Povijesti Podcasti

Leucas srebrni stater

Leucas srebrni stater


Akarnanija

Akarnanija, zemlja između Ahelosa na istoku i mora na zapadu, svoj je standard kovanica izvela iz dvije procvjetale trgovačke kolonije Korinta & mdashAnactorium i Leucas. Prije kraja petog stoljeća gradovi Akarnanije formirali su se u Savez, čiji je glavni grad bio Stratus na Aheloju.

Na svim akarnanskim primorskim gradovima korintskog tipa, obv. Poglavar Atene, rev. Pegasos, koji se sada počeo izdavati, uglavnom za trgovinu s Italijom i Sicilijom, gdje se još uvijek uglavnom nalaze. Unutrašnji gradovi, Stratus, Oeniadae i amp., Imali su vrlo malo udjela u ovom korintskom kovanom novcu, ali su udarali male srebrne novčiće s vlastitim tipovima. O p.n.e. 300 Stratusa palo je u ruke Etolaca, a Leucas je zauzeo mjesto glavnog grada Akarnanske lige. Thyrrheium je također postao važan nakon ovog datuma.

U koje je točno razdoblje prestalo izdavati Pegasos statere, teško je utvrditi, no sigurno je da su u drugom dijelu trećeg stoljeća (oko 220.) već bili zamijenjeni redovito organiziranom saveznom valutom, a kovanice su na aversu glava nacionalnog boga rijeke Achela, a na naličju sjedeći lik

Nakon tog datuma Thyrrheium je neko vrijeme nastavio seriju kovanica federalnog tipa, ali s legendom Θ Υ Ρ Ρ Ε Ι Ω Ν umjesto Α Κ Α Ρ & #925 Α Ν Ω Ν, sve dok ubrzo nakon toga u zemlji nije prestalo svako kovanje novca.


Leucas Silver Stater - Povijest

Bilješke:
1 Ovo je datumski raspon naveden u BCD Tesaliji I. Ovaj novčić izgleda da spada u Lorberovu fazu kasne II ili faze kasne III. Vidi Lorber Hoard i Lorber 2008.
2Kovan koji se spominje u ovom aukcijskom katalogu zapravo je srebrni stater, ali u raspravi o novčiću u katalogu se navodi da najraniji larisijanski stateri "nose normalne vrste drahmi".
3Slika novčića u ovoj referenci ne prikazuje podignutu i savijenu prednju nogu, ali unos se odnosi na BCD Thessaly II, lot 312 - 320, što odgovara jednoj od ovdje navedenih referenci.
Grad Larissa dobio je ime po lokalnoj vodenoj nimfi, za koju se kaže da je kći Pelasgosa. Govorilo se da je predak predgrčkih Pelazga. Prema mitu, Larissa se utopila igrajući lopticu na obali rijeke Peneios. (HGC 4 str .. 130).

Provansa: Ex Forum Ancient Coins 31. listopada 2018. iz zbirke BCD-a, s oznakom "Thz. G/ni ex Thess., Travnja 94., SFr. 100.-"

Fotografije: Forum Antički novčići


Grčke kornjače, autor Gary T. Anderson

Kornjače, arhaična valuta Egine, među najtraženijima su od svih drevnih kovanica. Njihova rana povijest pomalo je misterija. Nekada su povjesničari raspravljali o tome jesu li oni ili izdavači Lidije bili najraniji novci na svijetu. Izvor ove ideje neizravno dolazi iz spisa Herakleide iz Ponta, grčkog učenjaka iz četvrtog stoljeća prije Krista. U raspravi Etymologicum, Orion citira Heracleidea koji tvrdi da je kralj Pheidon od Argosa, koji je umro najkasnije 650. godine prije Krista, prvi udario novčiće na Egini. Međutim, arheološka istraživanja datiraju najranije kornjače oko 550. godine prije Krista, a povjesničari sada vjeruju da je tada utisnut prvi od ovih intrigantnih novčića.

Aegina je mali, planinski otok u zaljevu Saronikon, otprilike na pola puta između Atike i Peloponeza. U šestom stoljeću prije Krista bila je to možda najistaknutija grčka pomorska sila, s trgovačkim putovima po istočnoj polovici Sredozemlja. Kroz kontakte s Grcima u Maloj Aziji ideja o kovanju novca vjerojatno je uvedena u Eginu. Lidijci ili Grci duž obale današnje Turske najvjerojatnije su prvi proizvodili kovanice, krajem sedmog stoljeća. One su se sastojale od komadića metala zvanog elektrum (mješavina zlata i srebra) utisnutog sa službenim otiskom koji je jamčio da je novčić određene težine. Aegina je prihvatila ovu ideju i poboljšala je utiskivanjem novčića (relativno) čistog srebra umjesto elektruma, koji je sadržavao različite omjere zlata i srebra. Slika utisnuta na novčiću moćne morske sile bila je slika morske kornjače, životinje koje je bilo u izobilju u Egejskom moru. Dok bi suparnički gradovi Atena i Korint uskoro započeli ograničenu proizvodnju kovanica, kornjača je postala dominantna valuta južne Grčke. Razlog tome je posmični broj proizvedenih kovanica, procijenjenih na deset tisuća godišnje gotovo sedamdeset godina. Izvor metala došao je iz bogatih rudnika srebra na Sifnosu, otoku u Egejskom moru. Iako je Aegina bila zastrašujuća trgovačka nacija, činilo se da su kovanice bile namijenjene lokalnoj upotrebi, jer ih je malo pronađeno izvan Kiklada i Krete. Međutim, njihov je mamac bio toliko snažan da stara poslovica kaže: "Hrabrost i mudrost nadvladavaju Kornjače".

Aeginska kornjača imala je sličnu sličnost sa svojim živim kolegom, s nizom točkica koje se spuštaju niz središte njezine ljuske. Na poleđini kovanice bio je otisak udarca koji je upotrijebio za utiskivanje lica kovanice u masku kornjače. U početku se to sastojalo od udarca s osam krakova koji je stvarao uzorak od osam trokuta. Kasnije su isprobane i druge varijacije toga. 480. godine prije Krista novčić je dobio svoj prvi veliki dizajn. U oklop blizu glave kornjače dodana su dva dodatna zrna, dizajn koji se ne vidi u prirodi. Također, oznaka obrnutog udarca dobila je krivudav dizajn.

Iako su se kornjače proizvodile u velikim količinama od 550. do 480. godine prije Krista, nakon tog vremena proizvodnja dramatično opada. To može biti posljedica iscrpljenosti rudnika srebra na Sifnosu ili se može povezati s drugim povijesnim događajem. 480. godine prije Krista, Eginina arhivska Atena porazila je Kserksa i njegovu perzijsku vojsku na Maratonu. Nakon toga je Atena postala dominantna sila u regiji. Egina i Atena vodile su niz ratova do 457. godine prije Krista, kada su Eginu osvojili neprijatelji i oduzeli joj pomorska prava. U to vrijeme eginski novac promijenio je imidž s imidža morske kornjače u sliku kopnene kornjače, simbolizirajući njegovu promjenu bogatstva.

Kornjača je bila predmet želje u davna vremena i to je postala još jednom. Bio je to prvi novčić proizveden u Europi, a proizveden je u tako velikim količinama da tisuće kornjača postoje i danas. Njihova povijesna važnost i spremna dostupnost čine ih jednim od najpoželjnijih predmeta u zbirci bilo kojeg drevnog ljubitelja novčića.

Amazon kleči lijevo, drži luk, tobolac na lijevom boku
ΣOΛEΩN, Grozd na vinovoj lozi A-Θ s obje strane stabljike, monogram dolje desno

Sear 5602 var. Casabonne Tip 3 SNG Francuska 135 SNG Levante

Ovaj novčić prikazuje amazona u povijesno točnoj odjeći. Nažalost, luk je nagrižen na ovom komadu, ali je usmjeren prema njoj. Nosi skitski šešir, koji je također malo na vrhu korodirao. Tobolac na boku točan je prikaz gorytosa (tobolac), koji je bio dugačak gotovo dva metra, izrađen od kože i često ukrašen. Srećom, na ovoj slici postoji višak, a drugi luk je prikazan kao na svom mjestu u gorytosu, koji je imao odvojene komore za strijele i luk, gdje ga je strijelac spremio dok se nije koristio. Amazonka je upravo završila nanizavanje svog luka i namješta gornju udicu kako bi se uvjerila da su žice i udovi ispravno poravnati. Napela je luk koristeći nogu kako bi držala jedan ud na mjestu kako bi mogla koristiti obje ruke za nanizavanje oružja. Njezin lučni luk bio je izrađen od roga (kozorog, los, vol) omotanog konjskom dlakom, korom breze ili žile (jelen, los, vol) i ljepilom (životinja ili riba) omotanim oko drvene jezgre. Luk je bio dugačak oko 30 centimetara. Glave strijela s grobnih mjesta dolaze od kosti, drveta, željeza i bronce s dvije ili tri prirubnice, a osovine su izrađene od trske ili drveta (vrba, breza, topola) i obložene perjem. Otrovane strijele ponekad su bile naslikane da liče na zmije. Skitski strijelac mogao bi vjerojatno ispaliti 15-20 strijela u minuti s točnošću do 200 stopa i rasponom do 500-600 stopa. Streličarstvo na daljinu s modernim rekonstrukcijama sugerira maksimalnu udaljenost do cilja od 1600 stopa. (Gradonačelnik 209ff)

Žensko božanstvo (Iris?) Sa uvijenim krilima,
Griffin stoji l. na inkuse trgu.

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2x ilirski drahm Dyrrhachium, Illyria, AR drachm. AΛKAIOΣ, krava stoji desno, glava lijevo, tele odojče, dolje klas zrna / DUR NIKOMACOU oko dvostrukog zvjezdastog uzorka.

Dyrrhachium, Ilirija. AR Stater. Oko 450-350 pr. Krava koja stoji lijevo odojče, mala Δ na kravljem kršu / Δ Y P, dvostruko zvjezdasto uzorak ispod.

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3) Tiranicidi: Brutus Gold stater, BMCRR II str. 474, 48 RPC I 1701A (Trački kraljevi) BMC Trakija str. 208, 1 (isto) SNG Cop ​​123 (Skitske dinastije), vojna kovnica, težina 8,39g, 44 - 42 pr. aversa rimski konzul L. Junius Brutus (tradicionalni osnivač Republike) u sredini, u pratnji dva liktora, KOΣΩN u ex, BR (Brutus) monogram lijevi obrnuti orao stoji lijevo na žezlu, otvorena krila, podižući vijenac u desnom talonku ex CNG Store

Iz zbirke Elwood Rafn.

Cyzicus je bio drevni grad Mysia u Maloj Aziji, smješten na obali sadašnjeg poluotoka Kapu-Dagh (Arctonnesus), za koji se kaže da je izvorno bio otok u Mramornom moru, a bio je umjetno povezan s kopno u povijesnim vremenima.

Prema predaji, naselili su ga tesalski doseljenici dolaskom Argonauta, a 756. godine prije Krista grad su osnovali Grci iz Mileta.

Zbog svog povoljnog položaja brzo je stekao trgovačku važnost, a kizički zlatnici su bili glavna valuta u starom svijetu sve dok ih nisu zamijenili oni Filipa Makedonskog. (Za više informacija o drevnom kovanom novcu kliknite ovdje) Tijekom Peloponeskog rata (431.-404. Pr. Kr.) Cizik je naizmjence bio podložan Atenjanima i Lakedemoncima, a u miru Antalcida (387. pr. Kr.), Kao i drugi grčki gradovi u Aziji, prebačen je u Perziju.

Povijest grada u helenističko doba usko je povezana s poviješću Pergamonskih atalida, čijim je izumiranjem došao u izravan odnos s Rimom. Cyzicus je održan za Rimljane protiv Mitradata 74. godine prije Krista, sve dok Lucullus nije podigao opsadu: odanost grada nagrađena je proširenjem teritorija i drugim privilegijama. Još uvijek cvjetajuće središte u doba Imperije, čini se da je mjesto uništeno nizom potresa - posljednjim 1063 godine nove ere - a stanovništvo je u Artaki premješteno barem u 13. stoljeću, kada su poluotok okupirali Križari.

Mjesto je sada poznato kao Bal-Kiz i potpuno je nenaseljeno, iako se uzgaja. Glavne preostale ruševine su zidovi koji se mogu pratiti gotovo cijelim svojim razmjerom, slikoviti amfiteatar ispresijecan potokom i potkonstrukcije Hadrijanovog hrama. Od ove veličanstvene građevine, ponekad svrstane među sedam čuda antičkog svijeta, trideset i jedan ogromni stup još je 1444. godine stajao uspravljen. Od tada su odneseni u komade u građevinske svrhe.

Čip sa starim rubom između 9 o ' sati i 11 o ' sati vjerojatno uzrokuje nešto malu težinu

Abdera, Trakija
411. - 375. pr

Avers: Grifon lijevo, prednje noge podignute.

Obrnuto: Dionysosovo poprsje s lijeve strane, MOΛΠAΓOPHΣ uokolo, sve unutar linearnog okvira i plitkog inkuznog kvadrata.

Bilješke:
-Abderu su ponovno naselili građani iz Teosa oko 544. godine prije Krista, koji su sa sobom donijeli simbol grifona. Grifon na kovanicama iz Teosa gleda desno, a na kovanicama iz Abdere lijevo.
-Čini se da je štovanje Dioniza bilo važno u Abderi, a moglo je biti i pojačano postojanjem kulta među starosjedilačkim tračkim stanovništvom.
-svibnja 419. godine

Obv: Morska kornjača.
Rev: Incuse Iskrivljeni uzorak.

Kovnica: Aegina
Struck: 485-480 pr.

Veličina: 21,46 x 15,77 mm.
Težina: 11,98 grm.
Osovina matrice: Omni-

Stanje: sasvim u redu. Morskoj kornjači nedostaje desna stražnja noga, ali inače, Vrhunski reljef i prekrasni oblici u finom stilu. Dobro, svijetlo, bistro, sjajno srebro. Očišćeno, bez toniranja.

HGC 6, 435 Rošenje 1660 SNG Delepierre 1625 Sear 1851.

Millbank plate 2, 12 SNG Copenhagen 516 Sear 2600.

Kypselos & Gorgos, 7. stoljeće pr

Korinćani koje su poslali Cypselus i Gorgus zauzeli su ovu obalu i također su napredovali sve do Ambrakijskog zaljeva, a u to su vrijeme i Ambracia i Anactorium bili kolonizirani. (Strabon 10,2,8)

AKARNANIA, Anaktorion. Oko 350-300 pr. AR Stater (20 mm, 7,89 gm). Leteći Pegasos lijevo s monogramom AN ispod / Glava Atene s kacigom lijevo NA [Y] na lijevo, AN monogram i prsten s privjescima iza. Pegasi II str. 504, 73. U blizini VF.

O. Pegasos lijevo Λ ispod
R. Lijeva glava Atene, nosi korintsku kacigu, Ξ ispod, Λ i glavu jarbola iza

O. Pegasos je ispod ostavio AN monogram
R. Lijeva glava Atene, nosi korintsku kacigu, gore KΛE, dolje monogram, monogram i bukranij ukrašen filetima iza

Pegasi 71 BCD Akarnania 86

Glava Atene lijevo, nosi korintsku kacigu / Pegasos leti lijevo, Λ ispod.

- Cijena 3482 Newell, Dana 21. (umire -/Î ± [nenavedeno obv. Umrijeti]) Rouvier 1171 DCA 867. Iz rijetkog, najranijeg izdanja datiranih Sidonskih statera.

Aleksandar Veliki (356. pr. Kr. - 323. pr. Kr.) Priznat je kao najveći strateg (otprilike, "general") u povijesti. Njegova vojska sastojala se od 30 000 pješaka i 5 000 konjanika. Godine 334. prije Krista, kada je imao 22 godine, krenuo je u kampanju koja je krenula od glavnog grada Makedonije, Pelle, i stvorio je Makedonsko Carstvo u roku od 8 godina, do 326. godine prije Krista. Makedonsko Carstvo protezalo se od Grčke do Indije i sjeverne Afrike. Aleksandar se u svakoj bitci borio u prvim redovima, potičući tako svoje ratnike da daju sve od sebe. On nikada nije bio gledatelj u borbama, a stražnja linija nije bila za njega. U svakoj bitci, baš kao i svaki njegov vojnik, suočio se s rizikom da ne vidi zalazak sunca. Bio je u opasnosti da "večera u Hadu", kako su govorili o vojnicima koji su poginuli tijekom bitke. Svi su njegovi vojnici u svakoj bitci vidjeli Aleksandru leđa.

Uspoređujući ove rane Tarsosove tetradrahme sa stanovnicima Mazaiosa (na slici ispod), lako je vidjeti identične oblike prijestolja, žezla, podnožja za noge i drugih detalja. Zavjesa je iscrtana na sličan način, aramejski natpis jedne i grčki natpis druge dijele istu krivulju koja slijedi isprekidanu granicu. Ovi dokazi ukazuju na to da su dvije serije kovanica bile zajednički proizvod jedne kovnice novca.

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Aleksandar III Veliko životno pitanje Drachm! Potpisao umjetnik Makedonsko kraljevstvo, Aleksandar III Veliki, 336. - 323. pr.


Srebrna drahma, cijena 2090A, ADM I 80 (iste matrice), VF, 4,214 g, 16,0 mm, 0o, kovnica Miletos, doživotno izdanje, c. 325. - 323. p.n.e. aversa Heraklova glava desno, odjevena u nemejski lavovski pokrivač na tjemenu vezan na vratu, K na lavovskoj čeljusti iza Heraklesa i uho unatrag ALEXANDROU, Zeus sjedi lijevo, noge prekrižene, desna noga naprijed, stopala na podnožju, orao u ispruženoj desnoj strani , dugo žezlo okomito iza lijevo, monogram prije

EX FORVM Drevni novčići i trgovina#39.


Doživotno pitanje! Potpisao umjetnik! (?) K iza Heraklovog uha tradicionalno je identificiran kao potpis umjetnika. Matt Kreuzer, međutim, vjeruje da je K (grčki broj 20) korišten c. 325. p.n.e. kako bi Miletovu predstavio atičku drahmu ukazujući ili da je 20 od njih jednako zlatnom stateru, ili da je jedna od tih drahmi jednaka 20 od 3 do 4 grama bronci koje su tada kružile.


*Uz moju iskrenu zahvalnost i zahvalnost, fotografije i opis ljubaznošću osoblja FORVM Ancient Coins.

** Ovaj se novčić smatra najboljim u ovoj vrsti:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-108526

Gornji red slijeva nadesno: AEOLIS, MYRINA. AR "Stephanophoric" Tetradrachm. Oko 150. godine prije Krista ** ILIRIJA, DIRAHIJA. AR Stater. Oko 340.-280. Prije Krista ** IONIJA, SMIRNA. AR “Stephanophoric” Tetradrachm. Oko 150-145 prije Krista ** PELOPONNESOS, SIKYON. AR Stater. Oko 335.-330. Pr. Kr. ** ATIKA, ATENA. “Novi stil” Tetradrachm. Oko 169. pr.

Peti red: BACTRIA, Antialkidas. AR Drachm. Oko 145-135.pr.Kr. ** KAPADOKIJA. Ariobarzanes I AR Drachm. Oko 96-63. Pr. Kr. ** TRAKIJA, ABDERA. AR Tetrobol. Oko 360-350 godina prije Krista ** TRAKIJA, CHERSONESSOS. AR Hemidrachm. Oko 386-338 pr.

Četvrti red: LUCANIA, METAPONTION. AR Stater. Oko 510-480 pr. Kr. ** TESALIJSKA LIGA. AR Stater. Oko 196.-146. Pr. Kr. ** MAKEDONIJA. Kasander AR Tetradrachm. Oko 317-315 godine prije Krista ** AKARNANIA, LEUKAS. AR Stater. Oko 320.-280. Prije Krista ** PAMFILIJA, ASPENDOS. AR Stater. Oko 330-300 pr.

Treći red: SELEUKID SIRIJA. Antiohos VI AR Drachm. Oko 144-143 prije Krista ** LUKANIJA, METAPONCIJA. AR Stater. Oko 340-330 godina prije Krista ** LUKANIJA, VELIJA. AR Stater. Oko 280. godine prije Krista ** PARTHIA. Mitradati II AR Drachm. Oko 121.-91. Pr.

Drugi red: MISIJA, PERGAMON. Eumenes I AR Tetradrachm. Oko 263-241 prije Krista ** CILICIA, TARSOS. Mazaios AR Stater. Oko 361-334 godine prije Krista ** TRAKIJA. Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Oko 297.-281. Pr. Kr. ** CILICIA, TARSOS. Pharnabazos AR Stater. Oko 380.-374. Pr. Kr. ** TRAKIJA, MARONEIJA. AR Tetradrachm. Sredina 2. st. PRIJE KRISTA.

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Aphrodite and Ares on Cilician AR Stater of Satrap Pharnabazos Circu 380-374/3 BC (21 mm, 10,39 g, 11 h). Udaren oko 380.-379. Casabonne serija 3 Moysey izdanje 3, 3-5 var. (dupin na obv.) SNG Francuska 246 var. (rev. legenda). Aversna glava nimfe okrenuta tri četvrtine ulijevo. Obrnuta glava Aresa s kacigom lijevo, aramejski PRNBZW lijevo. Blizu EF -a, toniran, udarljen iz blago istrošene prednje matrice.

Još uvijek je u tijeku rasprava o tome predstavljaju li avers i revers ove vrste novčića Pharnabazosa. Avers je očito bio inspiriran poznatom Kimuranovom sirakuzanskom tetradrahmom, čija je glava nimfe Aretuze okrenuta prema tri četvrtine bila naširoko kopirana u cijelom starom svijetu. Nekoliko drevnih poleisa usvojilo je ovaj stil da predstavlja svoju lokalnu nimfu ili božicu na svojim kovanicama. Savršen primjer su brojni Larisini novčići u Tesaliji koji predstavljaju istoimenu lokalnu nimfu. Tada je moguće pretpostaviti da bi avers naše kovanice mogao biti drugo žensko božanstvo osim Aretuze. Prema trenutnom mišljenju, avers prikazuje Afroditu, božicu ljubavi, a naličje Aresa, boga rata. Njih su dvojica bili poznati u staroj mitologiji kao ljubavnici, a obično su se uparivali na drevnim kovanicama. Na ovom novčiću posebno se ističe obrnuto: dok većina kovanica ovog tipa prikazuje statične muške glave s malo originalnosti, obrnuta matrica vjerojatno je iz posebne emisije obilježene vrhunskim stilom i izvedena s iznimnom finoćom. Predloženo je (aukcija Leu 81, lot 317) da bi glava Aresa mogla biti prikriveni portret samog Pharnabazosa.

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Apollonia Pontica Topalov 09 - Silver Drachm 550-540/535 pr.
3,94 gm, 12-16 mm
Obv: Uspravno sidro s tankim pahuljicama i tankim zalihama slijeva, rakovi desno
Rev .: Ruke od svastike savijene udesno, duboko urezane u bok

Topalov Apolonija str. 564, 9
BMC Mysia str.8, 1 T. II, 1
HGC 3, 1314 SNG BM Crno more 148
SNG Bugarska (Ruse) II 55-58, (494-470 prije Krista, reducirani mileški standardni trite (1/3 statera))


Topalov Tip 9: Uspravno Usidrite rakova gledano bočno-Svastika u dubokom šumarku (550-540/535 pr. Kr.)
Obv .: Uspravno sidro s tankim pahuljicama i tankim temeljcem. Bočni prikaz dodatnog simbola rakova točno između metilja i roda.
Rev .: Shematski prikaz svastike s rukama savijenim nadesno duboko urezanim u boku.

Aktivnosti prikazuju olimpijske događaje tog vremena. Težina 10,9 grama predstavlja 2 siglosa (

Avers: F i unatrag N u polju između hrvača
Obrnuto: ESTFEDIIUSSlinger desno, triskeles u polju

333. godine prije Krista, nakon što je Aleksandar mirno zauzeo Pergu, Aspendos je poslao izaslanike da mu ponude predaju ako ne uzme poreze i konje koji su prije bili plaćeni kao danak perzijskom kralju.
Slažući se, Alexander je otišao na Side, ostavivši garnizon iza sebe. Kad je saznao da nisu uspjeli ratificirati sporazum koji su predložili njihovi vlastiti poslanici, Aleksandar je marširao do grada.
Aspendijci su se povukli na svoju akropolu i ponovno poslali izaslanike da tuže mir. Ovaj put, međutim, morali su pristati na oštre uvjete -
ugostili bi makedonski garnizon i plaćali 100 zlatnih talenata i 4.000 konja godišnje.

Rev: EÎ £ TΦEÎ ”IIYÎ £ s lijeve strane, praćkaš stoji u bacanju udesno, nosi kratki hiton, s desne strane izvlači remen u smjeru kazaljke na satu, sve unutar kvadratastog kvadrata.


(2) Milet · Lavova glava / Quincunx ili Inkuse punč · Electrum · Oko 600-550 godina prije Krista

I dvanaesti i dvadeset četvrti stater u seriji milezijskog elektruma imaju lavovu glavu, bilo u profilu (dvanaestine) ili okrenutu prema licu (dvadeset četvrti). Stateri, trećine i šeste predstavljaju potpunu sliku ležećeg lava, kako je gore opisano.

(2a) EL Lydo-Milesian 1/12 Stater (1,18 g)

Uzorci od dvanaestog stupnja najčešće na aversu pokazuju lavovu glavu zdesna, ali su poznati i primjerci s lavovom glavom lijevo. Kinuncijalna naličje stilski povezuje ove novčiće s nizom sitnih srebrnih frakcija koje vrte okom/kvincunatom, a koje su vjerojatno i iz Mileta.

(2b) EL Lydo-Milesian 1/24 Stater (0,59 g)

Dva dvadeset četvrta statera opisana u zbirci Kayhan teška su 0,53 i 0,52 g (Konuk, 2002: #453–454), a intrigantno je da jedan od njih ( #453) na čelu ima neku oznaku koja podsjeća "bradavice u nosu" viđene na ranim lidijskim kovanicama profila lavova.


Osnovno srebro 'stater'

Ovaj nedavno iskopani novčić najbliži je "lokalnoj" valuti u Guernseyu i Sarku u prvom stoljeću prije Krista, iako je proizveden u regiji Bayeux, glavnom gradu Baiocassa (jednog od plemena Celtica) u Normandiji. Na poleđini je prikazan uzdan konj, stiliziran u segmentima tako karakterističnim za keltska plemena, koji galopira udesno. Rimski i "keltski" novac pronađeni su nagomilani na atlantskoj obali, u Jerseyju i u Sarku ("Sark ostava" ukrasnog dačkog srebra i neki galski novac u urni iskopani su 1719., ali su ubrzo nakon toga nestali). Izbjeglice iz Cezarovih galskih ratova sredinom prvog stoljeća prije Krista i rimski vojnici koji su se kretali glavnom trgovačkom rutom između Cotentina i južne Britanije našli bi Sarka kao pogodno utočište za svoje prijenosno bogatstvo.

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Eginska kornjača

Eginski novčići- poznati kao kornjače- bili su jedan od najvažnijih kovanica u starom svijetu.

Grad-država Egina bila je, uz Atenu i Korint, jedna od gradova-država koja je u 7. stoljeću prije Krista izdala prve srebrne grčke novčiće i širila upotrebu novca u tada poznatom svijetu. Preciznije, Egina je prva izdala izvještaje neposredno prije sredine 6. stoljeća prije Krista. Na aversu prvih kovanica bila je prikazana morska kornjača, a na reversu inkuzirani kvadrat podijeljen nepravilnim oblicima.

Kornjače su kružile u većini područja Grčke, u Perziji, Egiptu i južnoj Italiji i smatrane su međunarodnim novčićem.

Aegina, otok 17 milja južno od Atene bio je važno pomorsko i trgovačko središte.

Oko 456. godine prije Krista, nakon dugog perioda suparništva, Atena je osvojila Eginu. Kao posljedica toga, Aegina je bila prisiljena koristiti kovanice atenske sove. Tek nakon što su Atenjani poraženi, Eginska je kovnica ponovno počela udarati kornjače. Međutim, nove kornjače nisu prikazale morsku kornjaču, posvetu pomorskom položaju Egine, već kopnenu kornjaču, prikazujući vjerovatno pad pada Eginske nadmoći na moru.

Povezani članci

Kornjača, simbol u mnogim kulturama i civilizacijama. Jedno od najstarijih stvorenja, ima otpor prema.

Pregledajte našu Blackboard za korisne članke, značenja, svojstva i savjete s uputama. Podijelite svoje znanje o određenom.

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Object of the Week: Attic stater

Big and small both have their place at SAM. Touring through the Modern and Contemporary galleries, you might be struck by the visual of Ellsworth Kelly’s Blue Green Red II, conspicuous at over seven feet tall and more than eight feet wide. You’ll have to look much harder to find our Object of the Week in the Ancient Mediterranean gallery.

The Attic stater with Athena in Corinthian helmet and Nike measures slightly smaller than a US dime, at just 11/16 of an inch in diameter. That means you could fit 18,828 of these staters (at .37 square inches) inside the blue and green half-ovals (about 6,966.52 square inches) of the massive Ellsworth Kelly.

Enough about the big and Modern today we’re looking at something little and old. If you could hold it, the Attic stater would feel very solid and heavy. It weighs 8.52 grams—which doesn’t sound like a lot, but compare it to the US quarter, at 5.67 grams, and the one Euro coin, at 7.5 grams. Significantly smaller, the Attic stater out-hefts them both, and that is because of its density as pure gold.

This coin was struck in the 4 th century BCE in the region of the world called Macedonia, then controlled by Alexander the Great. On the front, or obverse, appears the head of Athena, the Greek goddess linked to wisdom and learning. She wears a triple-crested Corinthian helmet that is ornamented with a coiled serpent. The portrait of Athena may be based on her likeness in the monumental bronze sculpture by Phidias that once dominated the Acropolis, Athena Promachos. On the back, or reverse, one would find Nike, whose presence on the coin was meant as a forecast of victory for Alexander’s troops, and Greek lettering that spells out “of Alexander.”

Coinage offers a less-traveled route to understand one of history’s most fascinating people. Alexander the Great’s policies in this area—the new coin types he created, the standards he used, and his impressive list of mints, or production centers—have shown him to be a brilliant economist. His choice to honor the Greek gods Athena and Nike on his coins reflects his well-known admiration for Greece and her culture, but it also seems to have been a political move aimed at flattering Athens, whose fleet Alexander needed for a military excursion to Persia. Alexander, whose father Philip had followed the Thracian standard in some of his coinage, hitched his wagon full to the Attic standard, which was the strongest economically and promised to maintain the flow and value of his monies in the future. Ovaj Attic stater was struck at Amphipolis, one of two principal royal Macedonian mints (the other being Pella, the main city in Macedonia). While Philip produced more coinage from Pella, Alexander moved his headquarters to Amphipolis, which had the practical advantage of proximity to the gold and silver mines, importantly increasing wealth in his rapidly expanding empire. 1


Leucas Silver Stater - History

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Metal Objects Used As Currency As Early As 5000 B.C.

Humans have long-used commodities and goods as currency. Items such as rice, flour, sugar, seeds, and cattle could be traded for other commodities. While this system was sustainable in many ways, it became quite inconvenient, due to the size and weight of many of these goods. Transport and trade facility were not always guaranteed. Though it's difficult to pinpoint the exact moment in history when humans began to use physical objects as currency, many historians and archaeologists believe that metal objects and precious stones were used as currency as early as 5000 B.C., according to Wonderopolis. Many archeological findings suggest that precious metal and stone artifacts were actually a form of early currency, though it would take several centuries before the first form of recognized coinage was invented.


The Power of Gold: Aleksandar Veliki Staters

On the left , Alexander the Great lifetime gold stater minted in Abydos, Asia Minor, c. 328-323 BC, 17mm in diameter, 8.6g in weight, .997 fine gold, depicting the ancient Greek goddess Athena.

Athena wears a crested Corinthian helmet, which may have been chosen as an allusion to Alexander's position as head of the Corinthian League and his hegemony over Greece. Many scholars have speculated that the Athena on Alexander's staters was based on the Athena of the coins of Corinth. A.R. Bellinger in his 1963 book Essays on the Coinage of Alexander the Great felt that it was more likely that it was based on the Athena of Athenian Owls. But the coins of Velia among others also depicted a helmeted Athena. Athena may have been modeled after the huge bronze statue of Athena Promachos by Pheidias at the Athenian Acropolis.

Athena's helmet is pushed backward, with the eye holes and nose piece at the top of her head. In combat, the helmet would be pushed forward, covering the soldier's face. The Corinthian helmet is the most common helmet to appear on ancient Greek coins, also appearing on among other coins Corinthian staters and Mesembrian diobols, followed by the Attic helmet, appearing most commonly on Athenian Owls. The crest of the Corinthian helmet, when it had a crest, was made of horse hair, with bristly short hair at the top and long tail hair at the end, as illustrated on these coins. The helmet on these coins is typically ornamented with a coiled snake, a symbol of Athena, which is typically the coin's highpoint and the first area to show wear.

Nike wears a diadem (headband) and long chiton (tunic). Alexander's Nike may have been based on the Nike of the coins of Olympia, where she symbolized victory at the games held there. Another possibility, as with Athena, is that Nike was modeled after statuary at the Athenian Acropolis, in this case the small gold Nike statues there. Otto Mørkholm in his 1991 book Early Hellenistic Coinage: From the Accession of Alexander to the Peace of Apamea (336-188 BC) presented a persuasive argument that Alexander chose both obverse and reverse iconography on his gold coins as a friendly gesture toward Athens, Greece's greatest city. This would not have been the first time that Alexander made gestures of reconciliation such as this.

In her right hand, Nike holds a laurel wreath, which is a symbol of victory. In her left hand, with most of these coins, she holds what some scholars interpret as a stylis (part of the stern of a Greek ship), others a ship's mast. In either case, the stylis/stern likely alludes to Greece's great naval victory over Persia at the Battle of Salamis c. 480 BC, one of the epochal moments in history, allowing Greece -- Western civilization -- to continue its embryonic experimentation with democracy, individualism, rationalism, and the separation between political and religious authority. Some scholars, on the other hand, have interpreted the stylis to refer to Alexander's naval victory over the fleet of Tyre in 332 BC, but this is less likely because it requires Alexander to have begun minting staters of his own type four years after his ascension.

This beautiful gold coin is representative of Alexander the Great's conquering the Persian Empire, the mightiest the world had yet seen, and his attempt to unite East and West, Persia and Greece. To promote this effort of cultural fusion, Alexander dressed as a Persian, adopted Persian ways, directed his soldiers to marry Persian women, and appointed Persians to high administrative positions. This effort was cut short by is death, possibly by malaria, in 323 BC at about the age of 33. Since then, the chasm between East and West has increased. Had Alexander succeeded long term, beyond the empires of the Persians, the Seleukids, the Romans, the Byzantines, and the Ottoman Turks -- no small feat -- there would be no need for a war on terrorism today.

Abydos, where this coin was in all likelihood minted, was the closest Greek city from Europe on the Asiatic bank of the Hellespont (Dardanelles) in present-day Turkey and the location where Alexander crossed into Asia in 334 BC. It had been previously freed by Alexander's father, Philip II, through an advance force he sent into Asia in 336 BC, shortly before his assassination and Alexander's ascension to the throne. Alexander's first major victory over the Persians during his invasion of Asia was the Battle of the Granikos River, which took place along the road from Abydos to Daskyleion. Abydos was earlier settled by Thracians and then by Greek colonists from Miletos before falling under the rule of the Persians from c. 384 to 336 BC.

Athena's helmet also changes. Most commonly it's adorned with a snake, which is a symbol of Athena. But the helmets of some posthumous staters from Asia Minor, Babylonia, and Phoenicia feature a gryphon, a mythological beast with the head of a bird, the body of a lion, and wings, which the Greeks regarded as an enemy of the Persians and may have symbolized the destruction of Persian power. Another variant features a helmet with a winged lion that's sometimes horned. The rarest variant features a helmet with a sphinx.

Sometimes Nike's left leg is straight other times it's slightly or significantly bent, rarely at an angle of more than 45 degrees but sometimes up to about 60 degrees (see Price 1526). One anomalous variety, Price 2644 from Sardes, depicts Nike facing right instead of left. Nike is typically svelte, but on some varieties she looks as if she could be pregnant (see Price 797). The tops of Nike's wings are usually rounded, sometimes pointed. On some posthumous Alexander staters from Miletos and Tarsos, two tiny Nikai sit atop the crossbar of the stylis on the reverse, though these Nike figures are sometimes off the flan. On other posthumous staters from Miletos and Seleukia, the stylis is replaced by a palm. On still others, it's replaced by a trident. Price believed that design variations such as these were whims of individual die cutters.

Alexander staters in the British Museum holdings were minted from 19 cities during his lifetime, 33 cities in all, on three continents. This compares with 23 cities that minted lifetime Alexander tetradrachms and 87 cities that minted Alexander-style tetradrachms during and after his lifetime. As with tetradrachms and drachms, most were minted in Asia, 65.9 percent, compared with 27.8 percent in Europe and 4.3 percent in Egypt, based on the holdings of the British Museum. Price was uncertain of the region with 2.0 percent of the staters. The six most prolific cities in minting staters were Sardes (28), Sidon (24), Amphipolis (21), Abydus (21), Miletos (21), and Babylon (21).

Price illustrated 349 official Alexander staters, compared with 1,269 official tetradrachms and 434 official drachms. With 7.7 percent of the British Museum stater holdings, Price couldn't attribute the coin to a specific city. As with the other denominations, he also illustrated some barbarous staters and some modern forgeries.

As with the tetradrachms and drachms, most staters are posthumous, 61.9 percent. In contrast, 21.8 percent of staters are lifetime issues and 16.3 percent are varieties that were issued both during and after his lifetime. A higher percentage of staters, 38.1 percent, are lifetime or possible lifetime than tetradrachms, 28.0 percent, or drachms, 14.3 percent.

Like Alexander-style drachms, the staters continued to be minted after Alexander's death but not nearly as long as the tetradrachms. Unlike the tetradrachms, which were used as commonly accepted international currency, the staters were largely replaced by local gold coinages. The last Alexander-style staters were issued in the Black Sea cities of Odessos and Sinope c. 200 BC. In contrast, posthumous Lysimachos staters, featuring Alexander's portrait, were minted into the first century BC in the Black Sea region.

As is discussed in the Ancient Imitations section of this site, some rulers and regions in the Greek world imitated both the obverse and reverse of Alexander's stater design but used their own inscription, including Philip III, Lysimachos, Seleukos I, Demetrios Poliorketes, Antigonos Gonatas, Pyrrhos, Oxyartes of Baktria, and Mithradates II of Pontos. Others issued silver or bronze coins that borrowed the obverse and reverse design of Alexander's staters.

Like the tetradrachms, Alexander staters were also imitated by peoples outside the ancient Greek world and sometimes changed dramatically in appearance, as is demonstrated by the specimens illustrated below from Thrace and Kolchis. Other Alexander stater imitatives were issued by the Celts.

The Athena on the obverse of this coin is more masculine than on the previous coin, with larger cheekbones and a longer face. Some scholars believe that just as with some of Alexander's silver imperial coinage, Alexander's facial features have been subtly introduced to the Athena image on some of his gold imperial coinage. On this specimen, the fierce gaze and pursing lips are reminiscent of the Alexander portrait on Lysimachos tetradrachms. Athena on this specimen also has loose wavy hair, a single-strand beaded necklace, and no earring.

The reverse of this posthumous stater features as mint control marks an ear of corn (grain) and a double-headed ax, the latter being a symbol of Zeus and a representation of power. The double ax probably originated in Sumer, the world's first civilization, and was used as both an agricultural tool and weapon, according to Marvin Tomeanko. Because it had two heads, it could be used longer before it needed to be resharpened. Alternatively, each edge could be used for different purposes, a sharp one for cutting, for example, and a blunter one for digging or chopping. Double-bitted axes are still used today for the same reasons. The Romans called the double ax a "bipenis," a frequently seen but confusing term used in the numismatic literature. The double ax was also displayed on ancient Greek and Roman Provincial coins as a symbol of Dionysos, in which case it was accompanied by a bunch of grapes or an amphora (wine jug).

Weight is an important factor in judging authenticity. Price's analysis didn't take into consideration the Alexander staters from the Black Sea cities of Callatis, Istrus, Mesembria, Odessus, Lysimacheia, Sestos, and Synope, plus the four specimens he attributed only broadly to the Black Sea region. The vast majority of those weigh less than 8.48g, 35 of 48 specimens illustrated by Price, or 81.4 percent. What's more, about a fourth, 25.6 percent, weigh less than 8.40g. Of the other cities minting Alexander staters, Miletos had the highest percentage weighing less than 8.48g, 6 of 21 or 28.6 percent. The above figures, as well as the figures below, discount specimens that are holed, clipped, broken, or plated.

The lightest stater from the Black Sea region, Price 904 from Callatis, weighs 8.30g. The lightest from Asia Minor, Price 2276A from Teos, weighs 8.36g. No staters from Macedonia, Greece, Syria, Phoenicia, Babylonia, Media, Susiana, or Egypt weigh less than 8.40g. From Asia Minor, 2 of 162 weigh less than 8.40g and 1 of 23 from Cyprus weighs less than this.

If you take into consideration all official Alexander staters except those from the Black Sea region, 7.3 percent weigh less than 8.48g and 0.9 percent weigh less than 8.40g.

Price included as official issues two staters that weigh less than 7.0g, Price 2592a from Sardes weighing 6.56g and Price 3126 from Salamis weighing 6.62g. Weighing only about three-fourths of standard-weight staters and much less than any of the 347 other official staters illustrated in Price (no others weigh less than 8 grams, let alone less than 7 grams), it's difficult to believe that these gold specimens could have been mint mistakes that went unnoticed. It's possible that they're lead-core fourrees that aren't identified as such, but it's only possible if these coins are thicker than normal.

Gold has a specific gravity of about 19.3, lead 11.4, silver 10.5, copper 8.9, and bronze 8.9-7.4 (depending on how much tin, lead, and other metals it's alloyed with). Assuming that the gold plating comprises 10 percent of the coin's weight, assuming a weight of 8.6g for an official Alexander stater, and assuming that the fourree has the same size (volume) as an official coin, a gold-plated lead fourree would weigh about 5.4g, a gold-plated silver fourree around 5.1g, and a gold-plated bronze fourree around 4.4g. Making the flan thicker (or broader) would more closely approximate the weight of an official coin. Most Alexander stater fourrees I've seen on the market or in the literature about weigh between 5 and 6 grams. Along with fourrees, three other possibilities for Price 2592a and Price 3126 are that these coins represent anomalous official specimens, modern forgeries, or typos. At any rate, I didn't include these two specimens in the above calculations.

As you would expect, more official Alexander staters are underweight than overweight. The heaviest stater pictured in Price, attributed only to an uncertain city in Asia Minor, Price 2697, weighs 8.78g. The heaviest stater attributed to a city is Price 3981 from Alexandria, weighing 8.72g. A heavy stater from Byblos weighs 8.66g, Price 3423b, and one from Tarsus weighs 8.65g, Price 3045.

Alexander staters are the most common ancient Greek gold coins by far, but because of their demand, they're not the least expensive. Those would be the first century BC posthumous Lysimachos staters, which can be had in VF condition for about $600, though a good many of these show evidence of die rust, and first century BC Koson staters, which fetch about the same prices, though stylistically they can be somewhat buffoonish. Alexander staters typically cost more than twice this much in the same condition.

Athena's hair has lost all semblance of being hair, and the feathered plume in her helmet has turned into a snake. Both Athena and Nike are rendered stiffly and inorganically. The lettering of the reverse legend has also been blundered.

The slight peeling of the gold plating on the obverse near the edge at 7:30, better visible in person, indicates it's a fourree. The heavy weight indicates it likely has a lead core, with the large volume of the specimen causing it to be overweight. Ancient counterfeits also had silver and bronze cores. Making them could be punishable by death.

This coin was likely issued by neighboring Thracians, judging from the blocky styling. The Celts also imitated Alexander staters, but their styling was typically curvilinear. Thrace today is Bulgaria, along with a bit of Romania, Ukraine, Greece, and European Turkey. In ancient times it was a wild country on the fringes of the civilized Greek world and a crossroads between East and West, where the common folk would march during holidays in celebration of Dionysos and the orgiastic religion that surrounded him.

A good part of the appeal of Alexander staters is the appeal of the metal they're minted from. There's nothing like the allure of ancient gold. From the earliest times it has been valued far above its utilitarian worth. Gold is too soft to be used to make agricultural tools or weapons. It's purely decorative, and through its beauty -- it's the color of the sun, giver of light, warmth, and life -- it took on religious symbolism. Gold was used by the first civilizations in Sumer and Egypt and earlier as well, by the peoples of prehistoric Europe.

Not only does gold shine more warmly than any other numismatic metal, it keeps its glow better too, nonreacting to is surroundings, satisfied to stay just the way it is, for millennia. Gold's resistance to corrosion, its "incorruptibility," also played a role in its appeal and religious significance. But gold in its pure state is very vulnerable to human contact -- touch it too hard and it will dent. This malleability allowed gold to be molded into religious figurines and so on from the earliest of times.

Gold is extremely dense, each atom jam-packed with protons, neutrons, and electrons. You can feel the heft of those minuscule atomic particles when you pick up a gold coin. And of course it's rare, showing up in small amounts only five times per billion in the earth's crust, typically hidden away amidst copper and lead, quartz and pyrite.

Alexander had native gold mines in Macedonia and Thrace. But much of his gold coinage was minted from captured Persian gold bullion, the Fort Knox of the ancient world. Based upon the writings of such ancient authors as Arrian, Curtius, Diodorus, and Plutarch, the total amount of gold and silver bullion captured between 333 and 330 BC has been variously estimated to be worth between 180,000 and 400,000 talents of silver or the equivalent of 54 million to 120 million gold staters or 270 to 600 million silver tetradrachms.

This represented the world's most massive transfer of wealth until the Spanish exploitation of the New World in the 16th and 17th centuries, according to Christopher Howgego in his 1995 book Ancient History From Coins , and marked one of "great turning points in history," with Rome later feeding upon this stored wealth. Not all of this gold and silver bullion was converted into coinage, but the coinage was nonetheless still huge. Gold and silver bullion was valued in terms of talents of silver, a talent equaling 1,500 silver tetradrachms or 300 gold staters. A stater in turn may have been worth about 20 days' wages of a common laborer or about $1,000 in today's money.

Alexander's relative output of gold coinage was so massive that it temporarily lessened the value of gold compared with silver. Before Alexander, gold was used relatively infrequently for coinage compared with silver and was valued at about 13 times that of silver. Alexander reduced gold's value to 10 times silver's, with one of his gold staters neatly equaling in value five of his silver tetradrachms. Later, the value of gold rose to pre-Alexander levels.

Much of the Persian gold that Alexander used for his coins was obtained in trade from the Skythians, who mined it in areas ranging from present-day Kazakhstan to Mongolia, according to Michael Mitchiner in his 2004 book Ancient Trade and Modern Coinage . The Greeks, Macedonians, and Thracians also obtained gold in trade from the Skythians, through Pantikapaion, Olbia, and other cities in the northern Black Sea area. Other plentiful sources of gold in the ancient world included Tajikistan, rivers in Georgia and Turkey, mountains in Romania and Ukraine, and Ghana in West Africa, where it was imported to the Mediterranean world through Egypt.

The wildly abstracted and stylized head of Athena and standing Nike consist of simple geometric forms. The reverse legend is made up of dots. This is a Picassoesque rendering of the subject matter, similar to the numismatic art created by the best Thracian celators, not as intricate as that created by the best Celtic celators. The coin also has very pronounced edge lips on both obverse and reverse, with the relatively low-relief devices sitting deeply within the raised lips. Finally, the coin has a yellowish cast to it, likely indicating a relatively high silver content. All in all, this is one strange-looking coin.

The coin's simplified styling is far from unique. The obverse is similar, curiously enough, to Anglo-Saxon gold thrymsa of the seventh century AD. The artistic merits of coins such as these, whether or not they're evocative or crude, is debatable. It's clear though that it took less skill for a die engraver to execute lines and simple geographic forms than complex curves.

According to the mythology, Kolchis was a fabulously wealthy land where Jason and the Argonauts sought the Golden Fleece. The ancient Kolchians panned rivers for gold nuggets and dust using sheepskins, a practice that continued there as late as the 1930s. Kolchis was also the land where the mythological Prometheos was punished by having to perpetually push a rock up a mountain while an eagle ate at his liver for revealing to humanity the secret of fire.

Caucasia (also called the Caucasus and Transcaucasia), the region between the Black and Caspian seas dominated by the Caucasus Mountains in present-day Georgia, is the most often theorized location for the origin of Indo-European family of languages and those speaking it, who may have begun expanding during the third millennium BC after the invention of the horse-drawn wheeled vehicle. The wheel is thought to have been invented south of Caucasia in Sumer. Another likely reason for the success of the Indo-European speaking people was their skill in metalworking. Caucasia, with its rich copper and timber resources, was ideally suited for the development of metallurgy.

Kolchis, in Caucasia, was settled by Greek traders in the seventh century BC. It was considered "the farthest voyage" according to an ancient Greek proverbial expression, the easternmost location in the known world, where the sun rose. It was situated just outside the lands conquered by Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC, but afterward it was controlled by his Seleukid successors.

Along with Kolchis' own coinage, most voluminously hemidrachms depicting an archaic female portrait on the obverse and a bull's head on the reverse (Sear Greek 3628), many foreign coins circulated there, including Alexander staters. The above coin was likely minted after the local supply of official Alexander-type coinage ran out, and judging from its severely barbarous style, some time after. Imitative coins such as these were common in the outlying regions of the classical Greek and Roman worlds. Kolchis also produced imitations of Lysimachos staters and Augustan denarii.


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