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Morska pjena I - Povijest

Morska pjena I - Povijest


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Morska pjena
Ja

1. 112'6 "; b. 26 '; dph. 9'3"; a. 1 13 "mort, 2 32 pdrs.)

Prva Sea Foam bila je hermafroditna brigada sa drvenim trupcima koju je mornarica kupila 14. rujna 1861. u New Yorku, opremljena kao minobacačka posuda u njujorškom mornaričkom dvorištu, a naručena 27. siječnja 1862., vršitelj dužnosti majstora Henry E. Williams u zapovjedništvu.

Sea Foam dodijeljena je Motarskoj flotili koja je osnovana početkom 1862. kako bi podržala kampanju časnika Farlaguta u New Orleansu. Nekoliko dana kasnije, brod je napustio luku New York i nastavio, preko Key Westa, Fla., I Ship Island, Miss., Do ušća rijeke Mississippi. Ušla je u rijeku kroz Pass a l'Outre 18. ožujka i sljedećih mjesec dana se pripremala za predstojeći napad na utvrde Konfederacije koje su čuvale rijeku

U popodnevnim satima 18. travnja Sea Foam i njezini sestrinski minobacački brodovi treće divizije flotile otvorili su vatru na Fort Jackson i tijekom sljedeća četiri sata bacili 43 granate na utvrdu. Prije zore sljedećeg dana, nastavila je bombardiranje i držala ga sve do zalaska sunca te večeri, ispalivši 88 granata tijekom dana. Ovaj obrazac operacija nastavila je tijekom sljedeća četiri dana.

Zatim je u ponoć, u noći s 23. na 24. travnja, otvorila vatru kako bi se pridružila bombardiranju koje je prethodilo Farragutovoj jurnjavi uz rijeku pored utvrda. Pojačala je brzinu paljbe na svoj maksimalni tempo otprilike tri i pol sata kasnije, dok su se Farragutovi brodovi kretali unutar dometa južnih baterija, i održavala je tempo sve dok brodovi Unije nisu bili sigurno iznad utvrda.

Nakon što se New Orleans predao, Porter je odveo svoju flotilu na poziciju kod Mobile Baya da čeka Farragut. Dana 15. svibnja Sea Foam i Matthew Vassar zarobili su šlepere Sarah i New Eagle, oboje natovareni pamukom

Međutim, časnik Zastave kasnio je s operacijama na Mississippiju i, nakon što je saznao za snagu Konfederacijskih radova u Vicksburgu, opozvao je Portera i minobacačke brodove. Vraćajući se uz Mississippi, Sea Foam se nasukala na pješčanu šipku ispod New Orleansa i ostala niz rijeku, dok su njeni sestrinski minobacački čamci podupirali Farragutove operacije u okolici Vicksburga tijekom lipnja i srpnja 1862. godine.

Ponovno je krenula u akciju na Mississippiju u svrhu 1863. godine, kada je Farragut projurio pokraj baterija Port Hudson kako bi zaustavio trgovinu Konfederacije preko Mississippija od Crvene rijeke.

Sljedećih je godinu brig, teško ometen žutom groznicom, ostao na Mississippiju podržavajući operacije eskadrile za blokadu Zapadnog zaljeva. 3. svibnja 1864. dobila je nalog u New York na popravak i zamjenu istrošenog maltera. Međutim, poslana je u Boston, a 31. svibnja je stavljena van pogona u Bostonskom mornaričkom dvorištu

Vraćena u borbeno stanje, Sea Foam je ponovno poslana u kolovoz u Bostonu 1. kolovoza 1864. i dodijeljena južnoj atlantskoj eskadrili za blokiranje. Služila je kao potpornja u trgovini u Port Royalu, SC, sve dok nije naručena na sjever u siječnju 1865.

Nakon što je služila u Sjevernoatlantskoj eskadrili za blokadu tijekom posljednjih mjeseci rata, Sea Foam je prestala s radom u Bostonu 16. svibnja 1865. Prodana je na tamošnjoj javnoj dražbi 12. lipnja 1865. A. C. DeWellsu.


Meerschaumova cijev

A meerschaum cijev je cijev za pušenje izrađena od minerala sepiolita, poznatog i kao meerschaum. Meerschaum (Njemački izgovor: [ˈMeːɐ̯ʃaʊ̯m], njemački za "morsku pjenu") ponekad se nalazi kako pluta Crnim morem i prilično upućuje na morsku pjenu (otuda njemačko podrijetlo naziva, kao i francuski naziv za istu tvar, écume de mer). [1]


Kako koristiti morsku pjenu: tri načina za čistiji sustav goriva

S vremenom se unutrašnjost vašeg motora začepi svim vrstama gadnih stvari. Unutar kućišta radilice, gdje ulje živi, ​​lak i katran se nakupljaju na površinama klipova, prstenova, dizača i uljnih galija koje opskrbljuju uljem sve komponente. Time se smanjuje sposobnost motora da se hladi i podmazuje, smanjujući učinkovitost, performanse i vijek trajanja motora.

Ista nakupina događa se i unutar sustava za gorivo, začepljujući injektore ili mlaznice rasplinjača, gumeći usisne ventile i na vrhovima klipova. Ako se ventili ne kreću slobodno, disanje vašeg motora uvelike je otežano. Naslage ugljika na klipovima i ventilima mogu dovesti do žarišta koja uzrokuju detonaciju, što umanjuje performanse vašeg motora. Trik je u tome kako očistiti? Gotovo svaki motor, od 2-taktnih kosilica do velikih dizel dizalica, suočava se s istim problemom.

Čistač je bolji

Sea Foam postoji više od 70 godina i jedan je od najpouzdanijih tretmana za sve motore. Iako Sea Foam čini niz izvrsnih proizvoda, glavni je Motorni tretman morske pjene. Sea Foam posebno je formulirana za sigurno i polako ponovno otapanje žvakaćih guma, mulja, lakova i ugljikovih naslaga s tvrdih dijelova vašeg motora kako bi se mogli isprati iz sustava.

Sea Foam pomaže u podmazivanju pokretnih dijelova, posebno u sustavu goriva. Dodaci etanola isušuju brtve i ostavljaju lak koji otežava ulju podmazivanje dijelova. Uklanjanjem ovog laka motor se vraća u prvobitno stanje. Unutar spremnika za gorivo Sea Foam upija vodu, omogućujući joj da bez problema izgori u komori za izgaranje.

Kako koristiti morsku pjenu

Prilikom odlučivanja o načinu korištenja Sea Foam Motor Treatment postoje tri mogućnosti: u kućištu radilice, u spremniku goriva i u filteru za dizelsko gorivo. Za čišćenje gornjeg kraja koristite sprej od morske pjene prema uputama.

U kućištu radilice

Kad se doda u ulje, Sea Foam će očistiti mulj, utišati bučne dizače i ukloniti uljni lak. Jedna konzerva tretira 16 litara ulja, pa za 2 vozila dobijete 2 tretmana u jednoj limenci. Najbolji način je dodati tretman 500-1000 milja prije sljedeće zamjene ulja, a zatim dodati ostatak nakon što ste promijenili ulje. Time će se ukloniti velike količine laka i mulja, a drugi tretman održava stvari čistima.

U spremniku goriva

Može se potrošiti do 16 litara goriva. Time ćete ukloniti naslage s pumpe za gorivo, mlaznica ili mlaznica s ugljikohidratima, kontrolirati vlagu i stabilizirati gorivo. U dizelskim motorima odleđivat će se i ima svojstva protiv gela.

Na vrhunskom kraju

Za čišćenje naslaga ugljika iz sustava za usisavanje zraka, usisnih ventila i komora za izgaranje unutar motora, uključujući GDI motore, Sea Foam preporučuje korištenje sredstva za čišćenje i podmazivanje s raspršivačem s toplom vodom (dio # SS-14). Sprej za morsku pjenu ista je sjajna morska pjena samo u aerosolnom spreju umjesto u tekućem obliku. Sprej od morske pjene koristi se umetanjem uključenog crijeva za nanošenje i patentiranog "HOOK TOOL" u usisnik zraka neposredno ispred ploča leptira za gas u tijelu leptira za gas. Zatim pokrenite motor i pustite ga da se zagrije do radne temperature. Povećajte broj okretaja u praznom hodu na 2.000 o / min i raspršite sadržaj spremnika u motor. Ugasite motor i ostavite ga 15 minuta da se „namoči vruće“. Nakon perioda vrućeg natapanja ponovno pokrenite motor i testirajte vozilo na cesti agresivno dok ispuh ne bude čist (test na cesti obično traje 5 do 10 milja vožnje). Upute koje je lako slijediti dostupne su i na spremniku s morskom pjenom.

Ovakvi tretmani mogu se činiti kompliciranima, ali uz malo pripremnog rada, možete to učiniti sami i vratiti snagu i performanse svog vozila. Ako imate bilo kakvih nedoumica, svratite u lokalnu NAPA trgovinu auto dijelova ili NAPA AutoCare centar.

Provjerite sve kemijske proizvode dostupne na NAPA Online ili vjerujte jednom od naših 17 000 NAPA AutoCare lokacija za rutinsko održavanje i popravke. Za više informacija o korištenju tretmana motornom pjenom Sea Foam razgovarajte sa iskusnim stručnjakom u vašoj lokalnoj trgovini NAPA AUTO PARTS.


POVIJEST i SELA

Teritorij Pacheedaht obuhvaća zemlje i vode duž jugozapadne obale otoka Vancouver između Bonilla Point i Sheringham Point (vidi kartu). Naziv "Pacheedaht" na engleski se prevodi kao "Djeca morske pjene" i upućuje na dolje povezanu povijest podrijetla.

Jezik Pacheedaht sličan je jeziku naših susjeda i rodbine iz prve nacije Ditidaht, a također i s narodom Makah preko tjesnaca Juan de Fuca u državi Washington. Jezik Pacheedaht također je sličan jeziku kojim govore različiti prvi narodi Nuu-chah-nulth dalje na sjeveru i zapadu uz obalu otoka Vancouver. Ljudi Pacheedaht su srodstvom, jezikom i kulturom povezani s nekoliko drugih prvih naroda na otoku Vancouver i s Makahom. Pacheedaht imaju mnogo rodbine i prijatelja u susjednim zajednicama.

Primjer tradicionalnog sela

Zapravo, prema tradicionalnoj povijesti, davno su preci Pacheedaht i Ditidaht živjeli zajedno kao jedno pleme u izvornom selu smještenom na rijeci čije je izvorno ime Diitiida. Ako tražite ime Diitiida na današnjoj karti nećete ga pronaći jer je većina naziva mjesta Pacheedaht zamijenjena engleskim nazivima mjesta. Rijeka koju Pacheedaht zovu Diitiida je na modernim kartama označena kao "Rijeka Jordan".

Prvi narod Ditidaht dobio je ime po selu koje se dijeli na rijeci Jordan. Ditidaht znači "Ljudi iz Diitiida, "ili ljudi iz rijeke Jordan. Tijekom velike poplave neki od ljudi koji žive u Diitiida uspjeli preživjeti bijegom u kanuu koji su usidrili na vrh visoke planine kako bi pobjegli iz nadolazećih voda. Poslije su se neki od preživjelih nastanili u selu Whyac na izlazu iz jezera Nitinat u Tihi ocean i postali preci ljudi koji danas čine prvu naciju Ditidaht.

Drugi među preživjelima poplave vratili su se u selo u Diitiida (Rijeka Jordan) i ponovno se naselili na svom području. Na kraju je ova grana ljudi iz Diitiida postao usredsređen na selo na čelu Port San Juan na ušću rijeke San Juan, tzv p'a: chi: da. Ovo je također izvorni naziv za rijeku San Juan. Podrijetlo imena p'a: chi: da za rijeku, za selo - i za prvu naciju Pacheedaht - prepričao je poglavica Queesto Charlie Jones i opisao kako slijedi:

Prije nego što su na naše područje došle bolesti koje su donijeli bijeli istraživači, trgovci i doseljenici, neke procjene govore da je Pacheedaht brojao 1500 ljudi ili više. Preci Pacheedaht pratili su sezonsku rundu koja je uključivala preseljenje prebivališta na nekoliko mjesta tijekom prosječne godine kako bi iskoristili sezonski bogate resurse. Pacheedaht sela i kampovi bili su rasprostranjeni po cijelom teritoriju, osobito duž obale te na obalama i ustima većih rijeka. U tipičnoj kući Pacheedaht živjelo bi četiri do šest obitelji od kojih bi svaka imala svoj kamin u kući.

P & rsquoa: chi: da? - ovo je bilo glavno selo Pacheedaht i prostiralo se duž plaže koja se proteže između ušća sjevernog i južnog kraka rijeke San Juan. Indijski rezervati Pacheedaht #1 i #2 nalaze se na ovom mjestu.

K & rsquowitibi? T - veliko stalno naselje koje je uključivalo dvadeset kuća, a prostiralo se uz obalu Port San Juan od uvale na ušću rijeke San Juan prema uvali Snuggery.

Tł & rsquoi:xsjediti - veliko selo smješteno 2,5 km uz rijeku San Juan.

Kwi: sidok & rsquowa? - ribarski kamp smješten na ušću Harris Creeka na rijeci San Juan.

? a? aqwaxtas - selo na sjevernom mjestu Vilinsko jezero.

Tłołasiʔ - & ldquoflat & rdquo na Vilinskom jezeru bio je ljetni riblji kamp u kojem se sušio losos.

Tł & rsquooqwxWat & rsquo - ljetno ribarsko mjesto na rijeci Gordon gdje su postojale zamke za lososa.

K & rsquooʔobaʔ- selo od dvanaest do petnaest kuća u uvali Robertson.

Bo: ʔapiʔis - zimsko selo koje se nalazi na sadašnjem mjestu Port Renfrew.

ʔo: yats & rsquo - cjelogodišnje selo s osam kuća u uvali Thrasher & rsquos na sjeverozapadnoj strani Port San Juan.

K & rsquoadataʔs - mali kamp za zamke, s tri kuće, udaljen je pola milje od Owen Pointa na sjeverozapadnoj strani Port San Juan.

U uvali Camper bilo je malo selo, ali njegov Pacheedaht nije zabilježen.

ʔapsawaʔ - zimsko selo s osam kuća iza stijene Cerantes na južnoj strani ulaza u Port San Juan.

łi:xwa: str - zimsko selo sa šest kuća na vrhu blefa na Botaničkoj plaži - ovo je također bilo obrambeno mjesto.

Tł & rsquoehib - selo između Magdalene i Simona Pointa na plaži Boulder s prostorom za šest do osam bigova.

Qwa: qtłis - selo za ribolov i plodove mora koje se nalazi na ušću rijeke Sombrio.

Diitiida - veliko selo na ušću rijeke Jordan gdje je moglo biti čak dvanaest bigova. Qala: yit - veliko stalno selo istočno od Bonilla Pointa koje je bilo okupirano tijekom cijele godine. Ovo selo pružalo je odličan pristup brojnim ribarskim mjestima i mjestima za okupljanje morskih plodova, a nalazi se ono što nije Cullite IR #3.

1 Ovaj je račun objavljen u knjizi "Queesto, Pacheenaht Chief by Birthright" autora Charlesa Jonesa sa Stephenom Bosustowom, Theytus Books, Nanaimo, 1981.

Tkanje kora kedra

Skupljanje i tkanje kedrove kore tradicionalna je umjetnička forma prve nacije Pacheedaht.

Ova ručno izrađena ruža lijep je primjer razine stručnosti koja se i danas pokazuje.

Šefov šešir

Ovaj ručno tkani šešir primjer je tradicionalnog oblika kape šefa Pacheedaht. Ovi šeširi su funkcionirali kao važni statusni simboli.

Biljni život

Generacija je prva nacija Pacheedaht prenosila tradicionalne metode berbe i korištenja lokalnog biljnog svijeta za sve, od tkanja do pripreme hrane.

Plodovi mora

Prva nacija Pacheedaht ima nisku ocjenu lokalnih plodova mora. Od sakupljanja školjki do ribolova znaju najbolja mjesta za posjet i pravo vrijeme za posjet!


Morska pjena I - Povijest

1. 112'6 & quot b. 26 'dph. 9'3 & quot a. 1 13 & quot mort, 2 32 pdrs.)

Prva Sea Foam bila je hermafroditna brigada sa drvenim trupcima koju je mornarica kupila 14. rujna 1861. u New Yorku, opremljena kao minobacačka posuda u njujorškom mornaričkom dvorištu, a naručena 27. siječnja 1862., vršitelj dužnosti majstora Henry E. Williams u zapovjedništvu.

Sea Foam dodijeljena je Motarskoj flotili koja je osnovana početkom 1862. kako bi podržala kampanju časnika Farlaguta u New Orleansu. Nekoliko dana kasnije, brod je napustio luku New York i nastavio, preko Key Westa, Fla., I Ship Island, Miss., Do ušća rijeke Mississippi. Ušla je u rijeku kroz Pass a l'Outre 18. ožujka i sljedećih mjesec dana se pripremala za predstojeći napad na utvrde Konfederacije koje su čuvale rijeku

U popodnevnim satima 18. travnja Sea Foam i njeni sestrinski minobacački brodovi treće divizije flotile otvorili su vatru na Fort Jackson i tijekom sljedeća četiri sata bacili 43 granate na utvrdu. Prije zore sljedećeg dana, nastavila je bombardiranje i držala ga sve do zalaska sunca te večeri, ispalivši 88 granata tijekom dana. Ovaj obrazac operacija nastavila je tijekom sljedeća četiri dana.

Zatim je u ponoć, u noći s 23. na 24. travnja, otvorila vatru kako bi se pridružila bombardiranju koje je prethodilo Farragutovoj jurnjavi uz rijeku pored utvrda. Pojačala je brzinu paljbe na svoj maksimalni tempo otprilike tri i pol sata kasnije, dok su se Farragutovi brodovi kretali unutar dometa južnih baterija, i održavala je tempo sve dok brodovi Unije nisu bili sigurno iznad utvrda.

Nakon što se New Orleans predao, Porter je odveo svoju flotilu na poziciju kod Mobile Baya da čeka Farragut. Dana 15. svibnja Sea Foam i Matthew Vassar zarobili su šlepere Sarah i New Eagle, oboje natovareni pamukom

Međutim, časnik Zastave kasnio je s operacijama na Mississippiju i, nakon što je saznao za snagu Konfederacijskih radova u Vicksburgu, opozvao je Portera i minobacačke brodove. Vraćajući se uz Mississippi, Sea Foam se nasukala na pješčanu šipku ispod New Orleansa i ostala niz rijeku, dok su njeni sestrinski minobacački čamci podupirali Farragutove operacije u okolici Vicksburga tijekom lipnja i srpnja 1862. godine.

Ponovno je krenula u akciju na Mississippiju u svrhu 1863. godine, kada je Farragut projurio pokraj baterija Port Hudson kako bi zaustavio trgovinu Konfederacije preko Mississippija od Crvene rijeke.

Sljedećih je godinu brig, teško ometen žutom groznicom, ostao na Mississippiju podržavajući operacije eskadrile za blokadu Zapadnog zaljeva. 3. svibnja 1864. dobila je nalog u New York na popravak i zamjenu istrošenog maltera. Međutim, poslana je u Boston, a 31. svibnja je stavljena van pogona u Bostonskom mornaričkom dvorištu

Vraćena u borbeno stanje, Sea Foam je ponovno poslana u kolovoz u Bostonu 1. kolovoza 1864. i dodijeljena južnoj atlantskoj eskadrili za blokiranje. Služila je kao potpornja u trgovini u Port Royalu, SC, sve dok nije naručena na sjever u siječnju 1865.

Nakon što je služila u Sjevernoatlantskoj eskadrili za blokadu tijekom posljednjih mjeseci rata, Sea Foam je prestala s radom u Bostonu 16. svibnja 1865. Prodana je na tamošnjoj javnoj dražbi 12. lipnja 1865. A. C. DeWellsu.


Pronađite post prema datumu

Ovaj blog u potpunosti je djelo našeg Louisa Hougha, našeg uglednog povjesničara s obale Mendocina. Volim to. Ispod je skica morske pjene koju sam pronašao.

Skica morske pjene ispod žice u Mendocinu

Veliko uzbuđenje nastalo je u cijelom gradu kad je parna škuna poput Sea Foam -a trebala stići ili otići. Malo plovilo dolazilo je u Mendocino otprilike dva puta tjedno. Gotovo dvadeset godina, od 1911. do 1931., Sea Foam je privezana "ispod žice" tik uz obalu u Point. Sve je žičanom žicom izneseno na plovilo ili je preneseno na obalu: građa, teret i putnici.

Svaki put kad je posjetila Mendocino, Sea Foam je iz mlina Mendocino spremila oko četvrt milijuna daski drva za isporuku na tržište San Francisca. To je dovoljno drva za izgradnju više od deset veličanstvenih rezidencija poput Kelley Housea. Kad se pario na sjeveru, Sea Foam je prevozio svu vrstu robe, sve što je potrebno inače izoliranim trgovcima i stanovnicima. Možda postoji teška oprema za mlinove i drugu obalnu industriju: čelična šina, kotlovi, motori, ogromne tračne pile, čak i cijele lokomotive. Trgovci su dobivali odjeću, porculan, klavir i namirnice.

Ova parna škuna bila je tipična za obalnu drvnu flotu u doba njenog vrhunca. Morska pjena izgrađena je od jele Douglas 1905., a pokretala ju je dvocilindrična parna mašina na ugljen. Međutim, morska pjena bila je drugačija pasmina od one koju smatramo škunom. Riječ "scoon" je škotska, što znači preletjeti preko vode. Danas bismo još mogli vidjeti jedrilicu i cijeniti njezin graciozan prolaz, elegantno cijepajući valove prekrivene bijelim kapama. Parna škuna nikada nije bila tako lijepa za gledati. No, uz brzinu od osam čvorova imala je sasvim "pravi" zrak ugledne radne dame.

Plovila su prevozila gotovo svu građu isporučenu na zapadnoj obali do početka 1880 -ih. Neki povjesničari tvrde da su prve parne škune izgrađene kao mornari, a zatim su pretvoreni u paru stavljanjem kotla i motora na stabljiku te istiskivanjem spremnika svježe vode i bunkera. Neki povjesničari nastavljaju tražiti dokaze da je rana parna škuna tutnjala po navozima s već predviđenim prostorima za strojeve. Što god da se dogodilo, "para" je spojena na "škunu", a križanac je ždrijebljen.

Novomodna hermafroditna parna škuna posjedovala je kvalitete koje su cijenili operateri mlinova na obali: imala je prednost u odnosu na jedrilicu po tome što se na nju moglo osloniti da će se gurnuti izravno uz obalu protiv prevladavajućih vjetrova, prilično ručno manevrirajući blizu obale i gore ispod žice za utovar ili pregače u uskim malim uvalama, koje se obično nazivaju "rupe". Ako ga zahvati iznenadna oluja, parna škuna mogla bi lako izaći na more i na sigurno.

Do kasnih 1880 -ih dizajn se razvio u osebujan oblik. Naprijed je još uvijek nalikovala škuni za jedrenje, a na krmi joj je nad strojevima bila opremljena paluba. Nosili su svu građu prema naprijed, gotovo polovicu u skladištu, a nešto veći dio (računa se oko 55 posto) na palubi, naslagan visoko do prozora pilotaže. Drvna građa uredno je složena kako bi morima pružila glatku površinu i gurnuta ravno uz podignutu fo'c ’sle kako bi se zaštitili krajevi. Kapetan je, kako bi putovanje bilo što isplativije, ukrcao svoje plovilo do mjesta gdje je paluba bila gotovo natopljena. Postavljanje posljednjih nekoliko štapova na teret palube pomno se promatralo kako bi se održala stabilnost. Nije bilo dobro da se njegov brod prevrne na jednu stranu na početku plovidbe, more bi je moglo zakotrljati dovoljno da natjera kapetana da izbaci tisuće dolara drvne građe.

Parne škune zadržale su oblik trupa svojih rođaka u jedrenju: jednu palubu sa širokim snopom i trup punog tijela do vodene linije-za smještaj velikog drvnog tereta u skladištu. Oštar luk smanjio je otpor valova gurajući ih u stranu i tjerajući more da teče unatrag ispod trupa. Trup je bio "pojednostavljen", ako hoćete, nagnut da zadrži krmu dolje, a propeler pod vodom. Težina strojeva pomogla je stvoriti pravilan "otpor" i učinila je da se dobro nosi.

Sea Foam imala je dva jarbola, kao i većina flote drvenih parnih škuna. (dok su plovidbene škune imale tri, četiri jarbola - i više.) Jedra su pomogla pri postizanju određene brzine pri povoljnim vjetrovima, ali su bila najkorisnija za stabiliziranje broda u žestokim vjetrovima, osobito kad je brod bio onesposobljen. Sve do 1916. godine ili oko toga svi su planovi i specifikacije parobroda predviđali jedra, iako je svrha jarbola i nosača uglavnom bila rukovanje teretom. Vitla na parni pogon pomogla su posadi pri dizanju teških tereta. Prošli su dani kada je svaka daska (i neke teške) bila "rukovana" prilikom skladištenja ili istovara drvnog tereta.

Sjećanje na Sea Foam i ostale parne škune s vremenom sve više blijedi. Iako nas neki muzejski prikazi podsjećaju, oni ne mogu vratiti to uzbuđenje, vrevu i uzbuđenje kad je gradom odjeknuo poziv "Vidjela se".


Sadržaj

Saća je poznata po raznim imenima, uključujući:

  • pekmez u Velikoj Britaniji [1] "Cinder toffee" također se koristi za označavanje lomljive toffee. Yellowman u Sjevernoj Irskoj vrlo je sličan saću.
  • slatkiši iz vilinske hrane ili slatkiši od anđeoske hrane u Wisconsinu, Sjedinjene Američke Države [2]
  • hokey pokey na Novom Zelandu [3] [4] [5] [6] (posebno u Kiwi klasičnom Hokey Pokey sladoledu).
  • saće u Južnoj Africi, Australiji, Britaniji, [7] Irskoj i Ohiou, Sjedinjenim Državama
  • starinski lisnati komad u Massachusettsu [8]
  • lisnati slatkiši u Škotskoj [9]
  • Morska pjena u Maineu, Washingtonu, Oregonu, Utahu, Kaliforniji i Michiganu, Sjedinjene Američke Države [potreban je citat]
  • spužvasti bombon u Milwaukeeju, Wisconsinu, St. Paulu, Minnesoti, zapadnom New Yorku i sjeverozapadnoj Pennsylvaniji, Sjedinjene Američke Države [10]
  • spužvasti toffee ("guma éponge") u Kanadi [11]
  • dalgona (ili ppopgi) u Koreji
  • gulali u Indoneziji

Tajvan Edit

Na Tajvanu se zove natečeni šećer (膨 糖, péngtáng ili 椪 糖, pèngtáng).

China Edit

U Kini se to zove saće šećer (蜂窩 糖 fēngwōtáng). Kaže se da je to bila popularna vrsta slastičarstva među 80-im godinama prošlog stoljeća u njihovom djetinjstvu.

Mađarska Edit

U Mađarskoj je poznat kao törökméz (Turski med) i obično se prodaje na gradskim sajmovima.

Novi Zeland Edit

Sač sa satom poznat je kao hokey pokey na Novom Zelandu. Vrlo popularan okus sladoleda koji se sastoji od običnog sladoleda od vanilije s malim, čvrstim komadima saća u kafiću, poznat je i kao hokey pokey. Također se koristi za izradu hokey pokey keksi.

Japan Edit

Isti je slatkiš tradicionalni slatkiš u Japanu poznat kao karumeyaki (カ ル メ 焼 き), portmanteau portugalske riječi caramelo (karamel) i japansku riječ jaki (ispeći). Obično je ručno izrađen i često ga prodaju ulični prodavači. [ potreban je citat ]

Južna Koreja Edit

Dalgona (달고나) ili ppopgi (뽑기) je korejski slatkiš napravljen od otopljenog šećera i sode bikarbone. [12] [13] Bio je to popularan ulični zalogaj 1970 -ih i 1980 -ih, a i dalje se jede kao retro hrana. [14] Ima različit naziv za svaku regiju. [15] Kad se prstohvat sode bikarbone umiješa u rastopljeni šećer, toplinskim razlaganjem sode bikarbone oslobađa se ugljikov dioksid, što dovodi do napuhavanja tekućeg šećera, te postaje lagani i hrskavi bombon nakon što se ohladi i stvrdne. [16] Obično se kremasta bež tekućina izlije na ravnu površinu, preša se ravno i utisne s kalupom s uzorkom. Jedači pokušavaju skratiti obris ili sliku na zalogaju, a da pri tom ne razbiju sliku. [16] Ako se obrezivanje uspješno završi bez lomljenja slatkiša, potrošač dobiva drugu besplatnu dalgona. Moderni kafići u Seulu sada služe nova pića dalgona gomila se na ledeni čaj ili kavu [17] i peciva poput pogačica. [18] Neki su kafići također koristili dalgonu za lansiranje slastica poput bingsua (ledenog deserta) i suflea. [19] [20] Također, Osim toga, kao kultura boravka kod kuće proširio se na Covid-19, "Izrada Dalgone kod kuće" bio popularan na raznim kanalima na SNS -u. Zapravo, New York Times i BBC su bili na naslovnicama uvodeći način proizvodnje "K-Dalgona." [21]


Povezani wikiHows


Sadržaj

Hesiod izvodi Afrodita iz aphrós (ἀφρός) "morska pjena", [4] tumačeći ime kao "nastalo iz pjene", [5] [4] ali većina modernih znanstvenika to smatra lažnom narodnom etimologijom. [4] [6] Rani moderni znanstvenici klasične mitologije pokušali su tvrditi da je Afroditino ime grčkog ili indoeuropskog podrijetla, ali su ti napori sada većinom napušteni. [6] Općenito je prihvaćeno ime Afrodite negrčkog, vjerojatno semitskog podrijetla, ali se ne može točno odrediti. [6] [7]

Znanstvenici su krajem devetnaestog i početkom dvadesetog stoljeća, prihvaćajući Hesiodovu etimologiju "pjene" kao autentičnu, analizirali drugi dio Afroditinog imena kao *-odítē "lutalica" [8] ili *-dítē "svijetao". [9] [10] U novije vrijeme Michael Janda, također prihvaćajući Hesiodovu etimologiju, zalagao se u prilog potonjem od ovih tumačenja i tvrdi da je priča o rođenju iz pjene kao indoeuropska mitema. [11] [12] Slično, Krzysztof Tomasz Witczak predlaže indoeuropski spoj *ab-or- "vrlo" i *dʰei- "sjajiti", također se pozivajući na Eos, [13] a Daniel Kölligan protumačio je njezino ime kao "sjaj iz magle/pjene". [14] Drugi znanstvenici tvrdili su da su ove hipoteze malo vjerojatne jer se Afroditina svojstva potpuno razlikuju od atributa i Eosa i vedskog božanstva Ushasa. [15] [16]

Predložene su i brojne nevjerojatne ne-grčke etimologije. Jedna semitska etimologija uspoređuje Afroditu s asirskom barīrītu, ime ženskog demona koje se pojavljuje u srednjebabilonskim i kasnobabilonskim tekstovima. [17] Hammarström [18] gleda prema Etruščanima, uspoređujući (e) prϑni "gospodar", etruščanski počasti posuđen na grčki kao πρύτανις. [19] [7] [20] Time bi podrijetlo teonima postalo počast, "dama". [21] [7] Većina znanstvenika odbacuje ovu etimologiju kao nevjerojatnu, [19] [7] [20] pogotovo jer se Afrodita zapravo pojavljuje u etruščanskom u posuđenom obliku Apru (od grčkog Aphrō, izrezani oblik Afrodita). [7] Srednjovjekovni Etymologicum Magnum (oko 1150) nudi vrlo smišljenu etimologiju, izvedenu Afrodita iz spoja habrodíaitos (ἁβροδίαιτος), "ona koja nježno živi", od habrós i díaita. Izmjena iz b do ph se objašnjava kao "poznata" karakteristika grčkog "očita od Makedonaca". [22]

Bliskoistočna božica ljubavi

Afroditin kult u Grčkoj uvezen je iz kulta Astarte u Fenikiji, ili je barem na njega utjecao, [23] [24] [25] [26] na koji je pak utjecao kult mezopotamske božice kao "Ištar" istočno -semitskim narodima i kao "Inanna" Sumercima. [27] [25] [26] Pausanija navodi da su prvi koji su uspostavili kult Afrodite bili Asirci, zatim Ciprani pafijci, a zatim Feničani u Ascalonu. Feničani su je, s druge strane, naučili obožavati stanovnike Citere. [28]

Afrodita je preuzela Inanna-Ishtarove asocijacije na seksualnost i rađanje. [29] Nadalje, bila je poznata kao Ourania (Οὐρανία), što znači "nebeska", [30] naslov koji odgovara Inanninoj ulozi kraljice neba. [30] [31] Rani umjetnički i književni prikazi Afrodite iznimno su slični na Inanna-Ishtar. [29] Kao i Inanna-Ishtar, Afrodita je također bila božica ratnica [29] [24] [32] grčki geograf iz drugog stoljeća poslije Krista Pausanija bilježi da se u Sparti Afrodita štovala kao Afrodita Areia, što znači "ratoborno". [33] [34] Također spominje da su Afroditini najstariji kultni kipovi u Sparti i na Cytheri pokazivali njezino držanje na rukama. [33] [34] [35] [29] Suvremeni znanstvenici primjećuju da se Afroditini aspekti božice ratnice pojavljuju u najstarijim slojevima njezina štovanja [36] i vide to kao pokazatelj njezina bliskoistočnog podrijetla. [36] [37]

Klasični znanstvenici devetnaestog stoljeća imali su opću averziju prema ideji da je starogrčka religija uopće bila pod utjecajem kultura Bliskog istoka, [38] ali, čak je i Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker, koji je tvrdio da je bliskoistočni utjecaj na grčku kulturu u velikoj mjeri ograničen na materijalne kulture [38], priznao da je Afrodita očito feničanskog podrijetla. [38] Značajan utjecaj bliskoistočne kulture na ranu grčku religiju općenito, a posebno na kult Afrodite, [39] sada je općeprihvaćen kao da datira u razdoblje orijentacije tijekom osmog stoljeća prije Krista, [39] arhaična Grčka bila je na rubu neoasirskog carstva. [40]

Indoeuropska božica zore

Neki rani usporedni mitolozi koji su se protivili ideji bliskoistočnog podrijetla tvrdili su da je Afrodita nastala kao aspekt grčke božice zore Eos [41] [42] i da je stoga u konačnici izvedena iz proto-indoeuropske božice zore *Haéusōs (ispravno grčki Eos, latinski Aurora, sanskrt Ushas). [41] [42] Većina modernih znanstvenika sada je odbacila pojam čisto indoeuropske Afrodite [6] [43] [16] [44], ali moguće je da je na Afroditu, izvorno semitsko božanstvo, mogao utjecati od indoeuropske božice zore. [44] I Afrodita i Eos bili su poznati po svojoj erotskoj ljepoti i agresivnoj seksualnosti [42] i oboje su imali odnose sa ljubavnicima smrtnika. [42] Obje su božice bile povezane s bojama crvenom, bijelom i zlatnom. [42] Michael Janda etimologizira Afroditino ime kao epitet Eosa što znači "ona koja se diže iz pjene [oceana]" [12] i pokazuje na Hesiodovo Teogonija izvještaj o Afroditinom rođenju kao arhaičnom refleksu indoeuropskog mita. [12] Afrodita koja se izdigla iz vode nakon što je Kron pobijedio Uran jer bi mit bio izravno srodan Rigvedskom mitu o Indri koja je pobijedila Vrtru, oslobađajući Ushe. [11] [12] Još jedna ključna sličnost između Afrodite i indoeuropske božice zore je njezino blisko srodstvo s grčkim nebeskim božanstvom, [44] budući da su oba glavna tužitelja njezina očinstva (Zeus i Uran) nebeska božanstva. [45]

Afroditin najčešći kultni epitet bio je Ourania, što znači "nebeski", [49] [50] ali ovaj se epitet gotovo nikada ne pojavljuje u književnim tekstovima, što ukazuje na čisto kultni značaj. [51] Drugi uobičajeni naziv za Afroditu bio je Pandemos ("Za sav narod"). [52] In her role as Aphrodite Pandemos, Aphrodite was associated with Peithō ( Πείθω ), meaning "persuasion", [53] and could be prayed to for aid in seduction. [53] The character of Pausanias in Plato's Symposium, takes differing cult-practices associated with different epithets of the goddess to claim that Ourania and Pandemos are, in fact, separate goddesses. He asserts that Aphrodite Ourania is the celestial Aphrodite, born from the sea foam after Cronus castrated Uranus, and the older of the two goddesses. Prema Symposium, Aphrodite Ourania is the inspiration of male homosexual desire, specifically the ephebic eros, and pederasty. Aphrodite Pandemos, by contrast, is the younger of the two goddesses: the common Aphrodite, born from the union of Zeus and Dione, and the inspiration of heterosexual desire and sexual promiscuity, the "lesser" of the two loves. [54] [55] Paphian (Παφία), was one of her epithets, after the Paphos in Cyprus where she had emerged from the sea at her birth. [56]

Among the Neoplatonists and, later, their Christian interpreters, Ourania is associated with spiritual love, and Pandemos with physical love (desire). A representation of Ourania with her foot resting on a tortoise came to be seen as emblematic of discretion in conjugal love it was the subject of a chryselephantine sculpture by Phidias for Elis, known only from a parenthetical comment by the geographer Pausanias. [57]

One of Aphrodite's most common literary epithets is Philommeidḗs ( φιλομμειδής ), [58] which means "smile-loving", [58] but is sometimes mistranslated as "laughter-loving". [58] This epithet occurs throughout both of the Homeric epics and the First Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite. [58] Hesiod references it once in his Teogonija in the context of Aphrodite's birth, [59] but interprets it as "genital-loving" rather than "smile-loving". [59] Monica Cyrino notes that the epithet may relate to the fact that, in many artistic depictions of Aphrodite, she is shown smiling. [59] Other common literary epithets are Cypris i Cythereia, [60] which derive from her associations with the islands of Cyprus and Cythera respectively. [60]

On Cyprus, Aphrodite was sometimes called Eleemon ("the merciful"). [50] In Athens, she was known as Aphrodite en kopois ("Aphrodite of the Gardens"). [50] At Cape Colias, a town along the Attic coast, she was venerated as Genetyllis "Mother". [50] The Spartans worshipped her as Potnia "Mistress", Enoplios "Armed", Morpho "Shapely", Ambologera "She who Postpones Old Age". [50] Across the Greek world, she was known under epithets such as Melainis "Black One", Skotia "Dark One", Androphonos "Killer of Men", Anosia "Unholy", and Tymborychos "Gravedigger", [48] all of which indicate her darker, more violent nature. [48]

A male version of Aphrodite known as Aphroditus was worshipped in the city of Amathus on Cyprus. [46] [47] [48] Aphroditus was depicted with the figure and dress of a woman, [46] [47] but had a beard, [46] [47] and was shown lifting his dress to reveal an erect phallus. [46] [47] This gesture was believed to be an apotropaic symbol, [61] and was thought to convey good fortune upon the viewer. [61] Eventually, the popularity of Aphroditus waned as the mainstream, fully feminine version of Aphrodite became more popular, [47] but traces of his cult are preserved in the later legends of Hermaphroditus. [47]

Klasično razdoblje

Aphrodite's main festival, the Aphrodisia, was celebrated across Greece, but particularly in Athens and Corinth. In Athens, the Aphrodisia was celebrated on the fourth day of the month of Hekatombaion in honor of Aphrodite's role in the unification of Attica. [62] [63] During this festival, the priests of Aphrodite would purify the temple of Aphrodite Pandemos on the southwestern slope of the Acropolis with the blood of a sacrificed dove. [64] Next, the altars would be anointed [64] and the cult statues of Aphrodite Pandemos and Peitho would be escorted in a majestic procession to a place where they would be ritually bathed. [65] Aphrodite was also honored in Athens as part of the Arrhephoria festival. [66] The fourth day of every month was sacred to Aphrodite. [67]

Pausanias records that, in Sparta, Aphrodite was worshipped as Aphrodite Areia, which means "warlike". [33] [34] This epithet stresses Aphrodite's connections to Ares, with whom she had extramarital relations. [33] [34] Pausanias also records that, in Sparta [33] [34] and on Cythera, a number of extremely ancient cult statues of Aphrodite portrayed her bearing arms. [35] [50] Other cult statues showed her bound in chains. [50]

Aphrodite was the patron goddess of prostitutes of all varieties, [68] [50] ranging from pornai (cheap street prostitutes typically owned as slaves by wealthy pimps) to hetairai (expensive, well-educated hired companions, who were usually self-employed and sometimes provided sex to their customers). [69] The city of Corinth was renowned throughout the ancient world for its many hetairai, [70] who had a widespread reputation for being among the most skilled, but also the most expensive, prostitutes in the Greek world. [70] Corinth also had a major temple to Aphrodite located on the Acrocorinth [70] and was one of the main centers of her cult. [70] Records of numerous dedications to Aphrodite made by successful courtesans have survived in poems and in pottery inscriptions. [69] References to Aphrodite in association with prostitution are found in Corinth as well as on the islands of Cyprus, Cythera, and Sicily. [71] Aphrodite's Mesopotamian precursor Inanna-Ishtar was also closely associated with prostitution. [72] [73] [71]

Scholars in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries believed that the cult of Aphrodite may have involved ritual prostitution, [73] [71] an assumption based on ambiguous passages in certain ancient texts, particularly a fragment of a skolion by the Boeotian poet Pindar, [74] which mentions prostitutes in Corinth in association with Aphrodite. [74] Modern scholars now dismiss the notion of ritual prostitution in Greece as a "historiographic myth" with no factual basis. [75]

Hellenistic and Roman periods

During the Hellenistic period, the Greeks identified Aphrodite with the ancient Egyptian goddesses Hathor and Isis. [76] [77] [78] Aphrodite was the patron goddess of the Lagid queens [79] and Queen Arsinoe II was identified as her mortal incarnation. [79] Aphrodite was worshipped in Alexandria [79] and had numerous temples in and around the city. [79] Arsinoe II introduced the cult of Adonis to Alexandria and many of the women there partook in it. [79] The Tessarakonteres, a gigantic catamaran galley designed by Archimedes for Ptolemy IV Philopator, had a circular temple to Aphrodite on it with a marble statue of the goddess herself. [79] In the second century BC, Ptolemy VIII Physcon and his wives Cleopatra II and Cleopatra III dedicated a temple to Aphrodite Hathor at Philae. [79] Statuettes of Aphrodite for personal devotion became common in Egypt starting in the early Ptolemaic times and extending until long after Egypt became a Roman province. [79]

The ancient Romans identified Aphrodite with their goddess Venus, [80] who was originally a goddess of agricultural fertility, vegetation, and springtime. [80] According to the Roman historian Livy, Aphrodite and Venus were officially identified in the third century BC [81] when the cult of Venus Erycina was introduced to Rome from the Greek sanctuary of Aphrodite on Mount Eryx in Sicily. [81] After this point, Romans adopted Aphrodite's iconography and myths and applied them to Venus. [81] Because Aphrodite was the mother of the Trojan hero Aeneas in Greek mythology [81] and Roman tradition claimed Aeneas as the founder of Rome, [81] Venus became venerated as Venus Genetrix, the mother of the entire Roman nation. [81] Julius Caesar claimed to be directly descended from Aeneas's son Iulus [82] and became a strong proponent of the cult of Venus. [82] This precedent was later followed by his nephew Augustus and the later emperors claiming succession from him. [82]

This syncretism greatly impacted Greek worship of Aphrodite. [83] During the Roman era, the cults of Aphrodite in many Greek cities began to emphasize her relationship with Troy and Aeneas. [83] They also began to adopt distinctively Roman elements, [83] portraying Aphrodite as more maternal, more militaristic, and more concerned with administrative bureaucracy. [83] She was claimed as a divine guardian by many political magistrates. [83] Appearances of Aphrodite in Greek literature also vastly proliferated, usually showing Aphrodite in a characteristically Roman manner. [84]

Rođenje

Aphrodite is usually said to have been born near her chief center of worship, Paphos, on the island of Cyprus, which is why she is sometimes called "Cyprian", especially in the poetic works of Sappho. The Sanctuary of Aphrodite Paphia, marking her birthplace, was a place of pilgrimage in the ancient world for centuries. [85] Other versions of her myth have her born near the island of Cythera, hence another of her names, "Cytherea". [86] Cythera was a stopping place for trade and culture between Crete and the Peloponesus, [87] so these stories may preserve traces of the migration of Aphrodite's cult from the Middle East to mainland Greece. [88]

According to the version of her birth recounted by Hesiod in his Teogonija, [89] [90] Cronus severed Uranus' genitals and threw them behind him into the sea. [90] [91] [92] The foam from his genitals gave rise to Aphrodite [4] (hence her name, which Hesiod interprets as "foam-arisen"), [4] while the Giants, the Erinyes (furies), and the Meliae emerged from the drops of his blood. [90] [91] Hesiod states that the genitals "were carried over the sea a long time, and white foam arose from the immortal flesh with it a girl grew." Hesiod's account of Aphrodite's birth following Uranus's castration is probably derived from The Song of Kumarbi, [93] [94] an ancient Hittite epic poem in which the god Kumarbi overthrows his father Anu, the god of the sky, and bites off his genitals, causing him to become pregnant and give birth to Anu's children, which include Ishtar and her brother Teshub, the Hittite storm god. [93] [94]

U Ilijada, [95] Aphrodite is described as the daughter of Zeus and Dione. [4] Dione's name appears to be a feminine cognate to Dios i Dion, [4] which are oblique forms of the name Zeus. [4] Zeus and Dione shared a cult at Dodona in northwestern Greece. [4] In Teogonija, Hesiod describes Dione as an Oceanid. [96]

Brak

Aphrodite is consistently portrayed as a nubile, infinitely desirable adult, having had no childhood. [97] She is often depicted nude. [98] In the Ilijada, Aphrodite is the apparently unmarried consort of Ares, the god of war, [99] and the wife of Hephaestus is a different goddess named Charis. [100] Likewise, in Hesiod's Teogonija, Aphrodite is unmarried and the wife of Hephaestus is Aglaea, the youngest of the three Charites. [100]

In Book Eight of the Odiseja, [101] however, the blind singer Demodocus describes Aphrodite as the wife of Hephaestus and tells how she committed adultery with Ares during the Trojan War. [100] [102] The sun-god Helios saw Aphrodite and Ares having sex in Hephaestus's bed and warned Hephaestus, who fashioned a net of gold. [102] The next time Ares and Aphrodite had sex together, the net trapped them both. [102] Hephaestus brought all the gods into the bedchamber to laugh at the captured adulterers, [103] but Apollo, Hermes, and Poseidon had sympathy for Ares [104] and Poseidon agreed to pay Hephaestus for Ares's release. [105] Humiliated, Aphrodite returned to Cyprus, where she was attended by the Charites. [105] This narrative probably originated as a Greek folk tale, originally independent of the Odiseja. [106]

Later stories were invented to explain Aphrodite's marriage to Hephaestus. In the most famous story, Zeus hastily married Aphrodite to Hephaestus in order to prevent the other gods from fighting over her. [107] In another version of the myth, Hephaestus gave his mother Hera a golden throne, but when she sat on it, she became trapped and he refused to let her go until she agreed to give him Aphrodite's hand in marriage. [108] Hephaestus was overjoyed to be married to the goddess of beauty, and forged her beautiful jewelry, including a strophion ( στρόφιον ) known as the keston himanta ( κεστὸν ἱμάντα ), [109] a saltire-shaped undergarment (usually translated as "girdle"), [110] which accentuated her breasts [111] and made her even more irresistible to men. [110] Such strophia were commonly used in depictions of the Near Eastern goddesses Ishtar and Atargatis. [110]

Attendants

Aphrodite is almost always accompanied by Eros, the god of lust and sexual desire. [112] In his Teogonija, Hesiod describes Eros as one of the four original primeval forces born at the beginning of time, [112] but, after the birth of Aphrodite from the sea foam, he is joined by Himeros and, together, they become Aphrodite's constant companions. [113] In early Greek art, Eros and Himeros are both shown as idealized handsome youths with wings. [114] The Greek lyric poets regarded the power of Eros and Himeros as dangerous, compulsive, and impossible for anyone to resist. [115] In modern times, Eros is often seen as Aphrodite's son, [116] but this is actually a comparatively late innovation. [117] A scholion on Theocritus's Idylls remarks that the sixth-century BC poet Sappho had described Eros as the son of Aphrodite and Uranus, [118] but the first surviving reference to Eros as Aphrodite's son comes from Apollonius of Rhodes's Argonautica, written in the third century BC, which makes him the son of Aphrodite and Ares. [119] Later, the Romans, who saw Venus as a mother goddess, seized on this idea of Eros as Aphrodite's son and popularized it, [119] making it the predominant portrayal in works on mythology until the present day. [119]

Aphrodite's main attendants were the three Charites, whom Hesiod identifies as the daughters of Zeus and Eurynome and names as Aglaea ("Splendor"), Euphrosyne ("Good Cheer"), and Thalia ("Abundance"). [120] The Charites had been worshipped as goddesses in Greece since the beginning of Greek history, long before Aphrodite was introduced to the pantheon. [100] Aphrodite's other set of attendants was the three Horae (the "Hours"), [100] whom Hesiod identifies as the daughters of Zeus and Themis and names as Eunomia (“Good Order”), Dike (“Justice”), and Eirene (“Peace”). [121] Aphrodite was also sometimes accompanied by Harmonia, her daughter by Ares, and Hebe, the daughter of Zeus and Hera. [122]

The fertility god Priapus was usually considered to be Aphrodite's son by Dionysus, [123] [124] but he was sometimes also described as her son by Hermes, Adonis, or even Zeus. [123] A scholion on Apollonius of Rhodes's Argonautica [125] states that, while Aphrodite was pregnant with Priapus, Hera envied her and applied an evil potion to her belly while she was sleeping to ensure that the child would be hideous. [123] When Aphrodite gave birth, she was horrified to see that the child had a massive, permanently erect penis, a potbelly, and a huge tongue. [123] Aphrodite abandoned the infant to die in the wilderness, but a herdsman found him and raised him, later discovering that Priapus could use his massive penis to aid in the growth of plants. [123]

Anchises

The First Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite (Hymn 5), which was probably composed sometime in the mid-seventh century BC, [126] describes how Zeus once became annoyed with Aphrodite for causing deities to fall in love with mortals, [126] so he caused her to fall in love with Anchises, a handsome mortal shepherd who lived in the foothills beneath Mount Ida near the city of Troy. [126] Aphrodite appears to Anchises in the form of a tall, beautiful, mortal virgin while he is alone in his home. [127] Anchises sees her dressed in bright clothing and gleaming jewelry, with her breasts shining with divine radiance. [128] He asks her if she is Aphrodite and promises to build her an altar on top of the mountain if she will bless him and his family. [129]

Aphrodite lies and tells him that she is not a goddess, but the daughter of one of the noble families of Phrygia. [129] She claims to be able to understand the Trojan language because she had a Trojan nurse as a child and says that she found herself on the mountainside after she was snatched up by Hermes while dancing in a celebration in honor of Artemis, the goddess of virginity. [129] Aphrodite tells Anchises that she is still a virgin [129] and begs him to take her to his parents. [129] Anchises immediately becomes overcome with mad lust for Aphrodite and swears that he will have sex with her. [129] Anchises takes Aphrodite, with her eyes cast downwards, to his bed, which is covered in the furs of lions and bears. [130] He then strips her naked and makes love to her. [130]

After the lovemaking is complete, Aphrodite reveals her true divine form. [131] Anchises is terrified, but Aphrodite consoles him and promises that she will bear him a son. [131] She prophesies that their son will be the demigod Aeneas, who will be raised by the nymphs of the wilderness for five years before going to Troy to become a nobleman like his father. [132] The story of Aeneas's conception is also mentioned in Hesiod's Teogonija and in Book II of Homer's Ilijada. [132] [133]

Adonis

The myth of Aphrodite and Adonis is probably derived from the ancient Sumerian legend of Inanna and Dumuzid. [134] [135] [136] The Greek name Ἄδωνις (Adōnis, Greek pronunciation: [ádɔːnis] ) is derived from the Canaanite word ʼadōn, meaning "lord". [137] [136] The earliest known Greek reference to Adonis comes from a fragment of a poem by the Lesbian poetess Sappho (c. 630 – c. 570 BC), in which a chorus of young girls asks Aphrodite what they can do to mourn Adonis's death. [138] Aphrodite replies that they must beat their breasts and tear their tunics. [138] Later references flesh out the story with more details. [139] According to the retelling of the story found in the poem Metamorfoze by the Roman poet Ovid (43 BC – 17/18 AD), Adonis was the son of Myrrha, who was cursed by Aphrodite with insatiable lust for her own father, King Cinyras of Cyprus, after Myrrha's mother bragged that her daughter was more beautiful than the goddess. [140] Driven out after becoming pregnant, Myrrha was changed into a myrrh tree, but still gave birth to Adonis. [141]

Aphrodite found the baby, and took him to the underworld to be fostered by Persephone. [142] She returned for him once he was grown and discovered him to be strikingly handsome. [142] Persephone wanted to keep Adonis, resulting in a custody battle between the two goddesses over whom should rightly possess Adonis. [142] Zeus settled the dispute by decreeing that Adonis would spend one third of the year with Aphrodite, one third with Persephone, and one third with whomever he chose. [142] Adonis chose to spend that time with Aphrodite. [142] Then, one day, while Adonis was hunting, he was wounded by a wild boar and bled to death in Aphrodite's arms. [142]

In different versions of the story, the boar was either sent by Ares, who was jealous that Aphrodite was spending so much time with Adonis, or by Artemis, who wanted revenge against Aphrodite for having killed her devoted follower Hippolytus. [143] The story also provides an etiology for Aphrodite's associations with certain flowers. [143] Reportedly, as she mourned Adonis's death, she caused anemones to grow wherever his blood fell, [143] and declared a festival on the anniversary of his death. [142] In one version of the story, Aphrodite injured herself on a thorn from a rose bush and the rose, which had previously been white, was stained red by her blood. [143] According to Lucian's On the Syrian Goddess, [101] each year during the festival of Adonis, the Adonis River in Lebanon (now known as the Abraham River) ran red with blood. [142]

The myth of Adonis is associated with the festival of the Adonia, which was celebrated by Greek women every year in midsummer. [136] The festival, which was evidently already celebrated in Lesbos by Sappho's time, seems to have first become popular in Athens in the mid-fifth century BC. [136] At the start of the festival, the women would plant a "garden of Adonis", a small garden planted inside a small basket or a shallow piece of broken pottery containing a variety of quick-growing plants, such as lettuce and fennel, or even quick-sprouting grains such as wheat and barley. [136] The women would then climb ladders to the roofs of their houses, where they would place the gardens out under the heat of the summer sun. [136] The plants would sprout in the sunlight, [136] but wither quickly in the heat. [144] Then the women would mourn and lament loudly over the death of Adonis, [145] tearing their clothes and beating their breasts in a public display of grief. [145]

Divine favoritism

In Hesiod's Radovi i dani, Zeus orders Aphrodite to make Pandora, the first woman, physically beautiful and sexually attractive, [146] so that she may become "an evil men will love to embrace". [147] Aphrodite "spills grace" over Pandora's head [146] and equips her with "painful desire and knee-weakening anguish", thus making her the perfect vessel for evil to enter the world. [148] Aphrodite's attendants, Peitho, the Charites, and the Horae, adorn Pandora with gold and jewelry. [149]

According to one myth, Aphrodite aided Hippomenes, a noble youth who wished to marry Atalanta, a maiden who was renowned throughout the land for her beauty, but who refused to marry any man unless he could outrun her in a footrace. [150] [151] Atalanta was an exceedingly swift runner and she beheaded all of the men who lost to her. [150] [151] Aphrodite gave Hippomenes three golden apples from the Garden of the Hesperides and instructed him to toss them in front of Atalanta as he raced her. [150] [152] Hippomenes obeyed Aphrodite's order [150] and Atalanta, seeing the beautiful, golden fruits, bent down to pick up each one, allowing Hippomenes to outrun her. [150] [152] In the version of the story from Ovid's Metamorfoze, Hippomenes forgets to repay Aphrodite for her aid, [153] [150] so she causes the couple to become inflamed with lust while they are staying at the temple of Cybele. [150] The couple desecrate the temple by having sex in it, leading Cybele to turn them into lions as punishment. [153] [150]

The myth of Pygmalion is first mentioned by the third-century BC Greek writer Philostephanus of Cyrene, [154] [155] but is first recounted in detail in Ovid's Metamorfoze. [154] According to Ovid, Pygmalion was an exceedingly handsome sculptor from the island of Cyprus, who was so sickened by the immorality of women that he refused to marry. [156] [157] He fell madly and passionately in love with the ivory cult statue he was carving of Aphrodite and longed to marry it. [156] [158] Because Pygmalion was extremely pious and devoted to Aphrodite, [156] [159] the goddess brought the statue to life. [156] [159] Pygmalion married the girl the statue became and they had a son named Paphos, after whom the capital of Cyprus received its name. [156] [159] Pseudo-Apollodorus later mentions "Metharme, daughter of Pygmalion, king of Cyprus". [160]

Anger myths

Aphrodite generously rewarded those who honored her, but also punished those who disrespected her, often quite brutally. [162] A myth described in Apollonius of Rhodes's Argonautica and later summarized in the Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus tells how, when the women of the island of Lemnos refused to sacrifice to Aphrodite, the goddess cursed them to stink horribly so that their husbands would never have sex with them. [163] Instead, their husbands started having sex with their Thracian slave-girls. [163] In anger, the women of Lemnos murdered the entire male population of the island, as well as all the Thracian slaves. [163] When Jason and his crew of Argonauts arrived on Lemnos, they mated with the sex-starved women under Aphrodite's approval and repopulated the island. [163] From then on, the women of Lemnos never disrespected Aphrodite again. [163]

In Euripides's tragedy Hipolit, which was first performed at the City Dionysia in 428 BC, Theseus's son Hippolytus worships only Artemis, the goddess of virginity, and refuses to engage in any form of sexual contact. [163] Aphrodite is infuriated by his prideful behavior [164] and, in the prologue to the play, she declares that, by honoring only Artemis and refusing to venerate her, Hippolytus has directly challenged her authority. [165] Aphrodite therefore causes Hippolytus's stepmother, Phaedra, to fall in love with him, knowing Hippolytus will reject her. [166] After being rejected, Phaedra commits suicide and leaves a suicide note to Theseus telling him that she killed herself because Hippolytus attempted to rape her. [166] Theseus prays to Poseidon to kill Hippolytus for his transgression. [167] Poseidon sends a wild bull to scare Hippolytus's horses as he is riding by the sea in his chariot, causing the horses to bolt and smash the chariot against the cliffs, dragging Hippolytus to a bloody death across the rocky shoreline. [167] The play concludes with Artemis vowing to kill Aphrodite's own mortal beloved (presumably Adonis) in revenge. [168]

Glaucus of Corinth angered Aphrodite by refusing to let his horses for chariot racing mate, since doing so would hinder their speed. [169] During the chariot race at the funeral games of King Pelias, Aphrodite drove his horses mad and they tore him apart. [170] Polyphonte was a young woman who chose a virginal life with Artemis instead of marriage and children, as favoured by Aphrodite. Aphrodite cursed her, causing her to have children by a bear. The resulting offspring, Agrius and Oreius, were wild cannibals who incurred the hatred of Zeus. Ultimately, he transformed all the members of the family into birds of ill omen. [171]

According to Pseudo-Apollodorus, jealous Aphrodite who cursed goddess of dawn to be perpetually in love and have an insatiable sexual desire because once had Eos lain with Aphrodite's sweetheart Ares, the god of war. [172] According to Ovid in his Metamorphoses (book 10.238 ff.), Propoetides who are the daughters of Propoetus from the city of Amathus on the island of Cyprus denied Aphrodite's divinity and failing to worship her properly. Therefore, Aphrodite turn them into the world's first prostitutes. [173] According to Diodorous, Rhodian sea nymphe Halia's six sons by Poseidon arrogantly refused to let Aphrodite land upon their shore, the goddess cursed them with insanity. In their madness, they raped Halia. As punishment, Poseidon buried them in the island's sea-caverns. [174] Bellerophon's descendant Xanthius had two children. Leucippus and an unnamed daughter. Through the wrath of Aphrodite (reasons unknown), Leucippus fell in love with his own sister. They started a secret relationship but the girl was already betrothed to another man and he went on to inform her father Xanthius, without telling him the name of the seducer. Xanthius went straight to his daughter's chamber, where she was together with Leucippus right at the moment. On hearing him enter, she tried to escape, but Xanthius hit her with a dagger, thinking that he was slaying the seducer, and killed her. Leucippus, failing to recognize his father at first, slew him. When the truth was revealed, he had to leave the country and took part in colonization of Crete and the lands in Asia Minor. [175] Queen Cenchreis of Cyprus and wife of King Cinyras bragged her daughter Myrrha more beautiful than Aphrodite. Therefore, Myrrha was cursed by Aphrodite with insatiable lust for her own father, King Cinyras of Cyprus and he slept with her unknowingly in dark. she eventually transformed into the myrrh tree and gave birth to Adonis in this form. [176] [140] [176] [141] [177] Cinyras has also three another daughters and their names Braesia, Laogora, Orsedice. These girls by reason of the wrath of Aphrodite (reasons unknown) cohabited with foreigners, and ended their life in Egypt. [178] Mousa Clio derided the goddess' own love for Adonis. Therefore, Clio fell in love with Pierus, son of Magnes and bore Hyacinth. [179] Aegialeia was a daughter of Adrastus and Amphithea and she was married to Diomedes. Because of anger of Aphrodite, whom Diomedes had wounded in the war against Troy, She had multiple lovers, including a certain Hippolytus. [180] [181] when Aegiale went so far as to threaten his life, he fled to Italy. [181] [182] In one of the versions of the legend, Pasiphae did not make offerings to the goddess Venus [Aphrodite]. Because of this Venus [Aphrodite] inspired in her an unnatural love for a bull [183] or she cursed her because she was Helios's daughter who revealed her adultery to Hephaistos. [184] Lysippe, mother of Tanais by Berossos. Her son only venerated Ares and was fully devoted to war, neglecting love and marriage. Aphrodite cursed him with falling in love with his own mother. Preferring to die rather than give up his chastity, he threw himself into the river Amazonius, which was subsequently renamed Tanais. [185] According to Pseudo-Hyginus At the behest of Zeus, Orpheus's mother mousa Kalliope judged the dispute between the goddesses Aphrodite and Persephone over Adonis and she decided that each should possess him half of the year. But Venus [Aphrodite], angry because she had not been granted what she thought was her right. Therefore, Venus [Aphrodite] inspired love the women in Thrace for Orpheus and they eventually tore him limb from limb because each to seek Orpheus for herself. [186]

Judgment of Paris and Trojan War

The myth of the Judgement of Paris is mentioned briefly in the Ilijada, [187] but is described in depth in an epitome of the Ciprija, a lost poem of the Epic Cycle, [188] which records that all the gods and goddesses as well as various mortals were invited to the marriage of Peleus and Thetis (the eventual parents of Achilles). [187] Only Eris, goddess of discord, was not invited. [188] She was annoyed at this, so she arrived with a golden apple inscribed with the word καλλίστῃ (kallistēi, "for the fairest"), which she threw among the goddesses. [189] Aphrodite, Hera, and Athena all claimed to be the fairest, and thus the rightful owner of the apple. [189]

The goddesses chose to place the matter before Zeus, who, not wanting to favor one of the goddesses, put the choice into the hands of Paris, a Trojan prince. [189] After bathing in the spring of Mount Ida where Troy was situated, the goddesses appeared before Paris for his decision. [189] In the extant ancient depictions of the Judgement of Paris, Aphrodite is only occasionally represented nude, and Athena and Hera are always fully clothed. [190] Since the Renaissance, however, Western paintings have typically portrayed all three goddesses as completely naked. [190]

All three goddesses were ideally beautiful and Paris could not decide between them, so they resorted to bribes. [189] Hera tried to bribe Paris with power over all Asia and Europe, [189] and Athena offered wisdom, fame and glory in battle, [189] but Aphrodite promised Paris that, if he were to choose her as the fairest, she would let him marry the most beautiful woman on earth. [191] This woman was Helen, who was already married to King Menelaus of Sparta. [191] Paris selected Aphrodite and awarded her the apple. [191] The other two goddesses were enraged and, as a direct result, sided with the Greeks in the Trojan War. [191]

Aphrodite plays an important and active role throughout the entirety of Homer's Ilijada. [192] In Book III, she rescues Paris from Menelaus after he foolishly challenges him to a one-on-one duel. [193] She then appears to Helen in the form of an old woman and attempts to persuade her to have sex with Paris, [194] reminding her of his physical beauty and athletic prowess. [195] Helen immediately recognizes Aphrodite by her beautiful neck, perfect breasts, and flashing eyes [196] and chides the goddess, addressing her as her equal. [197] Aphrodite sharply rebukes Helen, reminding her that, if she vexes her, she will punish her just as much as she has favored her already. [198] Helen demurely obeys Aphrodite's command. [198]

In Book V, Aphrodite charges into battle to rescue her son Aeneas from the Greek hero Diomedes. [199] Diomedes recognizes Aphrodite as a "weakling" goddess [199] and, thrusting his spear, nicks her wrist through her "ambrosial robe". [200] Aphrodite borrows Ares's chariot to ride back to Mount Olympus. [201] Zeus chides her for putting herself in danger, [201] [202] reminding her that "her specialty is love, not war." [201] According to Walter Burkert, this scene directly parallels a scene from Tablet VI of the Ep o Gilgamešu in which Ishtar, Aphrodite's Akkadian precursor, cries to her mother Antu after the hero Gilgamesh rejects her sexual advances, but is mildly rebuked by her father Anu. [203] In Book XIV of the Ilijada, during the Dios Apate episode, Aphrodite lends her kestos himas to Hera for the purpose of seducing Zeus and distracting him from the combat while Poseidon aids the Greek forces on the beach. [204] In the Theomachia in Book XXI, Aphrodite again enters the battlefield to carry Ares away after he is wounded. [201] [205]


Sea Foam Candy

Here is a perfect example of something old that has become new again. If you’ve ever had Divinity, you’ve had something similar to Sea Foam candy. They’re similar, but Sea Foam is lighter.

  • 3 cups brown sugar
  • 2 egg whites
  • 1 tsp vanilla
  • ¼ tsp salt
  • ¾ cup water
  1. Dissolve brown sugar and salt in water.
  2. Cook without stirring to hard ball stage.
  3. Beat egg whites until stiff.
  4. Gradually pour sugar mixture over the egg whites, beating constantly.
  5. Add vanilla and continue beating until cool.
  6. Drop by spoonfuls onto wax paper and let set up.

I was so happy to find your recipe for Sea Foam!! I remember stopping at a bakery in Durham when I was a little girl and buying Sea Foam. I have never seen it anywhere since. I’m in my fifties, and I have looked for recipes several times. None of them could match my memory of this yummy candy. Then I tried your recipe! I was thrilled!! My childhood memory has come back to life!
Thank you so much!!

I plan to try this recipe within the next few days (for Christmas). it’s raining today, so will have to wait until the humidity drops. I’ve had seafoam once in my life, about 50 years ago. I remember very clearly, a lady from our church made it and shared it with the kids in her Sunday School class (in Durham also). I’ve never seen or tasted anything else like it. Divinity tastes similar, but I’m looking for the very light, airy, not sticky recipe. Is that what this is?

I plan to try this recipe within the next few days (for Christmas). it’s raining today, so will have to wait until the humidity drops. I’ve had seafoam once in my life, about 50 years ago. I remember very clearly, a lady from our church made it and shared it with the kids in her Sunday School class (in Durham also). I’ve never seen or tasted anything else like it. Divinity tastes similar, but I’m looking for the very light, airy, not sticky recipe. Is that what this is?
Also, how does adding cream of tartar affect the outcome? Did you add it to yours?

Thanks for sharing your recipe! My mom used to make this when we were kids. I loved it so much. I have had a hard time finding the right recipe. Ovo je taj. Hvala vam.

Hvala vam. This is the recipe my mother use to make. I seem to remember that if the humidity was high, it wouldn’t set up right! Does anyone else remember anything about the humidity?

Yes ! I absolutely remember the same thing – it won’t set up if too humid! Same for Divinity!

Yes, but tonight I made it and it set so fast , I thought I would have re make it!

I think this is the candy my Mother made when I was growing up. I also remember something she made that was pink or green maybe it was divinity. Anyway She put it in flat covered boxes and let it set up in the attic. My job was to check it to see if it was sticky or dried a bit. I miss this candy and I miss my Mother

I think the pink and green candy you are thinking about are called meringue kiss cookies. My mom worked in a bakery when we we’re kids and I loved these. I finally found a recipe for them and made a batch. They we’re just as good as I remember them being. You have to make sure and use a glass bowl that has been washed really good and totally dried and then wipe out with distilled vinegar to make sure there is no residue and then just keep beating the egg whites with sugar and cream of tartar. Use food coloring paste instead of the liquid and make sure there is no humidity in the air or they will not set. You can either drop by spoonfuls or use a pastry bag with a big star tip to drop onto a cookie sheet lined with parchment paper. Preheat oven to 300, bake for about 8 minutes and then immediately turn down to 200. bake for 30 minutes and then turn the oven totally off and don’t crack the oven door for 12 hours. I kn ow it sounds like a long process but if you do them up in the evening, they will be nice a dry by morning. I love them so much because they go “POOF” when you bite into them. lol.


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Komentari:

  1. Karmel

    Izvrstan odgovor

  2. Guk

    Nije logično

  3. Willan

    It only reserve



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