetu, David A. Yallop, Random House, 1993., 629 stranica. Ova knjiga bavi se autorovim lovom na najpoznatijeg svjetskog terorista. To je trebao biti lov koji će obuhvatiti mnoge zemlje i potrajati deset godina. Ovo je zanimljiva knjiga s obzirom na stranu borbe protiv terorizma i koliko je teško pratiti jednog čovjeka.


Šakal Carlos

Ilich Ramirez Sanchez (12. listopada 1949.-), poznatiji kao  "Šakal Carlos", bio je venezuelski  lijevi terorist koji je bio član revolucionarne skupine Narodnog fronta za oslobođenje Palestine (PFLP) undre Wadie Haddad, kasnije formirajući vlastitu skupinu, Organizaciju oružane borbe.  Sanchez je koristio pseudonim "Carlos" izvršiti svoje terorističke napade na Palestinu, uzevši njegovo ime od predsjednika Venezuele Carlosa Andresa Pereza, a nakon  Čuvar dopisnik je pronašao "Dan šakala" među svojim dobrima, stekao je nadimak "Carlos Šakal". Carlos je izvršio niz terorističkih napada diljem Francuske 1980 -ih, osim što je 1970 -ih radio u ime Baathističkog Iraka, Sirijske Arapske Republike i Libijske Arapske Jamahirije, imao sigurne kuće diljem istočne Europe i održavajući kontakt s KGB -om i Stasi. Na kraju je postao toliko opasan da su ga komunističke zemlje morale protjerati iz njegovih svetišta u svojim zemljama, a američki predsjednik George H.W. Bush je vršio pritisak na Siriju da ga izruči. Carlos je uhićen u Sudanu 1994. godine zbog ubojstva francuskog obavještajnog agenta DST-a i dvojice protuobavještajnih agenata, te je osuđen na doživotnu kaznu iza rešetaka.


Ilich Ramirez Sanchez (Šakal Carlos) 1949.- - Povijest

Ilich Ram írez S ánchez, rodom iz Venezuele, poznatiji kao Šakal Carlos, bio je uključen u neke od najspektakularnijih terorističkih incidenata 1970-ih i 1980-ih. Više od 20 godina izbjegavao je policijsko zarobljavanje.

S ánchez rođen je 12. listopada 1949. u Tachiri u Venezueli. Njegovi roditelji predstavljaju studiju u kontrastu: njegova majka, Elba Maria S ánchez, bila je duboko religiozna žena koja je uživala u visokom društvu, a njegov otac Jos é Altagracia Ram írez Navas bio je gorljivi marksist. Svoje sinove nazvao je Ilič, Vladimir i Lenjin, prema V. I. Lenjinu, vođi Ruske revolucije 1917. godine. Od trenutka kada su se rodili, Jos é Ram írez namjeravao je da njegovi sinovi budu revolucionari. Unatoč svojim marksističkim uvjerenjima, Jos é Ram írez održavao je uspješnu odvjetničku praksu u kojoj je obitelj bila u dobrom položaju i preselila se u više krugove venezuelskog društva.

Carlos je pohađao srednju školu Fermin Toro Lyc ée, poznatu po ljevičarima.


Sadržaj

Rani život

Ramírez Sánchez, sin marksističkog odvjetnika Joséa Altagracie Ramíreza-Navasa i Elbe Marije Sánchez, rođen je u Micheleni, u venecuelanskoj državi Táchira. [13] Unatoč majčinim molbama da svom prvorođenom djetetu da kršćansko ime, José ga je nazvao Ilich, po Vladimiru Iljiču Lenjinu, dok su dvojica mlađe braće i sestara dobili ime "Lenjin" (rođen 1951.) i "Vladimir" (rođen 1958.). [14] Ilich je pohađao školu u Caracasu i pridružio se pokretu mladih nacionalne komunističke partije 1959. Nakon što je sa svojim ocem prisustvovao Trećoj trikontinentalnoj konferenciji u siječnju 1966., Ilich je navodno ljetovao u kampu Matanzas, školi gerilskog ratovanja kubanski DGI u blizini Havane. [15] Kasnije te godine njegovi su se roditelji razveli.

Njegova je majka djecu odvela u London, gdje je studirala na Stafford House Collegeu u Kensingtonu i London School of Economics. Godine 1968. José je pokušao upisati Ilicha i njegova brata na Sorbonnu u Parizu, ali se na kraju odlučio za Sveučilište Patrice Lumumba u Moskvi. Prema BBC -u, to je bilo "ozloglašeno leglo za novačenje stranih komunista u Sovjetski Savez" (vidi aktivne mjere). [16] [17] [18] Izbačen je sa sveučilišta 1970. godine.

Iz Moskve je Ramírez Sánchez otputovao u Beirut u Libanonu, gdje se dobrovoljno prijavio za PFLP u srpnju 1970. [19] Poslan je u kamp za obuku stranih volontera PFLP -a na periferiji Amana u Jordanu. Po završetku studija, studirao je na završnoj školi, kodnog naziva H4, u kojoj je radila iračka vojska, u blizini sirijsko-iračke granice. [19]

Po završetku gerilske obuke, Carlos (kako se sada nazivao sam) odigrao je aktivnu ulogu PFLP -a na sjeveru Jordana tijekom sukoba u crnom rujnu 1970. godine, stekavši reputaciju borca. Nakon što je organizacija istisnuta iz Jordana, vratio se u Bejrut. Poslao ga je na obuku Wadie Haddad. [20] Na kraju je napustio Bliski istok kako bi pohađao tečajeve na Veleučilištu u središtu Londona (sada poznatom kao Sveučilište Westminster), a očito je nastavio raditi za PFLP.

1973. Carlos je izveo neuspjeli pokušaj atentata na PFLP na Josepha Sieffa, židovskog biznismena i potpredsjednika Britanske cionističke federacije. Dana 30. prosinca Carlos je nazvao Sieffov dom na Kraljičinom gaju u šumi sv. Ivana i naredio sluškinji da ga odvede u Sieff. [21] Pronašavši Sieffa u kupaonici, u svojoj kadi, Carlos je ispalio jedan metak u Sieffa iz pištolja Tokarev kalibra 7,62 mm, koji se odbio od Sieffa tik između nosa i gornje usne i onesvijestio ga, a pištolj se zaglavio, a Carlos je pobjegao. [21] [22] [23] Napad je najavljen kao odmazda za Mossadov atentat na Mohameda Boudiju, vođu PFLP -a u Parizu.

Carlos priznaje odgovornost za neuspjeli bombaški napad na banku Hapoalim u Londonu i bombaške napade na tri francuska lista optužena za izraelske sklonosti. Tvrdio je da je bio bacač granata u pariškom restoranu u napadu u kojem je poginulo dvoje, a ozlijeđeno 30. Kasnije je sudjelovao u dva neuspjela raketna napada granatama na avione El Al u zračnoj luci Orly u blizini Pariza, 13. i 17. siječnja 1975. godine.

Dana 27. lipnja 1975., Carlosov PFLP kontakt, Michel Moukharbal, rođen u Libanonu, za kojeg se kasnije ispostavilo da je agent Mossada, zarobljena je i ispitana od strane francuske domaće obavještajne agencije DST. Kad su dvojica nenaoružanih agenata DST -a ispitivali Carlosa na jednoj pariškoj kućnoj zabavi, Moukharbal je otkrio Carlosov identitet. Carlos je tada pucao i ubio dvojicu agenata i Moukharbala. [24] Carlos je pobjegao s mjesta događaja i uspio pobjeći preko Bruxellesa u Bejrut.

Napad OPEC -a i izbacivanje iz PFLP -a

Carlos je iz Bejruta sudjelovao u planiranju napada na sjedište OPEC -a (Organizacija zemalja izvoznica nafte) u Beču. Dana 21. prosinca 1975. vodio je tim od šest osoba (u kojem je bila i Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann) koji je napao sastanak čelnika OPEC-a uzeli su više od 60 talaca i ubili tri: austrijskog policajca, iračkog zaposlenika OPEC-a i člana libijsko izaslanstvo. Carlos je zahtijevao da austrijske vlasti svaka dva sata čitaju komunikaciju o palestinskoj stvari na austrijskim radijskim i televizijskim mrežama. Kako bi izbjegla prijeteće pogubljenje talaca svakih 15 minuta, austrijska vlada pristala je i priopćenje je emitirano na zahtjev.

Vlada je 22. prosinca PFLP -u i 42 taoca osigurala zrakoplov i odvezla ih u Alžir, kako se tražilo za oslobađanje talaca. Bivši pilot Kraljevske mornarice Neville Atkinson, u to vrijeme osobni pilot libijskog vođe Muammara al-Gadafija, letio je Carlosom i nizom drugih, uključujući Hans-Joachima Kleina, pristašu zatvorene grupe Baader-Meinhof i člana Revolutionary Cells i Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann iz Alžira. [25] Atkinson je letio s DC-9 do Tripolija, gdje je oslobođeno još talaca, prije nego što se vratio u Alžir. Tamo su oslobođeni posljednji taoci, a neki od terorista dobili su azil.

U godinama nakon napada OPEC -a, Bassam Abu Sharif, još jedan agent PLFP -a, i Klein su tvrdili da je Carlos primio veliku svotu novca za sigurno oslobađanje arapskih talaca i da ga je zadržao za svoju osobnu upotrebu. Tvrdi se da je iznos bio između 20 i 50 milijuna američkih dolara. Izvor novca također je neizvjestan, ali je, prema Kleinu, došao od "arapskog predsjednika". Carlos je kasnije rekao svojim odvjetnicima da su Saudijci uplatili novac u ime Irana i da je "preusmjeren na putu i da ga je revolucija izgubila".

Carlos je iz Alžira otputovao u Libiju, a zatim u Aden, gdje je prisustvovao sastanku visokih dužnosnika PFLP -a kako bi opravdao svoj neuspjeh u pogubljenju dvojice visokih talaca OPEC -a - iranskog ministra financija Jamshida Amuzgara i ministra nafte Saudijske Arabije Ahmeda Zakija Yamanija. Njegov trener i vođa PFLP-EO-a Wadie Haddad protjerao je Carlosa jer nije pucao na taoce kada zahtjevi PFLP-a nisu bili ispunjeni, pa je time propustio svoju misiju. [26]

Nakon 1975

U rujnu 1976. Carlos je uhićen, zatočen u Jugoslaviji i odletio u Bagdad. Odlučio se nastaniti u Adenu, gdje je pokušao osnovati svoj Organizacija oružane borbe, sastavljen od sirijskih, libanonskih i njemačkih pobunjenika. Povezivao se i sa Stasijem, istočnonjemačkom tajnom policijom. [27] Opskrbili su ga uredom i sigurnim kućama u istočnom Berlinu, pomoćnim osobljem od 75 i servisiranim automobilom te mu omogućili nošenje pištolja u javnosti. [27]

Vjeruje se da je odavde Carlos planirao svoje napade na nekoliko europskih ciljeva, uključujući i napad na urede Radio Free Europe u Münchenu u veljači 1981. 16. veljače 1982. dvojica iz grupe - švicarski terorist Bruno Breguet i supruga Ramíreza Sáncheza Magdalena Kopp - uhićeni su u Parizu, u automobilu s eksplozivom. Nakon uhićenja, francuskom veleposlanstvu u Haagu poslano je pismo u kojem se traži njihovo hitno oslobođenje. U međuvremenu je Carlos neuspješno lobirao kod francuske vlade za njihovo oslobađanje.

Kao odmazdu, Francusku je pogodio spektakularan val terorističkih napada, uključujući: bombardiranje vlaka TGV Pariz-Toulouse 29. ožujka 1982. (5 mrtvih, 77 ozlijeđenih) bombardiranje automobila libijskim novinama Al-Watan al- Arabi u Parizu 22. travnja 1982. (1 poginuo, 63 ozlijeđena) bombardiranje Gare Saint -Charles u Marseilleu 31. prosinca 1983. (2 mrtva, 33 ozlijeđena) i bombardiranje vlaka TGV Marseille -Paris (3 mrtav, 12 ozlijeđenih) istog dana. [28] U kolovozu 1983. napao je i Maison de France u zapadnom Berlinu, ubivši jednog čovjeka i ozlijedivši dvadeset i dva. [27] Nekoliko dana nakon bombardiranja, Carlos je poslao pisma u tri zasebne novinske agencije u kojima se preuzima odgovornost za bombaške napade kao osveta za francuski zračni napad na kamp za obuku PFLP -a u Libanonu prethodnog mjeseca.

Povjesničari pregledavaju Stasijeve datoteke, nedavno dostupne nakon ponovnog ujedinjenja Njemačke, i pokazuju vezu između Ramíreza Sáncheza i KGB -a, putem istočnonjemačke tajne policije. Kad je Leonid Brežnjev 1981. posjetio Zapadnu Njemačku, Ramírez Sánchez nije poduzimao nikakve napade, kako je tražio KGB. Zapadna obavještajna služba očekivala je aktivnost u tom razdoblju. [27] U jednom je trenutku rumunjska Securitate unajmila Carlosa da ubije rumunjske disidente koji žive u Francuskoj.

Uz uvjetnu podršku iračkog režima i nakon Haddadove smrti, Ramírez Sánchez ponudio je usluge svoje grupe PFLP -u i drugim grupama. Prvi napad njegove grupe mogao je biti neuspjeli raketni napad na francusku nuklearnu elektranu Superphénix 18. siječnja 1982. godine.

Ovi napadi doveli su do međunarodnog pritiska na istočnoeuropske države koje su skrivale Ramíreza Sáncheza. Više od dvije godine živio je u Mađarskoj, u drugom budimpeštanskom okrugu poznatom kao četvrt plemića. Njegov glavni izlaz za neka od njegovih financijskih sredstava, kao što su Gadafi ili dr. George Habash, bio je prijatelj njegove sestre, Dietmar Clodo, poznatog njemačkog terorista i vođe brigade Pantera PFLP-a. Mađarska je protjerala Ramíreza Sáncheza krajem 1985., a odbijeno mu je utočište u Iraku, Libiji i na Kubi prije nego što je našao ograničenu podršku u Siriji. S Koppom i njihovom kćerkom Elbom Rosom nastanio se u Damasku.

Sirijska vlada prisilila je Ramíreza Sáncheza da ostane neaktivan, a kasnije se na njega gledalo kao na neutraliziranu prijetnju. Godine 1990. iračka mu se vlada obratila radi posla, a u rujnu 1991. protjeran je iz Sirije. Nakon kratkog boravka u Jordanu, dobio je zaštitu u Sudanu gdje je živio u Kartumu.

Zapadni računi dugo su tvrdili da je Ramírez Sánchez agent KGB -a. Neki su mu se napadi mogli pripisati zbog nedostatka bilo koga drugog za traženje kredita. Njegovo hvalisanje vjerojatno nepostojećim misijama dodatno je zbunilo ovo pitanje.

Uhićenje i zatvor

Francuske i američke obavještajne agencije ponudile su sudanskim vlastima brojne poslove. 1994. Carlos je trebao biti podvrgnut manjoj operaciji testisa u bolnici u Sudanu. [29] Dva dana nakon operacije, sudanski dužnosnici rekli su mu da ga moraju preseliti u vilu radi zaštite od pokušaja atentata i da će mu dati osobne tjelohranitelje. Jedne noći kasnije, tjelohranitelji su ušli u njegovu sobu dok je spavao, umirili ga i vezali te ga odveli iz vile. [30]

Dana 14. kolovoza 1994. Sudan ga je prebacio francuskim agentima DST -a, koji su ga odvezli u Pariz na suđenje. Optužen je za ubojstva dvojice pariških policajaca i Moukharbala 1975. te je poslan u zatvor La Santé na čekanje suđenja. Godine 1996. većina Europske komisije za ljudska prava odbila je njegovu prijavu vezanu za proces njegovog hvatanja. [31]

Suđenje je počelo 12. prosinca 1997., a završilo 23. prosinca, kada je proglašen krivim i osuđen na doživotni zatvor bez mogućnosti uvjetnog otpusta. [32] Kasnije je premješten iz La Santéa u zatvor Clairvaux. [33]

2001. godine, nakon što je prešao na islam, [34] Ramírez Sánchez se oženio svojom odvjetnicom, Isabelle Coutant-Peyre, na muslimanskoj ceremoniji, iako je još bio oženjen svojom drugom suprugom. [35]

U lipnju 2003. Carlos je objavio zbirku spisa iz svoje zatvorske ćelije. Knjiga čiji se naslov prevodi na Revolucionarni islam, nastoji objasniti i obraniti nasilje u smislu klasnog sukoba. U knjizi izražava podršku Osami bin Ladenu i njegovim napadima na Sjedinjene Države.

Europski sud za ljudska prava 2005. godine saslušao je tužbu Ramíreza Sáncheza da njegove dugogodišnje samice predstavljaju "nečovječno i ponižavajuće postupanje". Iako je sud odbacio ovu tužbu, u žalbi je uložena početkom 2006. godine.

U govoru 2009. venezuelski predsjednik Hugo Chávez pohvalio je Ramíreza Sáncheza, rekavši da je nepravedno osuđen i da nije terorist, već "revolucionarni borac". [36]

Novo suđenje

U svibnju 2007., sudac za borbu protiv terorizma Jean-Louis Bruguière naložio je novo suđenje Ramírezu Sánchezu po optužbama za "ubojstva i uništavanje imovine eksplozivnim tvarima" u Francuskoj 1982. i 1983. U bombaškim napadima poginulo je jedanaest i ozlijeđeno više od 100 ljudi . [37] Ramírez Sánchez nijekao je bilo kakvu povezanost sa događajima na svom suđenju 2011. godine, organizirajući devetodnevni štrajk glađu u znak protesta protiv svojih uvjeta u zatvoru. [38] Suđenje, za koje se očekivalo da će trajati šest tjedana, počelo je 7. studenog 2011. u Parizu. [34] Suđeno je još trojici članova organizacije Ramíreza Sáncheza u odsutnosti u isto vrijeme: Johannes Weinrich, Christina Frohlich i Ali Kamal Issawi. [34] Njemačka je odbila izručiti Weinricha i Frohlicha, a Issawi, Palestinac, "navodno je u bijegu". [34] Ramírez Sánchez i dalje poriče bilo kakvu umiješanost u napade. [34] 15. prosinca 2011. Ramírez Sánchez, Weinrich i Issawi osuđeni su i osuđeni na doživotni zatvor. Frohlich je oslobođen. [39] Ramírez Sánchez uložio je žalbu na presudu, a novo suđenje počelo je u svibnju 2013. [40] Izgubio je žalbu 26. lipnja 2013., a suci na posebnom sudu za borbu protiv terorizma potvrdili su mu doživotnu kaznu. [41]


Šakal CarlosOrganizacija arapske oružane borbe

Ilich Ramirez Sanchez bio je sin bogatog vođe komunističke partije Venezuele. Illich Ramirez Sanchez, svijetu poznatiji kao Šalos Carlos, bio je odgovoran za brojne terorističke akte u Europi 1960 -ih i 1970 -ih. Prema novijim standardima, sve izgleda prilično pitomo, ako ne i čudno.

Obučen na Kubi, Sanchezov nadimak dolazi od lika iz romana Fredericka Forsytha iz 1971. Dan šakala. Forsythova je knjiga smještena u rane šezdesete godine prošlog stoljeća u Francuskoj. Organizacija de l'armæe secrte pokušala je ubiti DeGaullea, koji je zemlji Alžiru dodijelio neovisnost, ali nije uspjela. Rezultat je bio da je DeGaulle bio najstrože čuvan čovjek na svijetu. Kao očajnički čin, unajmljuju The Jackal, kodno ime unajmljenog ubojice koji je pristao ubiti francuskog predsjednika De Gaullea.

Jedan od najzloglasnijih terorista u povijesti, "Carlos Šakal" sudjelovao je u ubojstvima u Europi i na Bliskom istoku. Tijekom Hladnog rata otmice, atentati, otmice, uzimanje talaca, bombardiranje i oružana pljačka bile su glavne metode terorizma. Carlos Šakal, bivši terorist Narodne fronte za oslobođenje Palestine (PFLP), bio je organizator zloglasne talačke krize u Beču u prosincu 1975. Organizacije zemalja izvoznica nafte (OPEC). Šakal je preuzeo "operativnu i političku odgovornost" za operacije PFLP -a u Europi. Početkom 1980 -ih, teroristička skupina predvođena zloglasnim "Šakalom Carlosom" postavila je bombe na putničke vlakove u Francuskoj.

Vjerovalo se da je Carlos, najozloglašeniji terorist svog vremena, radio za Mohamara Qaddaffija iz Libije, Sadama Huseina iz Iraka, predsjednika Asada iz Sirije, Fidela Castra iz Kube, Georgea Habash -a i Narodnu frontu za oslobođenje Palestine (PFLP) Talijanska Crvena brigada, Kolumbijski pokret M-19, banda BaaderMeinholf i bilo koji broj drugih "komunističkih i socijalističkih" poslodavaca.

Međutim, Carlos je bio slobodnjak i radio je za bilo koga, nikada ne uspostavljajući stalnu uzajamnu lojalnost nacionalnoj državi. Činilo se da je u to vrijeme Ilich Ramirez Sanchez bio više bonvivan nego predani ideolog. No, kao samozvani "profesionalni revolucionar", bio je odgovoran za dvadeset četiri smrti i 257 ranjenih tijekom svoje nasilne karijere.

Carlos je nastavio s osnivanjem vlastite terorističke skupine koju je nazvao Organizacija arapske oružane borbe. Pokušali su oteti nuklearnu elektranu 1982., ali nisu uspjeli. Grupa je zatim izvela niz bombardiranja u Parizu. U to vrijeme Carlos je bio prisiljen pobjeći iz Europe, konačno se nastanivši u Damasku. Živio je u Siriji između 1985. i 1991. godine, nakon čega se preselio u Jordan, a zatim u Sudan.

Douglas Farah, viši suradnik u Međunarodnom centru za procjenu i strategiju, primijetio je 20012. godine da je "Šakal Carlos" među prvima artikulirao moguće spajanje radikalne šiitske islamske misli s marksističkim težnjama uništenja kapitalizma i američke hegemonije. U svojim spisima Snchez Ramirez zagovara marksizam vezan za revolucionarne, nasilne palestinske ustanke, a početkom 2000 -ih nakon što je postao musliman, militantni islamizam. Ipak, nije napustio svoje marksističke korijene, vjerujući da će islamizam i marksizam zajedno formirati globalni antiimperijalistički front koji će definitivno uništiti Sjedinjene Države, globalizaciju i imperijalizam.

U svojoj ključnoj knjizi "Revolucionarni islam" iz 2003., napisanoj iz zatvora u kojem je služio doživotnu kaznu zatvora zbog ubistva dvojice francuskih policajaca, Snchez Ramirez je pohvalio Osamu bin Ladena i napade 9-11 na Sjedinjene Države kao "veliki podvig" oružje i dio opravdane `oružane borbe` islama protiv Zapada. "Od sada će terorizam biti više -manje svakodnevni dio krajolika vaših trulih demokracija", napisao je.

Ponovljene, javne pohvale Chvezza za Sncheza Ramireza bile su ključni element bolivarske ideologije i prihvaćanje njegove temeljne premise kao važne za Chvezsov ideološki okvir. Chvez je naredio svom veleposlaniku u Francuskoj da traži oslobađanje Sncheza Ramireza i u više je navrata osuđenog terorista nazvao "prijateljem" i "istinskim revolucionarom".

U pismu Snchezu Ramirezu 1999. Chvez je pozdravio terorista kao "uglednog sunarodnjaka" i napisao da je "plivajući u dubini vašeg pisma solidarnosti mogao čuti puls našeg zajedničkog uvida da sve ima svoje vrijeme" : vrijeme za gomilanje kamenja ili njihovo bacanje, za potpaljivanje revolucije ili za zanemarivanje nje radi dijalektičkog jedinstva između naših zaraćenih klasa ili za poticanje sukoba među njima - vrijeme kada se možete izravno boriti za načela i vrijeme kada se morate odlučiti odgovarajuća borba, sa oštrim osjećajem čekajući trenutak istine, na isti način na koji Arijadna, uložena u te iste principe, postavlja nit koja je izvodi iz labirinta. "

Više od pola stoljeća, legenda specijalnih snaga i CIA -e Billy Waugh posvetio je svoj život pronalaženju i uklanjanju najopasnijih američkih neprijatelja. Sretno zarobljen u bijednom i užasnom Kartumu početkom devedesetih godina prošlog stoljeća, on je vršio nadzor nad zvijezdom terorista Carlosom Šakalom i pratio nadolazećeg Osamu bin Ladena.

Upornost Billyja Waugha, poznavanje osobina ljudskog karaktera i sposobnost uspostave nenametljivog gradskog osmatračnice omogućili su mu da pronađe i popravi međunarodnog terorista Carlosa Šakala za kasnije privođenje od strane francuskih snaga sigurnosti. Waugh prepričava kako ih je pratio početkom 1990 -ih (tvrdeći da njegovi prijedlozi da ih ubije nisu prihvaćeni).

Carlos je dvadeset godina bježao od obavještajnih agencija i policije prije nego što je zarobljen u Sudanu 1994. Šakal je predao francuskim obavještajcima. Šakal je 14. kolovoza predan agentima iz francuskog Direction de la Surveillance du Territoire (DST).

Šakal se vratio na sud u svibnju 2013. godine kako bi se žalio na presudu za niz smrtonosnih bombaških napada u Francuskoj prije 30 godina. Ovaj 63-godišnjak, koji je bio zatvoren u Francuskoj od zarobljavanja u Sudanu 1994. godine, proglašen je krivim 2011. za organiziranje napada 1982. i 1983. na dva francuska putnička vlaka, željezničku stanicu u Marseilleu i ured libijskog časopisa u Pariz.

U to vrijeme koji je već služio doživotni zatvor zbog ubojstva, Carlos je dobio još jednu doživotnu kaznu zbog svoje uloge u napadima u kojima je 11 ljudi poginulo, a gotovo 150 ozlijeđeno, čime je stekao plašt najtraženijeg bjegunca na svijetu.

Šakal Carlos suočio se s mogućom trećom doživotnom kaznom dok se sudi u Parizu 13. ožujka 2017. za napad granatom iz 1974. u kojem su poginule dvije osobe, a ozlijeđene 34. 67-godišnji Venezuelac navodno je bacio granatu iz polukat u užurbani restoran u trgovačkoj arkadi u Saint-Germain-des-Presu, Pariz, 15. rujna 1974. Slučaj napada granatama u početku je odbačen zbog nedostatka dokaza, ali je kasnije ponovno otvoren nakon njegova uhićenja 1994. u sudanskoj prijestolnici iz Kartuma.

Tužiteljstvo tvrdi da je napad granatom povezan s većom zavjerom, koja je uključivala situaciju s taocima u francuskom veleposlanstvu u Haagu 13. rujna 1974. Član japanske Crvene armije, komunistička militantna skupina, uhićen je u Zračna luka Pariz dva mjeseca ranije. This group was alleged to have had ties to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), of which Carlos was a key member.


Ilich Ramirez Sanchez (Carlos the Jackal) 1949-

Until the events of September 11th, Carlos the Jackal was without doubt the most famous international Terrorist in the world. A skilful, intelligent terrorist for hire, he was one of the most wanted men in the world for several decades and he epitomised the western idea of a terrorist. Born Ilich Ramirez Sanchez in Caracas, Venezuela, on October 12, 1949, Carlos was the son of a successful Marxist lawyer, and had a wealthy upbringing with a father keen to feed his sons' Marxist ideology and a traditionally catholic mother. It was only natural for the young Sanchez to become interested in Communism and the South American communist heroes of the day such as Che Guevara.

By the time he was 17 Carlos was already involved with his country's revolutionary groups and showed considerable potential. Due to this and his father's influence he was soon being trained in the Cuban camp Mantanzas studying Guerrilla warfare and sabotage techniques as well as bomb and weapon skills thanks to his KGB trainers.
When his parents divorced he moved to London with his mother and brothers and took up a playboy life style, mixing at embassy parties and making contacts which would serve him well in his future career, and learning how to mix in the upper part of society. Years later many of his friends from this period would be shocked to learn that the dashing young play boy with a taste for the ladies was really a killer. His father's influence continued to aid Carlos and his brothers, as they were able to get places at Moscow's Patrice Lumumba University. Here he continued his student life style of wine, women and song while most likely being recruited by the KGB.
In 1969 he was expelled from the Venezuelan Communist party after supporting a rebel group which had fallen out of favour. 1970 saw Carlos expelled from university after he joined a faction of Arab students protesting in the street, a protest that was seen as anti-soviet. This was the beginning of his long involvement with Arab terrorism. While still at the university he had met a number of Palestinian students who were determined to gain an independent state even if that meant international terrorism. After being expelled he joined the Marxist Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) a group known for a series of airline hijackings. By July 1970 Ramirez was at a training camp in Jordan and after a meeting with Abu-Sharif the PFLP's recruiting officer he became known as Carlos the Jackal. The PFLP gained strength and started to form alliances with other terrorist groups such as the Baader-Meinhof gang and the Italian Red Brigade. Carlos' reputation within the organisation grew after "Black September" where he fought against the Jordanian army trying to purge their country of terrorists.
1971 saw Carlos back in London once again mixing with high society while secretly gathering information on people worth assassinating or kidnapping. 1972 saw the attack on the Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics and although Carlos wasn't involved, the aftermath was to put him on the map. In retaliation the Israeli secret service killed a high-ranking member of the PFLP so Carlos was ordered to strike back at a respected member of the Jewish community in London, Edward Sieff the president of Marks & Spencer. In December 1973 Carlos went to Sieffs house and shot him, luckily not fatally. Carlos had preceded this by a hand grenade attack on the London headquarters of an Israeli bank and a car bomb in Paris in 1972, which injured 63 people. His international reputation was born.
Carlos followed this up by moving his base of operations to Paris where he carried out three car bomb attacks against pro-Israeli newspapers and a trademark grenade attack on the Deux Magots restaurant killing 2 and injuring 34. This technique of walking in, throwing a grenade and walking out demonstrated Carlos' bravery and a particular cool blooded ruthlessness. His most famous attack came in Austria in December 1975. Here Carlos and a small band stormed an OPEC meeting killing the security detail and taking 70 people hostage. Shocked the Austrian authorities negotiated and after broadcasting a political message and getting massive world media attention Carlos and his gang left on a plane releasing the hostages in Algeria when they landed. The PFLP were angry that Carlos hadn't killed the hostages and with his celebrity status and expelled him, but it is rumoured that Carlos picked up $1 million from Libyan President Col Qadhafi for the OPEC assault. In 1976 he was involved in a skyjacking of an Air France jet to Uganda, lead to the famous raid on Entebbe by Israeli Special Forces and the take over of the French embassy in The Hague, which resulted in two deaths (for which eventually Carlos was brought to trial). Carlos was renown as a master of disguise, using fake passports and credit cards he frequently slipped through the net of capture and avoided assassination attempts. During this period many attacks, hijacking and bombings were blamed on him or linked to him with little real evidence.
Carlos now became a freelance terrorist, gathering terrorists from various European and Arab countries to his Organization of Arab Armed Struggle. 1979 saw Carlos get married to the German terrorist Magdalena Kopp. The honeymoon period didn't last long as 1982 saw the couple trying to blow up a French nuclear plant with RPG-7 grenades. The attack failed and not long after Kopp and another terrorist were arrested. Determined to free his wife Carlos carried out several attacks against French assets around the world but failed to win his wife her freedom.
The net was now closing in on Carlos as the French secret service and the CIA were determined to capture him. As the Cold War came to an end his old backers in the Soviet block were no longer willing to help him and 1985 saw him in hiding in Syria. He was now too famous for anyone to hire. By the 90s Carlos was constantly on the move and was finally captured on August 14th 1994 in the Sudan, aged 45, still up to his old hobbies of drinking and womanising.
During his career Carlos the Jackal was the template for the western idea of an international terrorist - daring, ruthless, able to mix in society at all levels and with a gift for languages. We should not forget that he was responsible for the deaths of over 80 people. He was tried for the murder of two French agents and a Lebanese police informant who he had killed in 1975 when they tried to capture him. He was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1997. Since the 1970s he has been a constant thorn in side of French and Western authorities and an inspiration to two generations of would-be terrorists. To some he was a freedom fighter, to others a ruthless murderer and mercenary. Certainly Carlos was no mad dog killer as the release of the OPEC hostages shows, but he was also not adverse to killing civilians. Heavily motivated by ideology from an early age and with a good background and education he had no need to turn to terrorism but choose to. Enjoying his play boy life style and image he liked to see himself as the alternative James bond and many suspect that Frederick Forsyth's novel, The Day of the Jackal, is based on the famous terrorist as are the two films based on the book. For those studying counter terrorism Carlos illustrates what damage one well-educated and motivated man can do, a lesson bitterly reinforced by Bin Laden and the events of September 11th. Speaking from his prison cell in France Carlos has named Bin Laden as his natural successor to continue the fight against western imperialism


Sadržaj

Rani život

Ramírez Sánchez was born in Caracas, Venezuela. Α] Despite his mother's pleas to give their firstborn child a Christian first name, his father, a Leninist lawyer, called him Ilich, after Lenin (two younger siblings were named "Lenin" and "Vladimir"). Β] He attended a school in Caracas and joined the youth movement of the national communist party in 1959. After attending the Third Tricontinental Conference in January 1966 with his father, Ramírez Sánchez reportedly spent the summer at Camp Matanzas, a guerrilla warfare school run by the Cuban General Intelligence Directorate near Havana. Γ] Later that year, his parents divorced. His mother took her children to London to study in Stafford House College in Kensington and the London School of Economics. In 1968 his father tried to enroll him and his brother at Sorbonne University, but eventually opted for Patrice Lumumba University in Moscow. He was expelled from the university in 1970.

He then traveled to a guerrilla training camp run by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) in Amman, Jordan. He claimed to have fought alongside the PFLP members as they resisted the Jordanian government's efforts to expel them in 1970. He eventually left Jordan to attend courses at the Polytechnic of Central London and apparently continued to work for the PFLP.

In 1973 Carlos was associated with the PFLP, which had conducted a failed assassination attempt on Jewish businessman and vice-president of the British Zionist Federation Joseph Sieff. This was prompted by the Mossad assassination of Mohamed Boudia, a theatre director accused of being a PFLP leader, in Paris. Ramírez Sánchez also admits responsibility for a failed bomb attack on the Bank Hapoalim in London and car bomb attacks on three French newspapers which were accused of pro-Israeli leanings. He claimed to be the grenade thrower at a Parisian restaurant in an attack that killed two and injured 30. He later participated in two failed rocket propelled grenade attacks on El Al airliners at Orly Airport near Paris on Jan. 13 and 17, 1975.

On June 27, 1975, Carlos's PFLP contact, Lebanon-born Michel Moukharbal, was captured and successfully interrogated. When three policemen tried to apprehend Carlos at a house in Paris in the middle of a party, he shot two detectives, fled the scene and managed to escape via Brussels to Beirut.

OPEC raid

From Beirut, Carlos participated in the planning for the attack on the headquarters of OPEC in Vienna. On December 20, 1975 he led the six-person team (which included Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann) that assaulted the meeting of OPEC leaders and took over sixty hostages. Carlos demanded from the Austrian authorities to read a communiqué about the Palestinian cause on the Austrian radio and television network every two hours. After negotiations this communiqué was broadcast as requested.

On December 22 the rebels and forty-two hostages were given an airliner and flown to Algiers, Algeria. Ex-Royal Navy pilot Neville Atkinson, who at that time was personal pilot for Libya's leader Muammar al-Gaddafi, was given the task of flying Carlos and a number of other terrorists, including Hans-Joachim Klein, a supporter of the imprisoned Baader-Meinhof group and member of the Revolutionary Cells, and Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann, from Algiers. Δ] The terrorists were finally dispatched in Baghdad. Thirty hostages were freed the DC-9 was then flown on to Tripoli, where more hostages were freed before flying back to Algiers where the remaining hostages were freed and the rebels were granted asylum.

In the years following the OPEC raid, Abu Sharif and Joachim Klein claimed that Carlos had received a large sum of money in exchange for the safe release of the Arab hostages and had kept it for his personal use. There is still some uncertainty regarding the amount that changed hands but it is believed to be somewhere between 20-50 million dollars. Who paid the money is also uncertain but according to Klein it came from "an Arab President." Carlos later told his lawyers that the money was paid by the Saudis on behalf of the Iranians and was, "diverted en route and lost by the Revolution." Ε ]

Carlos soon left Algeria for Libya and then Aden, where he attended a meeting of senior PFLP officials to justify his failure to execute two senior OPEC hostages: the finance minister of Iran, Jamshid Amuzgar, and the oil minister of Saudi Arabia, Ahmed Zaki Yamani. PFLP-EO leader Wadi Haddad expelled him.

After 1975

In September 1976 Carlos was arrested and detained in Yugoslavia, then flown to Baghdad. From there he chose to settle more permanently in Aden, where he set about forming his own group, the Organization of Arab Armed Struggle, composed of Syrian, Lebanese and German rebels. He also formed a contact with East Germany's Stasi. At one stage, the Romanian Securitate hired him to assassinate Romanian dissidents in France and destroy Radio Free Europe offices in Munich. With conditional support from the Iraqi regime and the death of Haddad, Carlos offered the services of his group to the PFLP and other groups.

The group did not perform its first acts until early in 1982, with a failed attack on a French nuclear power station, the Superphénix.

When two of the group, including Magdalena Kopp, Carlos's wife, were arrested in Paris, the group set off a number of bombs in retaliation against French targets. Operations in 1983 included attacks on the "Maison de France" in West Berlin in August in which one man was killed and 22 injured.

On December 31, 1983 bombs on two TGV trains exploded killing 4 passengers and injuring dozens more. Within days of the bombings, Carlos sent letters to three separate news agencies claiming responsibility for the bombings as revenge for a French air strike against a PFLP training camp in Lebanon the previous month. Ζ]

These attacks led to pressure on East European states that tolerated Carlos. For over two years he lived in Hungary, in Budapest's noble quarter, the second district. His main go-between for some of his money-sources like Gaddhafi or Dr. George Habashwas the friend of his sister, "Dietmar C". C., known German terrorist and the leader of the Panther Brigade of the PFLP. Carlos was expelled from Hungary in late 1985 and was refused aid in Iraq, Libya and Cuba before he found limited support in Syria. He settled in Damascus with Kopp and their daughter, Elba Rosa.

The Syrian government forced Carlos to remain inactive and he was soon no longer seen as a threat but rather a pathetic figure. However, in 1990 the Iraqi government approached him and in September 1991 he was expelled from Syria and eventually found a temporary home in Jordan. He found better protection in Sudan and moved to Khartoum.

During his career, most of it during the Cold War, western accounts persistently claimed he was a KGB agent but the link is tenuous at best. It is now clear that he had no part in the Munich Massacre (the attack on Israeli athletes in Munich in 1972) or the 1976 hijacking of Air France Flight 139 to Entebbe. Some attacks may have been attributed to him for lack of anyone else to claim the credit. His own boasts about probably nonexistent "missions" confuse the matter even more.

Arrest and imprisonment

The French and U.S. intelligence agencies offered a number of deals to the Sudanese authorities. In 1994, Carlos was scheduled to undergo a minor testicular operation on a varicose vein on his scrotum in a hospital in Sudan. Η] Two days after the operation, Carlos was told by Sudanese officials that he needed to be moved to a villa for protection from an assassination attempt, and he would be given personal bodyguards. One night later, his own bodyguards burst into his room while he slept and he was tranquilized, tied up, and taken from the villa. ⎖] On August 14, 1994 he was handed over to French agents of the DST and flown to Paris. He was charged with the Paris murders of two policemen and PFLP guerrilla turned French informant Michel Moukharbal in 1975 and sent to La Santé de Paris prison to await trial.

The trial began on December 12, 1997 and ended on December 23 at which time he was found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment.

In 2001, Ramírez Sánchez was married in a Muslim ceremony to his lawyer, Isabelle Coutant-Peyre, although he was still legally wed to his second wife. ⎗ ]

In June 2003, Carlos published a collection of writings from his jail cell. The book, whose title translates to Revolutionary Islam, seeks to explain and defend violence in terms of class conflict. In the book, he voices support for Osama bin Laden and his attacks on the United States. He also supported Saddam Hussein for resisting the USA, calling him the "Last Arabic Knight".

In 2005, the European Court of Human Rights heard a complaint from Ramírez Sánchez that his long years of solitary confinement constitute "inhuman and degrading treatment". Although the Court rejected this claim, it was on appeal as of early 2006. Carlos is currently held in Clairvaux Prison, where he is part of the general inmate population.

Revolutionary Islam knjiga

Carlos is reported to have converted to Islam. In June 2003, Revolutionary Islam, a book "compiled and edited by a French journalist, Jean-Michel Vernochet, on the basis of letters, interviews and texts" by Carlos, went on sale. ⎘] In it Carlos praises Osama bin Laden and the September 11 attacks and advocates Revolutionary Islam as a "new, post-Communist answer to what he calls US `totalitarianism`", telling readers "from now on terrorism is going to be more or less a daily part of the landscape of your rotting democracies."

However some have questioned the authenticity of the book in light of the fact that "the French prison system is supposed to strictly control all correspondence between inmates and the outside world." ⎘] Another observer has questioned the depth of Carlos's Muslim knowledge, claiming "his knowledge of Islamic doctrine, theology, history, and political philosophy is almost nonexistent." Carlos mistakenly refers to the first four caliphs (known as the Rashidun, or "rightly guided" caliphs) who were only distantly related to each other, as members of a "dynasty known as the `Rashidis.`" He also "confuses Hajjaj Ibn Yussef, the brutal governor of Kufa, with Mansur Al-Hallaj, the mystic who was crucified for blasphemy." ⎙ ]

New trial

In May 2007 anti-terrorism judge Jean-Louis Bruguiere ordered a new trial for Carlos on charges relating to "killings and destruction of property using explosive substances" in France in 1982 and 1983. The bombings killed 11 and injured more than 100 people. ⎚ ]


Carlos The Jackal: One Of The Most Notorious Terrorists In History (Pictures)

Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, otherwise known as Carlos the Jackal, first hit international headlines in 1975 when he led a commando raid in Vienna on an Opec oil cartel meeting, taking dozens of ministers hostage to Algeria and extracting a ransom of £10m. His infamy was sealed when the raid ended in three deaths.

He went on to become one of the world's most notorious militants as he masterminded deadly attacks across Europe, avoiding capture throughout the 1970s and 1980s.

For the past three decades years, he has been the face of violent Marxist struggle. He became a romanticised, exotic figure with his penchant for Havana cigars, womanising, berets, and alcohol adding to his enigmatic allure. Outside his revolutionary supporters though, he is simply seen as a cold-blooded terrorist.

Working in the name of far-left groups and Palestinian liberation, he claimed to have been responsible for killing more than 1,500 people in the name of his cause.

His latest trial in Paris deals with four attacks in the 1980s, thought to be part of his war against the French authorities to free two comrades, including his future wife, who were arrested planning to attack the Kuwaiti embassy.

Born in Caracas, Venezuela in 1949, Ramirez became a poster-boy for international militant Marxism as 'Carlos the Jackal'. Ramirez took 'Carlos' as his nom de guerre, and "The Jackal" was added by British journalists, after a Guardian writer saw a copy of Frederick Forsyth's book 'The Day of the Jackal' in his London flat.

In the 1960s, the family moved to London, where Ramirez was partly brought up. The son of a wealthy Marxist lawyer, Jose Altagracia Ramirez Navas, he and his brothers were home-schooled by Communist tutors and all given revolutionary Communist names: Ilich, Lenin and Vladimir.

Ramirez headed to Moscow's Patrice Lumumba University, famed as a training ground for leftist revolutionaries and guerillas all over the world, but he was expelled in 1970.

He later moved to Lebanon, where he joined the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. His brother Vladimir explained to The Guardian that "he decided that the best way to defeat imperialism was to take up arms and the best place to do it was the Middle East."

He became increasingly in a range of international terrorist organisations, such as West Germany's Red Army Faction. Files released from police archives in Hungary, East Germany and Romania allegedly outline his involvement in a series of attacks.

With the collapse of European communism in 1989, Ramirez found life on the run more difficult. Eventually he took refuge in Sudan, where he was seized from a hospital room in 1994 and hauled to Paris on a private jet inside a sack by French agents.

Jailed for life in 1997 for three murders in Paris, he divorced his first wife Magdalena Kopp while in jail through the Muslim ritual of renunciation. He then married his French lawyer, Isabelle Coutant-Peyre, whom he met and married in jail in 2001.

In a recent interview with French radio regarding his latest trial, he vowed to fight the charges with his characteristic revolutionary fervour, he insisted "I'm still in a combative state of mind".

He has also remained as controversial as ever. Last month he praised Osama Bin Laden in France's Liberation newspaper, as a martyr who served as an "example . for authentic resisters against imperialism."


SUDAN SEIZES TERRORIST 'CARLOS THE JACKAL'

PARIS, AUG. 15 -- Illich Ramirez Sanchez, who as "Carlos the Jackal" was synonymous with spectacular international terrorism for nearly a quarter of a century, has been arrested in Sudan and was extradited to France today to stand trial for the murder of two French counterespionage agents.

The baby-faced killer was blamed for 83 deaths in the 1970s and early 1980s, when he was perhaps the world's most notorious and elusive criminal. He was arrested without a fight Sunday in Khartoum, the Sudanese capital, and flown to Villacoublay military airport near Paris early today on an official French executive jet, according to French Interior Minister Charles Pasqua.

His arrest apparently marked the end of a long underground career. He first burst onto the international stage with the kidnapping of ministers attending a Vienna meeting of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries in 1975. His career also included a number of assassinations and a series of operations designed to free a German woman whom he later married.

Carlos's arrest apparently came when the hired gun had outlived his usefulness to international sponsors. These once spanned a spectrum from extremist Palestinian guerrilla organizations to established radical Arab regimes and East European states of the Soviet Bloc.

Middle East specialists suggested that in the peaceful new atmosphere governing East-West and Arab-Israeli relations, Carlos simply had become expendable. High-ranking Sudanese officials, who refused to be identified, told reporters in Khartoum that an unnamed Arab country last December provided Carlos with a diplomatic passport and forced him onto a plane to Khartoum.

The U.S. government has put Sudan on a list of countries supporting terrorism, and Sudan's official news agency quoted Justice Minister Abdel Aziz Shido today as calling for the removal of Khartoum from that list. But the brand of messianic Islamic fundamentalism that has gotten the Khartoum authorities in trouble with the West has nothing to do with the Marxist-influenced revolutionary ideology that helped inspire Carlos's operations.

State Department officials in Washington said Sudan's surrender of Carlos is insufficient to erase the country from the department's list, Washington Post staff writer Daniel Williams reported.

The Clinton administration, they added, believes Sudan shelters members of terrorist groups including the Fatah-Revolutionary Council, the organization headed by Sabri Banni, known as Abu Nidal, as well as Hezbollah, an Iranian-backed Lebanese group whose security units have been blamed for terrorist attacks. Iran also operates terrorist training camps in Sudan, administration officials said.

Carlos has spent most of the last 10 years in Syria, U.S. officials said. In 1991, photos in German magazines showed him living in Damascus. He left Syria at the beginning of this year, apparently losing the patronage of Syrian President Hafez Assad, the U.S. officials said.

The U.S. government has no outstanding warrant for Carlos's arrest because he never targeted Americans, they added.

Carlos, who was born in Venezuela on Oct. 12, 1949, and named Illich in honor of Soviet state founder Vladimir Illich Lenin, operated under many aliases and disguises.

Committed to the Palestinian cause and opposed to what he denounced as "imperialism and Zionism," the son of a prosperous Communist lawyer became undesirable in the post-Cold War world.

Carlos's network of safe houses and official support in Czechoslovakia, Hungary and especially East Germany -- all of which once made him such a successful terrorist -- collapsed abruptly with the destruction of the Berlin Wall in 1989.

His file with Stasi, the East German secret police, became public knowledge, and his relations with their Hungarian counterparts were shown on Hungarian state television.

Even his devotion to the Palestinian cause became suspect in a Middle East in which overall peace between Arab states and Israel is close to being taken for granted, and in which the Jewish state has recognized the Palestine Liberation Organization.

Even in his heyday, Carlos was more adept at spectacular coups calculated to grab publicity than in the dogged organizational work that distinguished his more deadly Palestinian rival, Abu Nidal.

Pasqua told French television viewers that Carlos's arrest was accomplished thanks to a letter that the interior minister wrote to his Sudanese counterpart, Tayeb Ibrahim Mohamed Khair, "about two weeks ago."

Pasqua also credited cooperation of intelligence organizations of unnamed governments with helping France locate Carlos before Sudanese authorities arrested him at a rented house, apparently on Sunday, and handed him over to Interpol.

Khair justified the arrests on the grounds that Carlos and an undisclosed number of colleagues were indulging in "suspicious activities" and planning "terrorist plots against some foreign institutions in the Sudan." He did not elaborate.

Carlos joined Venezuela's Communist Party as a teenager and was sent in 1968 to Patrice Lumumba University, the Soviet Union's school for Third World students.

Less than two years later, his taste for high living prompted his dismissal from that breeding ground for Soviet intelligence agents, but not before he made enduring friendships with Palestinian students there -- especially those of the Marxist Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.

After training in its camps in Jordan, Carlos later told interviewers, he took part in the guerrillas' disastrous war and defeat at the hands of Jordan's professional army in 1970.

Known as "Black September," the name later given to Palestinian units sent to avenge the humiliation, the setback ushered in a decade of terrorism that included many of Carlos's early operations.

But Carlos soon lent his talents to groups as varied as the Japanese Red Army, the Basque separatists of the ETA, the German Baader-Meinhof gang and the Turkish Popular Liberation Front.

His name was linked with the Japanese Red Army's occupation of the French Embassy in the Netherlands in 1974 and a nearly successful rocket attack on an El Al airliner at Orly airport in Paris.

In June 1975, Carlos was holing up in Paris, in the Left Bank apartment of a girlfriend, when he shot and killed an accomplice-turned-informer and two inspectors investigating the attack on the plane.

Carlos was sentenced in his absence in 1992 to life imprisonment for the inspectors' deaths. He now will be retried.

Pasqua said Carlos's arrest was a high priority for French security through nearly two decades of right- and left-wing governments. On arrival in France, Carlos was questioned by France's counterespionage service and transferred to La Sante prison in Paris.

Carlos staged a string of bloody operations in 1982 following the arrest of Bruno Breguet, a Swiss, and Magdalena Kopp, a girlfriend who was a former member of Germany's radical Red Army Faction guerrillas. They were sentenced to four years in prison for transporting a car full of explosives that was found in an underground garage on the Champs-Elysees.

In an effort to secure the release of the woman who later became his wife and bore a daughter, Carlos surfaced for the first time in six years. He wrote a letter in March 1982 to then-French Interior Minister Gaston Defferre, authenticated by his fingerprints, warning of terrorist attacks unless Breguet and Kopp were freed.

That same month, a bomb exploded aboard the Paris-Toulouse express train, killing six people and wounding 15 amid suggestions that Carlos was responsible and had meant to kill then-Prime Minister Jacques Chirac -- who turned out not to be aboard.

The next month, a bomb exploded in a rush-hour crowd just off the Champs-Elysees, killing a pregnant woman and wounding 63 people.

On New Year's Eve 1983, bombs exploded in Marseille's rail terminal and on the Paris-Marseille express.

Kopp and Breguet were released in May 1985, and Kopp flew to Damascus to join Carlos.

His nickname, "the Jackal," was bestowed on him because of the similarity of his coldblooded modus operandi with that of the fictional character in Frederick Forsyth's novel "The Day of the Jackal" who was hired to assassinate President Charles de Gaulle.

Illich Ramirez Sanchez cultivated a reputation of nearly legendary proportions as Carlos the Jackal, globe-trotting terrorist, and many reports concerning him have been exaggerated. Here are the main operations attributed to him over the years.

* Wounding of British millionaire Edward Sieff, a Jew whose family owns Marks and Spencer stores, in London.

* Takeover of the French Embassy in The Hague.

* Killing of two French intelligence agents who were investigating attacks on planes of Israel's El Al airlines at Paris's Orly Airport.

* Held responsible for an attack on OPEC headquarters in Vienna, in which three people were killed and 11 taken hostage. The cartel's oil ministers were taken to North Africa in a hijacked plane in a $1 billion ransom drama.

* Hijacking of an Air France jetliner to Entebbe, Uganda.

* Bombing of the Paris-Toulouse express train that killed six people and wounded 15.

* Bombing just off the Champs Elysees in Paris killed a pregnant woman and wounded 63 other people.

* Bombings in Marseille's main railroad terminal and on the Paris-Marseille express killed five people and wounded 50.

* Bombing of French cultural center in West Berlin killed one and wounded 23.


Ilich Ramírez Sánchez

(born 1949). The 1994 seizure in Sudan of international terrorist Ilich Ramírez Sánchez, better known as Carlos the Jackal, marked the final chapter of a manhunt that had lasted for two decades. Ramírez achieved infamy for his role in lethal attacks carried out during the 1970s and ’80s, but the folklore that surrounded him grew during his years in hiding and may have inflated accounts of the scope of his activity. Ramírez used the name Carlos as his alias. The press nicknamed him the Jackal, after the title of a Frederick Forsyth novel, The Day of the Jackal (1971), which told of an assassin sent to kill President Charles de Gaulle of France. Carlos was involved in such a plot, but it failed.

Ilich Ramírez Sánchez was born in Caracas, Venezuela, on October 12, 1949. From 1968 to 1970 he attended Patrice Lumumba University in Moscow, Russia. Late in 1970 he went to Beirut, Lebanon, and joined the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, a guerrilla organization dedicated to the destruction of the State of Israel. His first known assignment, in 1973, was to assassinate Edward Sieff, a London businessman and head of Great Britain’s Zionist Federation. Carlos botched the task and only wounded his victim. His most successful episode occurred on December 21, 1975, when he and a group of Palestinian and German terrorists broke into the offices of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in Vienna and kidnapped 11 Middle East oil ministers. Three people were killed in the attack. The terrorists commandeered an airplane and flew to Algiers, Algeria, where the hostages were released in exchange for $20 million in ransom. The kidnappers surrendered in Algiers but were released within a few days. Other actions in which Carlos was known to have participated include the killing of two French intelligence agents and another man in Paris in 1975 the 1982 bombing of a Paris–Toulouse express train, killing five people and the 1983 bombings of a train station in Marseille, France. Carlos was also suspected of involvement in a number of other acts of international terrorism.

In March 1982 Carlos began issuing threats against the French government, demanding the release from prison of the terrorists Magdalena Kopp and Bruno Breguet. Kopp had been a member of the Baader-Meinhof Gang. In 1985, after incidents that killed 12 people and wounded 125 or more, the French government complied. Kopp flew to Damascus, Syria, where Carlos made his headquarters, and the two were married.

From the late 1980s onward little was heard about Carlos. He spent most of the decade after 1985 living in Damascus. In 1992, while he continued to elude authorities, a French court sentenced him in absentia to life imprisonment for the 1975 Paris murders. In 1993 he went to Khartoum, Sudan, traveling under a false passport. French intelligence agents learned of his presence and asked the Sudanese government to arrest him and turn him over to French authorities. This they did on August 14, 1994, and he was taken to France and imprisoned. In 1997 a second trial upheld the sentence of life in prison. In November 2011 Carlos went on trial for his alleged involvement in four bombings in the early 1980s that killed more than 10 people in France. Carlos was convicted the following month and given another life sentence. French authorities brought additional charges against Carlos in October 2014, in connection with a 1974 grenade attack in Paris.


Gledaj video: CARLOS: Official Trailer (Siječanj 2022).