Uspon i pad Sir Thomasa Morea
Thomas More rođen je u Londonu 7. veljače 1478., sin uglednog odvjetnika. Išao je u jednu od najboljih škola u Londonu, a zatim je učio grčki na Oxfordu. Otac ga je nagovorio da promijeni svoja akademska zanimanja u pravo. U jednoj je fazi ozbiljno razmišljao o tome da postane redovnik, ali je umjesto toga postao odvjetnik. 1504. izabran je za zastupnika.
Bio je Erasmusov prijatelj, često su se dopisivali.
Vjerojatno je pod utjecajem čitanja grčke filozofije i kontakta s humanistima, napisao je utopija 1516. godine.
Kralja je zapazio dosta rano u vladavini. (Henry je volio misliti da je pomalo intelektualac, a okružio se značajnim pjesnicima, književnicima i filozofima.) Sve je češće sve češće pozivao na dvor. Unaprijeđen je u kancelara 1529.
Wolsey je dijelom pao jer nije uspio osigurati razvod za kralja Katarine Aragonske. Henry ga je zamijenio drugim muškarcem koji nije bio posvećen osiguravanju razvoda. More se sve više nalazilo rastrganim između onoga što se od njega tražilo kao kancelara i vlastite savjesti. Dao je ostavku u svibnju 1532. godine zbog lošeg zdravlja.
Pozvan je u brak Henryja i Anne, ali je poziv odbio. Henry je bio ljut na ovu uvredu. Oni koji su bili bliski kralju i nastojali su poboljšati svoje položaje iskoristili su ovu priliku, pa je uskoro More pozvan na sud zbog povećanih optužbi za primanje mita. Optužba je odbačena.
Godine 1533. Henry je donio Zakon o vrhovništvu i Zakon o nasljedstvu, koji ga je učinio poglavarom katoličke crkve u Engleskoj, a sva Anina djeca nasljednici su prijestolja. Svi su odrasli morali prisegnuti da prihvaćaju promjene. U preambuli Akta o nasljeđivanju bilo je poricanje pape kao poglavara katoličke crkve u Engleskoj. Više nije bilo u suprotnosti s prisegom, ali ju je odbio položiti (kao i biskup John Fisher).
Poslat je u londonski Tower, gdje je 14 mjeseci ostao zatvorenik.
Suđenje mu je počelo 7. svibnja. Njegova glavna obrana bila je da je čovjek osuđen zbog šutnje, a to nije predstavljalo izdaju. Navodi se da je rekao: "Ovo je jedini Bog koji može suditi o tajnama srca." Ali sa svjedocima poput Richarda Richa (njegovog bivšeg učenika) koji su svjedočili protiv njega, a odluka kralja i vijeća je unaprijed određena, on je stajao mala šansa, a on je to vjerojatno znao. Henry bi, ovako kasno u igri, bio previše opasan da Moreov argument pobijedi.
Pogubljen je u Toweru, a njegova je glava nekoliko tjedana bila postavljena na London Bridge, sve dok ga njegova kći nije kupila.
Povijesna reputacija više
Thomasa Morea ugled bi mu mogao prethoditi. O njemu je toliko napisano, odigrano i snimljeno od njegove smrti da je čovjeka teško odvojiti od mita i saznati tko je stvaran Thomas More je bio.
Katolička crkva ga je proglasila svetim 1935.
U Rusiji mu je posvećen obelisk.
Igrao je ulogu 'moralnog paragona' na početku opoziva predsjednika Clintona u siječnju 1999. godine.
William Roper pisao je o njemu 1557. godine, i to čiste i neokaljane savjesti. čistiji i bijeliji od najbjelijeg snijega & quot.
Već duže vrijeme popularna slika Mora bila je o čovjeku koji je živio s idealnom, punom ljubavi i obitelji koja ga podržava, koji je slijedio svoju savjest u svemu tome što je sve to činio protiv tiranije Henrika VIII. Terasa za to postavljena je s njegovih prvih nekoliko životopisa, koji su napisani 1557. i 1558. Ovi su datumi značajni jer su bili za vrijeme katoličke Marije, a More je korišten kao primjer čovjeka koji je vjerno držao vjeru .
Ipak, to je bio čovjek koji je progonio heretike. Potpuno je vjerovao da hereza zaslužuje smrtnu kaznu. Tip kaže: "Ako se poslije prosvjetiteljstva pozivaju na moralne i humanitarne vrijednosti, on je bio inkvizitor."
Guy kaže, "biografske rupe" u tolikoj mjeri da je njegova smrt u središtu većine knjiga, a ne cijeli njegov život. U izvorima postoje velike praznine, a pisma koja je More napisao dok je bio u zatvoru možda nisu potpuno pouzdana. Možda je znao da će se na neki način nakon njegove smrti koristiti u javne svrhe. & quotOd početka je bilo jasno da slova imaju više od jedne publike. & quot
Vremenska Crta Sir Thomasa Morea:
1505: Oženio se Jane Colt u župnoj crkvi Royden.
1506: Thomas More postao je saborski zastupnik i londonski šerif za vladavine kralja Henrika Sedmog.
1511: Smrt prve žene. Oženio se Alice Middleton u župnoj crkvi sv. Stjepana u Walbrooku.
1514: Kralju Henryju Osmom više je predstavio Thomas Wolsey i postao majstor zahtjeva.
1516: Napisao je svoje najpoznatije djelo “Utopija ”.
1521: Postao je blagajnik državne blagajne.
1525: More je postao kancelar vojvodstva Lancaster. Također je postavljen za predsjednika Donjeg doma i otišao je u nekoliko diplomatskih misija na francuski dvor kralja Franje Prvog.
1529: Lord kancelar stvara se više nakon pada kardinala Wolseyja unatoč njegovoj želji da ne preuzme tu dužnost.
1532: On je dao ostavku na mjesto kancelara jer se nije slagao s vjerskim stavovima koje je zauzeo kralj.
1534: Kralj Henry postao je poglavarom engleske crkve i braniteljem vjere. Više ne bi priznalo nijednog vladara crkve osim Pape i suđeno mu je zbog veleizdaje. Bio je zatvoren u londonskom Toweru godinu dana, ali je ipak odbio odustati.
Kada i gdje je umro?
6. srpnja 1535. pogubljen je odrubljivanjem glave na Tower Hillu u Londonu u Engleskoj.
1512: “Život Ivana Picusa, grofa od Mirandule “ (Prijevod).
1513: “Povijest kralja Richarda Trećeg ”.
1516: “Utopija ” (na latinskom) 1551 (na engleskom).
1529: “Dijalog raznolikih pitanja. ” “Zamolba duša (Protiv Fishera ’s Zamolba prosjaka). ”
1532: “Osporava Tyndalea. ”
1533: “Aplikacija Sir Thomasa Morea, viteze. ”
1543: “Povijest Richarda Trećeg ” (Reproducirano u Hardyingovoj#Chronicle of England).
1553: “Dijalog udobnosti. ”
1559: “Djela na engleskom jeziku ” (uredio William Rastell).
- 1505. Jane Colt u župnoj crkvi Royden.
- 1511. Alice Middleton u župnoj crkvi sv. Stjepana u Walbrooku.
St. Peter ad Vincula, Tower of London, England (Poglavlje u crkvi St. Dunstan ’s, Canterbury, Kent, Engleska.
Kip ispred stare crkve Chelsea, nasip Chelsea.
Sir Thomas More i njegova kontroverzna povijest
Kad pomislimo na Richarda III i Ratove ruža, većina nas će se prvo sjetiti Sir Thomasa Morea i njegove "Povijesti kralja Richarda III". Vjerojatno je to jedan od najkontroverznijih izvora o Ratovima ruža, a povjesničari ga i dalje koriste. Pitanje je zašto ova knjiga ima takvu privlačnost i zašto ju je napisao Thomas More? Nadam se da ću ovim člankom baciti malo svjetla na ovu knjigu, na More i koje su njegove namjere bile kada je napisao ovu knjigu. Ovaj ću članak podijeliti na dva dijela tko je bio Sir Thomas More i što knjiga kaže. Važno je razumjeti Moreovu pozadinu ako želimo imati nade u razumijevanje "Povijesti kralja Richarda III". Pisat ću samo o Moreovom životu sve do trenutka kada je on napisao ovu knjigu jer njegov kasniji život pod Henrikom VIII i njegovo pogubljenje doista ne objašnjavaju svrhu zašto je More napisao ovu knjigu.
Sir Thomas More: Čovjek
Pa tko je bio Sir Thomas More i zašto bi trebao biti važan? Robert Whittington 1520. kaže:
More je čovjek anđeoske pameti i jedinstvenog učenja, ne poznajem ga. Jer gdje je čovjek te nježnosti, niskosti i ljubaznosti? Kako vrijeme zahtijeva čovjeka izuzetne radosti i razonode, a ponekad i tužne težine za cijelo godišnje doba. (Murphy, 1)
Thomas More rođen je 7. veljače 1478. (Ackroyd, 6) od Johna Morea i Agnes Graunger. More je u djetinjstvu vidio prijelaz od Edwarda IV kao kralja do Richarda III i konačno do Henrika VII. Neko je vrijeme pohađao školu u St. Anthonyju, a zatim je postao stranica za Johna Mortona, nadbiskupa Canterburyja, čovjeka kojemu se dublje divio i koji će se u njegovoj Povijesti pojaviti kao mudar čovjek. (Ackroyd, 35)
Nakon što je radio za Johna Mortona, More je malo studirao na Sveučilištu Oxford. Bilo je to u Oxfordu gdje se mogao baviti humanizmom koji proučava klasičnu književnost proučavajući jezike antike, a nakon što je to savladao, koristeći se retorikom za raspravu o određenim temama. (Johnson, 34-35) Humanizam će oblikovati spise Morea i njegovog prijatelja Erazma Rotterdamskog, čiji je prijevod Novog zavjeta bio protiv Vulgate, dovodeći u pitanje autoritet papinstva, pa će utjecati na one poput Luthera, čak i na one Erazmo je bio pobožni katolik. (Elton, 113). Drugim riječima, “ Humanisti su se brinuli o integriranju, a ne odvajanju, ljudskog i kršćanskog. " (Murphy, 7)
Više ih je napustilo Oxford bez stjecanja diplome i otišlo u New Inn, a kasnije je primljen u Lincoln's Inn u Londonu 1496. Gostionice nisu bile ono što smo danas smatrali gostionicama, već su tamo odlazili studirati muškarci zainteresirani za pravo. (Ackroyd, 53). Tada je imao šesnaest godina. Peter Ackroyd objašnjava kako je More uspio uravnotežiti oba svoja vjeronauka sa svojim studijem prava:
Vjeru i pravo nije trebalo razmatrati odvojeno, oni su podrazumijevali jedno drugo. Zato se pravo smatralo savršenim samo po sebi, neoštećeno lošim prosudbama pojedinih praktičara, a isti argument, o zaslugama mise, nasuprot vrlini svećenika koji ju je nudio, bio je u središtu katoličkog euharistijskog vjerovanja . Zato se zakon smatrao i trajnim, za ono za što se znalo da je istinit, da podnosi promjene ili propadanje. (Ackroyd, 63).
Ovo se mora razumjeti kako bi se razumjelo Više. Za njega je korištenje vjerskih izraza za opisivanje političkih događaja bio samo još jedan dio svakodnevnog života. Drugi dio njegova svakodnevnog života bila je njegova obitelj 1505., oženio se Jane Colt i dobili su četvero djece: Margaret, Elizabeth, Cecily i Johna (Murphy, vii). Četiri godine kasnije, 1509., Henrik VIII postao je engleski kralj, a 1510. More je postao londonskim šerifom i izabran je u parlament. (Murphy, vii). Tri godine kasnije, More je napisao svoju "Povijest kralja Richarda III.", Ali je nikada nije završio. (Više, 3).
More "Povijest kralja Richarda III."
Mnogi tvrde da je More svoju "Povijest kralja Richarda III" napisao za propagandu dinastije Tudor, posebno za Henrika VII., Međutim Ackroyd ističe nešto vrlo zanimljivo o njihovom odnosu:
Često se sugeriralo da je kasnije kasnije ispovijedao neprijateljstvo prema financijskim zahtjevima koje je Henry VII pokušao nametnuti Londonu. Nema dokaza o bilo kakvom otvorenom sporu, ali je zasigurno, u vrijeme pristupanja svoje tako, More sastavio oštar napad na mrtvog kralja. (Ackroyd, 84)
Ako je to slučaj, kakve su namjere More imao pri pisanju ove knjige? Prije nego što pokušamo odgovoriti na to pitanje, moramo istražiti sam tekst.
“Povijest kralja Richarda III” Sir Thomasa Morea dugačka je otprilike manje od stotinu stranica. Relativno kratak za tako kontroverzan tekst. Valja napomenuti da se ovaj tekst smatra "poviješću" u najširem mogućem smislu. Zapravo, More nije koristio novije povijesti iz svog vremena za formuliranje vlastite povijesti, ali budući da je bio humanist, kao primjere koristio je povijesti iz Salustija i Tacita. (Ackroyd, 161). Druga razlika od tipične povijesti je ta što se More za svoju povijest oslanja na usmene izvore. (Ackroyd, 161). Svatko tko proučava povijest zna da usmeni izvori nisu uvijek najpouzdaniji izvor jer se riječi mogu krivo tumačiti.
More svoju povijest Richarda III ne započinje recimo njegovim rođenjem, već počinje svoju knjigu smrću Edwarda IV. On opisuje Edwarda kao „ dobra osoba i vrlo kneževski za držanje: od srca hrabar ... ”(Više, 4). Dalje se opisuje zaštitnik Edwardove djece, Richard III, koji je očito prvo počeo sa svojim fizičkim izgledom (More, 8), a zatim opisuje tko je on bio:
…Zatvoreno i tajno, duboko razlučivanje, niskog izraza lica, arogantan u srcu, izvana spojiv tamo gdje je iznutra mrzio, ne dopuštajući poljupcu koga je mislio ubiti nespretno i okrutno, ne zbog zle volje, nego često zbog ambicija ... . Prijatelj i neprijatelj su bili, pa ravnodušni ... (Više, 9)
To nije najljubazniji način da se opiše brat kralja koji bi i sam bio kralj, ali kako napominje Sylvester, to nije zato što je Richard bio jorkiski kralj, već zato što je bio " obeshrabrujući tiranin ”(Više, xv). Sada Richard nije bio Edwardov izbor za zaštitnika, već je to bio kraljičin brat Sir Anthony Woodville, " častan čovjek s pravom, hrabar kao i politički savjetnik ” (Više, 15). Međutim, Richardu se ovaj prijedlog nije svidio pa je dao poslati lorda Rivers i njegove ljude u zatvor, a zatim im je odrubljena glava zbog "izdaje". (Više, 21).
Naravno, u knjizi Sir Thomasa Morea nema datuma, što otežava utvrđivanje kada su se ti događaji točno dogodili ili jesu li se uopće dogodili, uključujući govore koje je More uključivao, poput onih vojvode od Buckinghama koji pokušava uvjeriti bivša kraljica Elizabeth Woodville da svog drugog sina preda Richardu. (Više, 29-33). Isto tako kad se Elizabeta odbija odreći svog sina (More, 35-39), a zatim i kasnije kada nevoljko pristane na to (More, 41-42). Ovo su vrlo kultni govori u ovoj knjizi puni strasti i slomljenog srca.
Pa zašto bi More uključivao ove činjenične ili izmišljene govore? Peter Ackroyd daje nam zanimljiv uvid u to pitanje:
Značajno je, također, da su najrazrađeniji odlomci Morove pripovijetke zamišljeni kao govori o zaslugama svetišta za kraljevsku djecu predmet su duge rasprave, na primjer, dok je pravo Richarda da bude kralj objašnjeno u brojnim oracije. "Povijest Richarda III." može se dakle shvatiti kao lekcija u umjetnosti osporavanja i retoričke rasprave slična onima u kojima se More bavio kao školarac i učenjak .... U svom je gramatičkom radu More upućivao one koji bi mogli biti izabrani da upravljaju vladom država: gramatika je bila dio retorike, a retorika dio javne dužnosti. (Ackroyd, 162-163).
Ova knjiga nije samo "povijest", već je i lekcija iz retorike za one u vladi. Možda je više bilo ljubitelja čitanja povijesti, ali njegova prava ljubav bili su humanizam i vladavina, u kojoj su retorika i gramatika bili neizmjerno važni. To je ta ljubav prema humanizmu i vlasti koju vidimo kroz cijelu knjigu.
Više se nastavlja s Richardovim slučajem zašto bi trebao biti kralj. Nakon što se Richard riješio svog izdajničkog bivšeg prijatelja lorda Hastingsa (Više, 49-54), prelazi na važan dio svog argumenta da je njegov brat Edward već bio oženjen ljubavnicom Shore prije nego što se oženio Elizabeth Woodville. (Više, 55 -58). Budući da je njegov brat već bio oženjen, to je značilo da će se sva djeca koja ima s Elizabeth Woodville smatrati gadovima, uključujući i mladog kralja Edwarda V. koja je djecu Edwarda IV i Elizabeth Woodville proglasila kopiladima. (Više, 60-61). Richard također traži od dr. Shae da propovijedi protiv Edwardove djece s Elizabeth i vojvodom od Buckinghama držeći svoj govor o tome koliko je Richard velik (Više, 70-76). To dovodi do epskog zaključka gdje Richard "nevoljko" preuzima prijestolje jer je očigledan izbor da preuzme krunu budući da su nasljednici njegova brata proglašeni gadovima. Richard III postao je engleski kralj.
No, postoji još jedan dio zagonetke. Što se dogodilo s mladim kraljem i njegovim bratom? Više nas dovodi u pitanje što im se dogodilo jer govori o glasinama o Johnu Greenu, Sir Robertu Brackenburyju, policijskom zapovjedniku, Sir Jamesu Tyrellu i Johnu Dightonu koje je Richard III naredio da ubiju braću. (Više, 85-90) . Treba se zapitati je li ovo vjerodostojna teorija ili samo retorika jer je More samo čuo ovu teoriju i činjenicu da nema pisanih dokaza. Više ne ulazi u detalje o ovome i knjigu "završava" biskupom Mortonom pokušavajući uvjeriti Richarda III da mudro vodi državu. (Ackroyd, 35). Ovo je vrlo neobičan završetak za nekoga tko bi trebao napisati knjigu kao propagandu za dinastiju Tudor.
Znajući da je More ovo pisao više kao vježbu o humanizmu i nije završio ovu knjigu, kako bismo trebali pristupiti "Povijesti kralja Richarda III"? Ne vjerujem da bismo to trebali samo izbaciti. To nije bila propaganda za dinastiju Tudor budući da je napisana 1513. godine, prije nego što je Moreova politička karijera zaista krenula. Govori se mogu smatrati primjerima retorike. Postoje neke povijesne činjenice poput smrti lorda Hastingsa i lorda Rivers, Elizabeth Woodville koja je predala svog sina Richardu, te pravni dokument, kao i propovijed dr. Shae. Oni se slažu s drugim izvorima. Što se tiče gospodarice Shore i ubojstva prinčeva s tornja, to je malo teže dokazati jer nemamo stvarne papirnate dokaze koji bi podržali bilo koju teoriju.
Sveukupno mislim da Morovu povijest treba shvatiti kao uzimanje povijesti s humanističkog gledišta. Važan je članak za čitanje jer su neke činjenice u ovom djelu zapravo istinite i daje nam zanimljiv uvid u to što je učenjak Tudora mislio o onima koji su došli neposredno prije Tjudora. “Povijest kralja Richarda III” Sir Thomasa Morea fascinantno je štivo za sve koji se zanimaju za Ratove ruža, mračniji pogled na Richarda III ili za to kako se humanizam može primijeniti u pisanom smislu. Toplo vam preporučujem da pročitate ovu knjigu.
Želite li saznati više o više? (Izvori)
Ackroyd, Peter i Diarmaid MacCulloch. Život Thomasa Morea. London: Folio Society, 2017 (zbornik).
Elton, G. R. Engleska pod Tudorima . London: Methuen, 1956.
Johnson, Paul. Renesansa: kratka povijest . Bridgewater, NJ: Distributed by Paw Prints/Baker & amp Taylor, 2008.
Više, Thomas. Povijest kralja Richarda III . Uredio Richard S. Sylvester. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976.
Sir Thomas More
"Umirem od kralja vjernog sluge, ali od Boga prije svega".
Nijedna bolje rečenica ne sažima čovjeka koji se posvetio službi Krune i predodređeno je da ga Katolička crkva štuje kao sveca.
Sir Thomas More živio je u engleskom Tudoru. Imao je razne uloge uključujući odvjetnika, kancelara, saborskog zastupnika i književnika. Njegov utjecaj na mnoga od ovih polja bio je izvanredan, osobito njegov poznati tekst, "Utopija".
Nažalost za More, njegov život završio je na dramatičan i karakteristično tjudorovski način kada je odbio priznati razvod kralja Henrika VIII, kao i drastičan prekid engleske crkve iz Rima.
Pobožni branitelj Katoličke crkve, More je smatrao da više ne može služiti kao kancelar Henriku VIII., Te je dao ostavku. Nažalost, ovo je bio početak kraja za Morea, koji se nastavio boriti protiv protestantizma pa mu je suđeno i pogubljeno u srpnju 1535.
Katolička ličnost u Engleskoj, zemlji koja je krenula u veliku promjenu prema protestantizmu, More je postao mučenik reformacije, jedan od mnogih žrtava, s obje strane, koji se borio i zalagao se za svoju vjeru.
Godine 1935. Moreov je život službeno priznao papa Pio XI., Kada je odlučio kanonizirati More. Takav je njegov značaj da ga je u 21. stoljeću papa Ivan Pavao II učinio zaštitnikom državnika i političara.
Njegova priča počinje 1478. u Londonu, koju su rodili Agnes Graunger i njezin suprug, Sir John More, čovjek koji je imao cijenjenu advokatsku karijeru. Jedno od šestero djece, slavna karijera njegovog oca, koristilo bi mladom Thomasu koji je stekao odlično obrazovanje u jednoj od najboljih škola na tom području.
Do 1490. služio je nadbiskupu od Canterburyja, Johnom Mortonom (također lordom kancelarom Engleske) kao svojom kućanskom stranicom. Ovo je iskustvo trebalo više poslužiti mladima, budući da je Morton bio sljedbenik evoluirajuće filozofije o životu i obrazovanju, čiji bi se korijeni mogli opisati kao humanizam. Morton je ubrzo prepoznao njegove talente i nominirao More za mjesto na Sveučilištu Oxford.
Nakon što je dvije godine pohađao sveučilište i bio izložen tipičnom klasičnom obrazovanju, napustio je Oxford kako bi krenuo očevim stopama i nastavio pravničku karijeru. Tako je postao student u Lincoln's Innu i pozvan je u Bar 1502. godine.
Dok se bavio odvjetništvom, privlačnost koju je osjećao prema svojoj vjeri i duhovnom životu bila je snažna. Jedan od njegovih bliskih prijatelja Desiderius Erasmus rekao je da je razmišljao o mogućnosti da se bavi duhovnim životom s punim radnim vremenom i da napusti svoju pravničku karijeru. Iako nije krenuo ovim putem, pobožnost koju je osjećao privukao vodit će njegovu karijeru i poslužiti kao razlog njegove smrti.
Godine 1505. oženio se Jane Colt i s njom imao četvero djece prije njene tužne, rane smrti. More je imao posebno neobičan stav prema obiteljskom životu, za to vrijeme neuobičajen: na primjer, namjeravao je obrazovati svoju ženu podučavajući je, a kasnije je inzistirao na tome da njegove kćeri dobiju klasično obrazovanje, isto što bi i njegov sin.
Ovaj pristup odgoju njegove djece, iako neortodoksan, počeo je izazivati veliko divljenje kolega plemićkih obitelji, pa čak i samog Erazma, koji se divio rječitosti i akademskom umijeću Moreove kćeri.
Obitelj Sir Thomasa Morea
More je imao veliku obitelj, koja se brzo udala nakon smrti svoje žene i uzela drugo dijete za odgoj, a djelovala je i kao staratelj za još dvije djevojčice. Pokazao se kao brižan i predan otac svoj djeci, ohrabrujući ih i komunicirajući s njima dok je odsutan.
Vrativši se u svijet biznisa, odlučio je napustiti svoju advokatsku karijeru u korist uloge političara, postigavši prvi uspjeh kao član parlamenta za Great Yarmouth 1504. godine, a kasnije zastupajući izborne jedinice u Londonu.
Tijekom svoje političke karijere služio je u raznim ulogama, uključujući i kao potpredsjednik Londona, što mu je mjesto donijelo veliko poštovanje. S vremenom je postao tajni savjetnik i započeo daljnji rad diplomatičnije prirode na kontinentu, čime je stekao viteški status i novu poziciju pod-blagajnika državne blagajne.
Kako se uspinjao među činovima, tako se i približio kralju Henriku VIII., Koji je služio kao osobni savjetnik. Na tom vrlo istaknutom mjestu poželio bi dobrodošlicu diplomatima i uspostavio vezu između Henryja VIII i drugih osoba, uključujući lorda kancelara Wolseyja.
Tijekom tog razdoblja postignuća, More je također našao vremena za izradu svog najpoznatijeg teksta, "Utopija" koji je objavljen 1516. Ovo je knjiga napisana iz perspektive Morea kao vrsta satire, koja priča priču o društvu koje vjeruje na otoku. Priča sastavljena na latinskom jeziku opisuje kulturne običaje društva, oslikavajući red, poštenje i zajedničko vlasništvo otoka. Neke od ovih tema mogu se smatrati korijenima monaškog života, dok bi se općenitije prikaz sigurnog i jednakog funkcioniranja društva stoljećima kasnije dopao ljudima poput Karla Marxa i Friedricha Engelsa.
Tjelesni drvorez za ‘Utopiju ’ Thomas More.
Djelo fikcije, u svoje vrijeme, dalo je poticaj čitavom vlastitom žanru, distopijskoj fikciji u kojoj su idealna društva bila u središtu priče, uključujući djela poput "Nove Atlantide" Francisa Bacona i "Candide" Voltairea .
U međuvremenu, dok je njegovo književno umijeće postalo očito, More je postigao veliki uspjeh kada je 1529. naslijedio Wolseyja na mjestu lorda kancelara. Obilježivši vrhunac u svojoj karijeri, bio je vrijedan i marljiv u svom uredu. Međutim, to se uskoro trebalo pokvariti jer se njegovo kancelarstvo poklopilo s ogromnim trenutkom u povijesti kršćanstva: protestantskom reformacijom.
Dok je obavljao svoju ulogu, jasno je izrazio svoj stav, izjavljujući svoju podršku Katoličkoj crkvi i pomažući Wolseyju u ometanju uvoza luteranskih tekstova u Englesku. Također se jako ukorio na Tyndale Bibliju, smatrajući je heretičkom.
Štoviše, dok je obnašao dužnost lorda kancelara, spominju se njegova upotreba sile i nasilja u postupanju s onima koje je označio kao heretike, međutim još uvijek postoji velika rasprava o tome jesu li ove optužbe istinite. Pod njegovom kontrolom, šest osoba je spaljeno na lomači, međutim u ovom razdoblju to je bila uobičajena kazna za herezu. Zapravo, sve glasine o prekomjernom nasilju opovrgnuo je sam čovjek u svojoj "Izvinjenju" iz 1533.
Njegovi su stavovi sve više bili u suprotnosti s parlamentom i, što je najvažnije, kraljem. 1529. učinjen je zločin koji je potkrijepio tvrdnju da postoji bilo kakva druga vlast osim zakonske nadmoći kralja.
Kralj Henrik VIII
Do 1530. godine Moreov sukob s Henrikom VIII. Odbio je potpisati pismo kojim traži od Pape da poništi brak Henrika i Katarine Aragonske, a također se upustio u žestoku raspravu s Henrikom oko nametanja zakona hereze.
Sljedeće godine objavljen je kraljevski dekret kojim se tražilo da svećenstvo prizna Henrika VIII za vrhovnog poglavara engleske crkve. Prkosnije je odbio potpisati zakletvu, međutim nije se javno izjasnio protiv svog monarha.
Na kraju je u svibnju 1532. dao ostavku na mjesto kancelara, osjećajući da više ne može nastaviti svoju ulogu.
Godinu dana kasnije, napisao je Henryju izražavajući svoju sreću što je pronašao ženu u Anne Boleyn, no odbio je prisustvovati krunidbi koja je na kraju doživjela javno mržnju i zahtijevala odgovor.
U narednim mjesecima More se našao na udaru raznih optužbi, od kojih mu je neke iznio Thomas Cromwell. Razni pokušaji da ga se optuženog provede nisu bili ispunjeni, sve dok se 13. travnja 1534. More nije zamolilo da se zakune na vjernost činu nasljeđivanja.
Morevo odbijanje bila je posljednja kap. Četiri dana kasnije odveden je u londonski Tower i optužen za veleizdaju.
‘Thomas koji se oprašta od kćeri Margaret Roper ’, Edward Matthew Ward
Dana 1. srpnja 1535. održano mu je suđenje. Izveden je pred sudsko vijeće koje je također uključivalo veliki dio obitelji Anne Boleyn, uključujući njezinog ujaka, brata i oca. U samo petnaest minuta More je proglašen krivim.
Slučaj je zaključen, More je osuđen na vješanje, izvlačenje i četvrtinu, što je očekivana kazna s obzirom na okolnosti, međutim, pokazujući određenu blagodat, Henry VIII je naredio da mu se umjesto glave odrubi glava.
Dana 6. srpnja 1535. slavna karijera Thomasa Mora, nadobudni spisateljski talent, politička proždrljivost i vjerska pobožnost naglo su okončani. Pogubljen je, čovjek koji je pobožno služio kralju Henriku VIII, a ipak je do kraja ostao vjeran svojim uvjerenjima i uvjerenjima.
Jessica Brain slobodna je spisateljica specijalizirana za povijest. Sa sjedištem u Kentu i ljubitelj svega povijesnog.
Sir Thomas More (1477. - 1535.) bio je prva osoba koja je napisala 'utopiju', riječ koja se koristi za opis savršenog imaginarnog svijeta. Moreova knjiga zamišlja složenu, samostalnu zajednicu smještenu na otoku, u kojoj ljudi dijele zajedničku kulturu i način života. Riječ 'utopija' skovao je od grčkog ou-topos što znači 'nema mjesta' ili 'nigdje'. To je bila dosjetka - gotovo identična grčka riječ eu -topos znači 'dobro mjesto'. Stoga je u samom srcu riječi vitalno pitanje: može li se ikada ostvariti savršen svijet? Nije jasno je li knjiga ozbiljna projekcija boljeg načina života ili satira koja je Moreu dala platformu za raspravu o kaosu europske politike.
More je bio engleski pravnik, pisac i državnik. On je svojedobno bio jedan od državnih službenika Henrika VIII od najvećeg povjerenja, postavši engleski kancelar 1529.
Sir Thomas More (1477. - 1535.) bio je prva osoba koja je napisala 'utopiju', riječ koja se koristi za opis savršenog imaginarnog svijeta. Moreova knjiga zamišlja složenu, samostalnu zajednicu smještenu na otoku, u kojoj ljudi dijele zajedničku kulturu i način života. Riječ utopija skovao je iz grčkog ou-topos što znači 'nema mjesta' ili 'nigdje'. To je bila dosjetka - gotovo identična grčka riječ eu-topos znači 'dobro mjesto'. Stoga je u samom srcu riječi vitalno pitanje: može li se ikada ostvariti savršen svijet? Nije jasno je li knjiga ozbiljna projekcija boljeg načina života ili satira koja je Moreu dala platformu za raspravu o kaosu europske politike.
More je bio engleski pravnik, pisac i državnik. On je svojedobno bio jedan od državnih službenika Henrika VIII od najvećeg povjerenja, postavši engleski kancelar 1529.
Sir Thomas More Timeline - Povijest
Nisam potomak, ali imam slatku priču o malom dječaku koja je bila dio izleta koji sam vodila na poslu prije nekoliko godina. Djeca su se postrojila, a učiteljica je rekla: "Svi zaostanite za Thomasom Morom", a kad sam došla naprijed upitala sam "Dakle, ti se zoveš Thomas More?" Podigao je pogled prema meni i nasmiješio se i rekao "Ja sam dobio ime po tipu kojem su odrubili glavu!"
Dakle, potpuno ne odgovara na vaše pitanje, ali uvijek me nasmije. No večeras ću prelistati neke knjige i vidjeti mogu li pronaći pravi odgovor za vas, ako me nitko drugi ne pobijedi!
Pa, to nije odgovor, ali našao sam referencu na knjigu (objavljenu ove godine) pod naslovom "Obitelj i potomci sv. Thomasa Morea" autora Martina Wooda. Zvuči kao da bi to moglo imati dobre informacije ako ih se uspijete uhvatiti.
Nedavno sam otkrio da sam izravni potomak Thomasa Morea jer mi je on deseti pradjed.
Pošaljite odgovor ili e -poruku izravno na moju web stranicu ako želite vidjeti nasljedstvo. www.loganisle.com
Ja sam autor knjige "Obitelj i potomci svetog Thomasa Morea" spomenute u odgovoru Mary Anne o živim potomcima. Thomas More je moj 14 x pradjed.
Knjiga je dostupna kod izdavača 'Gracewing' i na Amazon.co.uk.
Svako poglavlje knjige bavi se drugom generacijom obitelji do sredine 1800 -ih.
Pomoći ću svima koji me kontaktiraju.
Hvala vam na odgovorima. Naručio sam knjigu gospodina Wooda i jedva čekam da je pročitam.
Za sve vas ljubitelje “Tudors ” i više. Evo fascinantnog pogleda na potomke u publici..možda sam ja jedan od njih, a i vi biste mogli!
Tudori Potomci u publici. Jeste li jedan od njih?
Pogledajte tabele obožavatelja za likove u The Tudors:
Ja sam usmjereni potomak. I forget how many greats are in there, but he is my great-grandfather to some degree.
I am a direct descendant of Thomas More. He is my 17th great grandfather. My line comes into Virginia, West Virginia, and now in Ohio. Surnames associated are: Foster, Terrill, Burns, and Burch.
I am a direct descendant via the Roper and Winn line. My great grandmother was Lucy Strickland-Constable who was the great-great-great-great granddaughter of Elizabeth Henshaw, nee Roper.
I had just the direct linage of my husbgand done by a geneologist 2 years ago. It showed my husband was a direct descendant of Sir Thomas More.
Unfortunately, I had my computer compromised and lost all my information. I have been able to work Out all lines of his family except the More one.
Could somebody set me right , as far as the first generation to be born in America.
I also discovered through Ancestry.com, that Sir Thomas More was my 12th great grandfather, through my father's line.
I'm so amazed!
I'm a direct descendant through my father's line. Sir Thomas More is my 12th great-grandfather and Captain Myles Standish is my 9th great grandfather.
From Ancestry.com I found out that Sir. Thomas More is my 17th great-grandfather on my father's mother side.
he is my 13th great grandfather from my mother's line
Thomas More is my 14th great grandfather according to Ancestry.com This is on my fathers side. . .from the US
Same here, Ancestry.com says he's my 16th Great Grandfather. kinda cool. I never did like that Henry Tudor anyway.
He Is My 19Th Great Grandfather On My Father's Mother's Side. Ancestry.Com
I descend from Sir Thomas More, starting with his paternal grandfather, as follows:
William More Esquire (died 1467)
is my 16th great grandfather
Sir John More (1451 - 1530)
son of William More Esquire
▽Sir Thomas More (1478 - 1535)
son of Sir John More
▽John More II (1509 - 1547)
son of Sir Thomas More
▽Thomas "The Younger" More III (1538 - 1606)
son of John More II
▽Thomas More (1568 - 1616)
son of Thomas "The Younger" More III
▽Alice More (1593 - 1628)
daughter of Thomas More
▽Thomas Vail (1620 - 1687)
son of Alice More
▽Samuel Vail (1654 - 1695)
son of Thomas Vail
▽Rev. John J. Vail (1685 - 1774)
son of Samuel Vail
▽Joseph Vail (1717 - 1804)
son of Rev. John J. Vail
▽Joseph "John" Vail (1741 - 1818)
son of Joseph Vail
▽James Vail (1796 - 1825)
son of Joseph "John" Vail
▽Solomon Vail (1825 - 1906)
son of James Vail
▽Merida Marlow Vail (1854 - 1925)
son of Solomon Vail
▽Byron Solomon Vail (1878 - 1949)
son of Merida Marlow Vail
▽Courtney Ballard "Bill" Vail (1911 - 1978)
son of Byron Solomon Vail
▽Dennis Michael "Mike" Vail (1940 - 1998)
son of Courtney Ballard "Bill" Vail
▽Douglas Micah Vail (born 1970)
the son of Dennis Michael "Mike" Vail
Unfortunately Ancestry has mistakes which lead some (especially in America)to believe that they are descended from Sir/St Thomas More when they are not. If you make such a claim, I can help. Contact me at [email protected]
[Martin Wood: Author "The Family and Descendants of St. Thomas More". Published in the UK. April 2008.
I thought I was a descendent of Sir Thomas More as well until Martin showed me I was incorrect. I never got an answer from Martin about DNA testing though. Have you had your DNA tested? If so I have done 23andme& AncestryDNA and would love to compae! Hvala.
Many comments from people claiming to be direct descendents of Thomas More, yet online genealogical charts say that there have been no direct descendents from the male OR female line since the late 18th century.
Some of the most used internet genealogy sites have led a number of people to believe that they are descended from Sir/St Thomas ore, when they are not.
There are no early descendants who went to America.
The Vail line, fro0m which some claim descent is far from proved and has involved a good deal or name and place changes to make it look authentic.
Some claim descent from a John Moore who went to Virginia in 1620, but his English ancestry is unknown. He was most certainly not the son of Mary More (b.1553) and her husband Edward Moore/More who (beside five daughters)only had two sons, Henry and Thomas, both of whom became Jesuit priests. The claim that a Thomas More married a Martha Brookes is a pure fabrication.
[Author: "The Family and Descendants of St Thomas More". Published in the UK. April 2008.]
Attention of Mr martin Wood, author of the book related to the descendants of st Thomas More.
My Granbd grand mother, born Marie-Antoinette-Jeanne Onffroy de Verez used to relate the fact that we are descendants from Thomas More by claire Pike de Barbuth who married Pierre-Rolland Onffroy de Verez. can you tell me if any of these names is appearing in your research before I purchase youir book ?
My mother told me when I was young that sir Thomas more is my 5th great uncle or so and I have been trying to find others but I'm not sure if all of these people here are actually related since ansetery is not a good resource.
After researching myself, the late Martin Wood of England was correct on clear proof needed to connect the Vail line with Sir Thomas More. Martin Wood's prevailing book is well researched and countervails travails. Possibly an archive will surface, but to no avail so far. The Vail family did marry into the More and Moore families in England and America in the 16th and 17th centuries, but evidence is still vital for exact descent from any of the family of Sir Thomas More.
He is a well missed author.
My second cousin researched the Roper family tree. When tracing his father's family tree (Edward Roper) he discovered that the Roper's from Reading in Berkshire were decendents of William Roper and Margaret Moore (Sir Thomas's daughter). Does anyone have any info on the Moore-Roper anvestry ?
Bok! Thomas More is my 14th-Great-Grandfather. I'm 16, and my grandfather, who is British (TM's 12th-great-grandson), found an old family tree in his childhood home when he was cleaning it out following his mother's death about 20 years ago and made this discovery. I don't have the full line right now, but I'll try to find it.
Thank you for your post. I am new to tracing my ancestors so I can only go on snippets of info. I did contact my cousin but he didn't respond. The last piece of information I can find was that William and Margaret had 2 son's Thomas and Anthony. They both married and Thomas had 2 daughters who married so that was the last of the Roper name. Anthony married Lucy Cotton but I don't know if they had any children. There is a huge gap overy the centuries until you get to my Gt Grandfather Edward Roper who died in 1966.
I've been researching my family history and Sir Thomas More is my 16th great grandfather. I'm related to him by his son John More.
I've been researching my family history and Sir Thomas More is my 16th great grandfather. I'm related to him thru his son John More.
My family genealogy shows that we too are from the More/Moore line. But I tend to be a bit skeptical, therefore will continue to research the lineage. Things that I do know is that a side of the family were very much into ministry of the Christian Faith in England and in America. Late 1500's (Eng) thru 1800's (USA). so, anything is possible. Member of the Champion Family
I am James More, and my family thinks that we have relations with Sir Thomas More. I am also a male. Što misliš? You think the descendants are still alive my last name is spelled More also, which is a peculiar thing. Tell me what you think. Hvala
I am a decendant of the George Moore family of Moore Hall in County Mayo, Ireland. Family lore has said that they (and therefore I) are descended from Sir Thomas More, bUt I have never been able to find the direct connection. I would appreciate if you know. [email protected]
I am also 17th great granddaughter of St. Thomas Moore. Would love to connect with other descendants! We have a lot to live up to! [email protected]
I am a 12th descendant to Christopher Cresacredit Moore, he was Sir Thomas Moores Grandson. :-)
I have been researching my maternal line and was given this list of grandparents which leadds back to Sir Thomas More. I have similar facial features to the paintings I have seen of him. Here is the list I was given. Thomas is the 15th great grandfather of Kathleen
1. Kathleen is the daughter of Lillian (Cauldwell) Rogan [unknown confidence]
2. Lillian is the daughter of Vesta Elizabeth Ann Kinnear [unknown confidence]
3. Vesta is the daughter of Millicent Alberta (Noble) Kinnear [unknown confidence]
4. Millie is the daughter of Thomas Henry Noble [unknown confidence]
5. Thomas is the son of Hezekiah Noble [unknown confidence]
6. Hezekiah is the son of Thomas Smith Noble [unknown confidence]
7. Thomas is the son of Stephen Noble [unknown confidence]
8. Stephen is the son of Ruth (Church) Noble [confident]
9. Ruth is the daughter of Ruth Hitchcock [confident]
10. Ruth is the daughter of Elizabeth (Walker) Hitchcock [unknown confidence]
11. Elizabeth is the daughter of Elizabeth (Wheeler) Walker [unknown confidence]
12. Elizabeth is the daughter of Miriam (Hawley) Wheeler [unknown confidence]
13. Miriam is the daughter of Katherine (Booth) Hawley [unknown confidence]
14. Katherine is the daughter of Ann (Revel) Booth [confident]
15. Ann is the daughter of Ann More [unknown confidence]
16. Ann is the daughter of John More II [unknown confidence]
17. John is the son of Thomas More [unknown confidence]
This makes Thomas the 15th great grandfather of Kathleen.
I am not a descendent, just an admirer of this Catholic Saint and Martyr. And if his portrait is trustful, he was very cute too.
This family tree from the 19th century shows descent from Thomas Moore, through Anthony Roper's daughter Isabel to Isabella Wiseman, wife of Sir Henry Bosville (d 1638), so (if true) all descendants of Sir Henry are descended from Thomas More
The brewer James Hinton Baverstock (my great^4 grandfather) commissioned the genealogy, and many of his descendants took the name Bosville.
Hola! Me podrías pasar el árbol de los Roper? En mi familia aparece una Mary Anne Fernandez Ropero, casada con Manuel del Castillo Negrete y según nuestras abuelas somos descendientes de Santo Tomas Moro. Mi mail es [email protected]
I’m a direct descendant of Sir Richard Rich, sooo, my apologies
My 15th great grandpa was Sir Richard Rich. mea culpa.
He is my 14th Great grandfather. I went my dad his dad his dad and soon. Also my family lived in Virginia and West Virginia.
Saint Thoomas More is my 14th times great grandfather. I went my dad his dad his dad and back. Also they lived in Virginua and West Virginia.
Sir Thomas More Timeline - History
"The King's good servant, but God's first." 1
Thomas More was born in Milk Street, London on February 7, 1478, son of Sir John More, a prominent judge. He was educated at St Anthony's School in London. As a youth he served as a page in the household of Archbishop Morton, who anticipated More would become a "marvellous man." 1 More went on to study at Oxford under Thomas Linacre and William Grocyn. During this time, he wrote comedies and studied Greek and Latin literature. One of his first works was an English translation of a Latin biography of the Italian humanist Pico della Mirandola. It was printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1510.
Around 1494 More returned to London to study law, was admitted to Lincoln's Inn in 1496, and became a barrister in 1501. Yet More did not automatically follow in his father's footsteps. He was torn between a monastic calling and a life of civil service. While at Lincoln's Inn, he determined to become a monk and subjected himself to the discipline of the Carthusians, living at a nearby monastery and taking part of the monastic life. The prayer, fasting, and penance habits stayed with him for the rest of his life. More's desire for monasticism was finally overcome by his sense of duty to serve his country in the field of politics. He entered Parliament in 1504, and married for the first time in 1504 or 1505, to Jane Colt. 2 They had four children: Margaret, Elizabeth, Cicely, and John.
More became a close friend with Desiderius Erasmus during the latter's first visit to England in 1499. It was the beginning of a lifelong friendship and correspondence. They produced Latin translations of Lucian's works, printed at Paris in 1506, during Erasmus' second visit. On Erasmus' third visit, in 1509, he wrote Encomium Moriae, ili Praise of Folly, (1509), dedicating it to More.
One of More's first acts in Parliament had been to urge a decrease in a proposed appropriation for King Henry VII. In revenge, the King had imprisoned More's father and not released him until a fine was paid and More himself had withdrawn from public life. After the death of the King in 1509, More became active once more. In 1510, he was appointed one of the two under-sheriffs of London. In this capacity, he gained a reputation for being impartial, and a patron to the poor. In 1511, More's first wife died in childbirth. More soon married again, to Alice Middleton. They did not have children.
During the next decade, More attracted the attention of King Henry VIII. In 1515 he accompanied a delegation to Flanders to help clear disputes about the wool trade. Utopia opens with a reference to this very delegation. More was also instrumental in quelling a 1517 London uprising against foreigners, portrayed in the play Sir Thomas More, possibly by Shakespeare. More accompanied the King and court to the Field of the Cloth of Gold. In 1518 he became a member of the Privy Council, and was knighted in 1521.
More helped Henry VIII in writing his Defence of the Seven Sacraments, a repudiation of Luther, and wrote an answer to Luther's reply under a pseudonym. More had garnered Henry's favor, and was made Speaker of the House of Commons in 1523 and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in 1525. As Speaker, More helped establish the parliamentary privilege of free speech. He refused to endorse King Henry VIII's plan to divorce Katherine of Aragón (1527). Nevertheless, after the fall of Thomas Wolsey in 1529, More became Lord Chancellor.
While his work in the law courts was exemplary, his fall came quickly. He resigned in 1532, citing ill health, but the reason was probably his disapproval of Henry's stance toward the church. He refused to attend the coronation of Anne Boleyn in June 1533, a matter which did not escape the King's notice. In 1534 he was one of the people accused of complicity with Elizabeth Barton, the nun of Kent who opposed Henry's break with Rome, but was not attainted due to protection from the Lords who refused to pass the bill until More's name was off the list of names. 3
In April, 1534, More refused to swear to the Act of Succession and the Oath of Supremacy, and was committed to the Tower of London on April 17. More was found guilty of treason and was beheaded alongside Bishop Fisher on July 6, 1535. More's final words on the scaffold were: "The King's good servant, but God's First." More was beatified in 1886 and canonized by the Catholic Church as a saint by Pope Pius XI in 1935.
1. Last words on the scaffold, 1535, according to Paris Newsletter, August 4, 1535:
"qu'il mouroit son bon serviteur et de Dieu premierement."
2. Ackroyd, Peter. The Life of Thomas More. New York: Anchor Books., 1999.
3. The Cambridge Guide to Literature in English. Ian Ousby, Ed.
Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Other local biographical resources:
Ackroyd, Peter. The Life of Thomas More. (1998)
Fox, Alistair. Thomas More: History and Providence. (1983)
Fox, Alistair. Utopia: An Elusive Vision. (1992)
Logan, George M. The Meaning of More's Utopia (1983)
Marius, Richard. Thomas More: A Biography (1984)
Pineas, Rainer. Thomas More and Tudor Polemics (1968)
Reynolds E. E. Sir Thomas More (1965)
Reynolds E. E. Thomas More and Erasmus. (1965)
Reynolds E. E. The Field Is Won: The Life and Death of Saint Thomas More. (1968)
Wegemer, Gerard B. Thomas More : A Portrait of Courage. (1995)
Wegemer, Gerard B. Thomas More on Statesmanship. (1996.)
Jokinen, Anniina. "The Life of Sir Thomas More." Luminarium.
6 July 2012. [Date you accessed this article].
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Indictment, trial, and execution
More’s refusal to attend the coronation of Anne Boleyn, whom Henry married after his divorce from Catherine in 1533, marked him out for vengeance. Several charges of accepting bribes recoiled on the heads of his accusers. In February 1534 More was included in a bill of attainder for alleged complicity with Elizabeth Barton, who had uttered prophecies against Henry’s divorce, but he produced a letter in which he had warned the nun against meddling in affairs of state. He was summoned to appear before royal commissioners on April 13 to assent under oath to the Act of Succession, which declared the king’s marriage with Catherine void and that with Anne valid. This More was willing to do, acknowledging that Anne was in fact anointed queen. But he refused the oath as then administered because it entailed a repudiation of papal supremacy. On April 17, 1534, he was imprisoned in the Tower. More welcomed prison life. But for his family responsibilities, he would have chosen for himself “as strait a room and straiter too,” as he said to his daughter Margaret, who after some time took the oath and was then allowed to visit him. In prison, More wrote A Dialogue of Comfort Against Tribulation, a masterpiece of Christian wisdom and of literature.
His trial took place on July 1, 1535. Richard Rich, the solicitor general, a creature of Thomas Cromwell, the unacknowledged head of the government, testified that the prisoner had, in his presence, denied the king’s title as supreme head of the Church of England. Despite More’s scathing denial of this perjured evidence, the jury’s unanimous verdict was “guilty.” Before the sentence was pronounced, More spoke “in discharge of his conscience.” The unity of the church was the main motive of his martyrdom. His second objection was that “no temporal man may be head of the spirituality.” Henry’s marriage to Anne Boleyn, to which he also referred as the cause for which they “sought his blood,” had been the occasion for the assaults on the church: among his judges were the new queen’s father, brother, and uncle.
More was sentenced to the traitor’s death—“to be drawn, hanged, and quartered”—which the king changed to beheading. During five days of suspense, More prepared his soul to meet “the great spouse” and wrote a beautiful prayer and several letters of farewell. He walked to the scaffold on Tower Hill. “See me safe up,” he said to the lieutenant, “and for my coming down let me shift for myself.” He told the onlookers to witness that he was dying “in the faith and for the faith of the Catholic Church, the king’s good servant and God’s first.” He altered the ritual by blindfolding himself, playing “a part of his own” even on this awful stage.
The news of More’s death shocked Europe. Erasmus mourned the man he had so often praised, “whose soul was more pure than any snow, whose genius was such that England never had and never again will have its like.” The official image of More as a traitor did not gain credence even in Protestant lands.
Sir Thomas More: Biography, Facts and Information
Today we know Sir Thomas More primarily as the author of Utopia, and as one of the more famous martyrs of Henry VIII’s reign. The popular image is of a man – principled, steadfast, courageous – who placed his own conscience above his king’s demands.
Yet if you were to ask More’s contemporaries to describe him, their words would be as conflicted and contradictory as the man himself. He was a brilliant scholar of the Renaissance who died rather than betray the Catholic church. As a young man, he seriously contemplated joining the priesthood, only to become one of the most successful politicians of his time. And he was a father who insisted his three daughters have the same education as his son. Perhaps more than any other courtier of Henry’s reign, More embodied the searching, troubled spirit of the early 16th century.
After his death, and for centuries thereafter, Sir Thomas More was known as the most famous victim of Henry VIII’s tyranny. It was More’s execution – far more than those of Anne Boleyn or Thomas Cromwell or Margaret Pole – which established the king’s reputation for capricious cruelty. This was partly due to More’s intellectual prominence he was perhaps the most famous Englishman on the continent, with a wide and varied correspondence. It was also due to Henry’s deep and unfeigned friendship with More. (We should note, however, that More – brilliant and perceptive – was never especially comfortable in his king’s good graces. “If my head should win him a castle in France,” he told his son-in-law in 1525, “it should not fail to go.”)
More’s beginnings, however, hardly predicted his spectacular career. In Utopia, he identified himself as a “citizen of London”, and it was in London that he was born on 7 February 1477, the only surviving son of John More and his first wife, Agnes Graunger. John More was a successful lawyer who was later knighted and made a judge of the King’s Bench he was prosperous enough to send his son to London’s best school, St Anthony’s at Threadneedle Street. And he was well-connected enough to later secure his son’s appointment as household page to John Morton, the archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Chancellor of England. There is an apocryphal story that Morton predicted his bright and lively page would grow into a “marvelous man”.
More’s adolescent years were spent under the reign of Henry VII, the first Tudor king. And his patron Morton was infamous as the architect of that king’s very successful – and subsequently very unpopular – tax policy. Morton’s tax philosophy was a marvel of inescapable logic: “If the subject is seen to live frugally, tell him because he is clearly a money saver of great ability, he can afford to give generously to the King. If, however, the subject lives a life of great extravagance, tell him he, too, can afford to give largely, the proof of his opulence being evident in his expenditure.” And while this reasoning worked to replenish the royal treasury for Henry VII, it also provided the second Tudor king with a chance to curry popular favor when he – in one of his first acts as Henry VIII – imprisoned and later executed Edmund Dudley and Richard Empson, who were Morton’s (and his father’s) tax collectors.
However, we should not assume that Morton’s politics had any profound impact upon More. Upravo suprotno. Both men were enthusiastic Humanist scholars, but they parted ways with regard to the king’s prerogative. In 1504, More was elected to Parliament and one of his first acts was to oppose Henry VII’s request of a “grant” of three-fifteenths. It was More’s impassioned speeches against this large and unjust burden that made the king reduce it by more than two thirds. And the king was not pleased with the young lawyer he promptly imprisoned More’s father in the Tower until he paid a substantial fine.
That was the beginning of Thomas More’s public career, and it was a telling one. More’s connection to Morton had earlier secured him admittance to Oxford, where he studied for two years, mastering Greek and Latin with “an instinct of genius”, and studying a wide variety of subjects, including music. His father recalled him to London and he trained as a law student at New Inn and later Lincoln’s Inn. The governors of Lincoln admired him enough to appoint him lecturer on law for three consecutive years. More’s brilliance of mind and curious, kindly character gained him many friends and admirers. Yet even as his legal future seemed assured, More was deeply conflicted about his future. He had long felt a calling to the priesthood. Now he decided to seriously test his religious convictions.
He moved into the Carthusian monastery adjoining Lincoln’s Inn and participated in the monks’ way of life as much as he could, while still pursuing his legal career. His father was not supportive, but More was fully prepared to be disowned rather than disobey God’s will. To that end, he spent the next three years in study and prayer, wearing a hair shirt next to his skin (a practice he never abandoned), and struggling to reconcile his genuine religious fervor with the demands of the outside world. In the end, he decided, in the words of his friend Erasmus, “to be a chaste husband rather than an impure priest.”
It should be noted that More’s affinity for the monastic life never left him, despite his later marriages, family, and career. Even as he secretly wore a hair shirt, he openly and consistently fasted, prayed, and maintained a relatively modest household. When he later built his ‘Great House’ in Chelsea, its rooms were specifically designed to encourage quiet study and prayer. More’s piety was the defining aspect of his character even as the circumstances of his life changed, it remained constant and unyielding.
His decision to become a lay Christian now made, More quickly married. His choice was Jane Colt, the eldest daughter of a gentleman farmer. His son-in-law William Roper, whose biography of More is one of the first biographies ever written, tells us that More chose his wife out of pity: “[A]lbeit his mind most served him to the second daughter, for that he thought her the fairest and best favored, yet when he considered that it would be great grief and some shame also to the eldest to see her younger sister preferred before her in marriage, he then, of a certain pity, framed his fancy towards” Jane. True or not, the marriage proved to be happy and fruitful, though of brief duration. After bearing More three daughters (Margaret, Elizabeth, Cicely) and one son (John), Jane died in 1511. More later memorialized her as “uxorcula Thomae Mori” her gentle personality is attested to by Erasmus’s letters, as he was a frequent visitor to More’s home. The two men had first met in 1497 and remained close friends until More’s death.
More’s wife had been – like most women of her time – ill-educated, and during their brief marriage, he taught her Latin and other subjects. She was an apt enough pupil to later converse with visitors in Latin. And More determined that their daughters would receive the same education as their son. The symbolism and importance of this decision cannot be underestimated. More’s eldest daughter Margaret would become the first non-royal Englishwoman to publish a work in translation.
More was thus in his early thirties, successful, happily married, when the tax collectors Dudley and Empson were beheaded on Tower Hill at the command of the new king, Henry VIII. As a newly elected representative for London in Parliament and an undersheriff in the city, he was deeply involved in public life. He worked eight years as undersheriff and proved himself an impartial judge and able administrator. Contemporary chroniclers often referred to him as a friend of the poor. The one potentially scandalous act of his life was his quick second marriage to a widow seven years his senior, Alice Middleton. They married less than a month after Jane Colt’s death and More had to seek special dispensation from the church. It was granted, and the wealthy widow became stepmother to his four children, and More stepfather to her daughter and son. It proved to be another happy marriage, though More’s friends remarked upon Alice’s sharp tongue and occasionally brusque ways. Perhaps the contrast with the quiet, gentle Jane was too striking. For More’s part, he undoubtedly appreciated his second wife’s superb housekeeping skills for they allowed him the freedom to pursue his increasingly successful career.
It is at this moment that we must step back and consider the England in which More now lived. There was a new king, – a handsome, athletic young man who had once been destined for the church. But his older brother perished and the younger brother was crowned at 18 years old, and quickly wed his brother’s widow. She was the Spanish princess, Katharine of Aragon, one of the daughters of the Catholic rulers of Spain. She was a devout and learned young woman, and though we primarily know her as the older wife who could not bear Henry his desired son and heir, she was once young and pretty and well-liked. Henry VIII’s later statements to the contrary, his marriage to Katharine began happily and continued so for some years. There was a feeling in England that a new era had begun.
Henry VIII was a Catholic ruler, and enjoyed friendly relations with the papacy until he sought to divorce Katharine. But that was years in the future. As a young king, he was named “Defender of the Faith” by the pope for defending the church against Protestant heresy his Lord Chancellor was Cardinal Thomas Wolsey. And because of his early education in religious matters, Henry was no mere spectator in religious debate.
For these reasons, More had no cause to suspect his monarch of anything less than fealty to their shared faith. And as his own reputation grew in London, he attracted the notice of the all-powerful Cardinal Wolsey. In May 1515, More was sent to Bruges as part of a delegation arranged by Wolsey to revise an Anglo-Flemish commercial treaty. It was during this trip that he began to write Utopia, his most famous work. It was More who coined the term, a pun on the Greek words for ‘no place’ and ‘good place’. More had already begun writing his History of King Richard III as well it is considered the first masterpiece of English history and is wholly pro-Tudor. Its influence upon William Shakespeare’s Richard III is immense.
Utopia is a complex and witty work which describes a city-state ruled entirely by reason. It is meant to contrast with the reality of European rule, divided by ideologies and greed and self-interest. More essentially argued that communal life is the only way to end the ill effects of self-interest on politics. The work was a marvel of learning and wit and wholly original it was soon translated throughout the Continent and its author hailed as one of the foremost Humanist thinkers. It is no exaggeration to state that its publication ensured More a stature that no other Englishman of his time enjoyed.
Cardinal Wolsey – and the king – needed no further reason to bring More into the king’s service. His work at Bruges and, later, Calais, as well as his continuing duties as undersheriff in London, were clear evidence of his skill and popularity. More’s letters indicate that he was not particularly keen to enter royal service. This was not due to any dislike of the king. Rather, he felt that he could be more effective in the city itself, not closeted away amongst the nobles and councilors of Henry’s court. But polite prevarications only worked for so long and soon More was a genuine courtier, with all its attendant duties – and benefits.
He was first appointed a Privy Councilor and accompanied Wolsey to an important diplomatic mission to Europe. He impressed the cardinal enough that he was knighted upon his return and made under-treasurer of the Exchequer. More importantly, he developed a personal relationship with Henry VIII, and because known as the king’s “intellectual courtier”. Soon he was acting as Henry’s personal secretary and adviser, delivering official speeches, greeting foreign envoys, drafting treaties and other public documents, and composing the king’s responses to Wolsey’s dispatches. More also engaged in a public war of words – on the king’s behalf – with Martin Luther, the father of the Reformation.
In April 1523, he was elected speaker of the House of Commons. His position at court meant that he was to be the king’s advocate before parliament. But to More’s credit, he made an impassioned plea for greater freedom of speech in parliament. Such was his reputation that the the great universities – Oxford and Cambridge – made him high steward. His personal life remained placid and content. His eldest daughter Margaret married the lawyer William Roper in 1521, and More continued his practice of prayer and supervision of learning at his home.
His home at Chelsea was as close as Tudor England would come to an 18th century French salon. Intellectuals from England and Europe visited More was a generous and kind host. He collected books and rare objects, but he gave away his possessions freely as well. He had a true gift for friendship and inspired deep loyalty amongst his family and friends. Among his guests, in fact, was the king himself. He would arrive unbidden, to either eat with the family or walk in the garden with More, his arm slung casually about More’s shoulders.
Despite such evidence of royal favor, it is likely that More chafed at his service to the king. He was no fool he noted Wolsey’s great – and increasingly ostentatious – wealth. His natural piety was at odds with other courtiers, all of whom jockeyed ceaselessly for the king’s favor. Ironically, it was his own honesty and probity which ensured his continued service to Henry.
We come now to the great event of Henry’s reign. By 1527, the king was in his mid-thirties, and his wife six years older. The queen had suffered a series of miscarriages throughout their marriage their only surviving child was the Princess Mary. Henry needed a son and heir. He had an illegitimate son, called Henry Fitzroy, by one of his early mistresses. The boy, born in 1519, was welcome proof to Henry that he could father a son – and that his lack of an heir was entirely Katharine’s fault. Even special physicians summoned from Spain could not help the queen to conceive again.
And so, when More returned from a diplomatic mission to France in summer 1527, the king laid the open Bible before his favorite councilor. It was, Henry told him, proof that his marriage to Katharine was incestuous due to her previous marriage to his brother. It was unlawful before man and God and thus void. The king added that his lack of a legitimate son was clear proof of God’s displeasure.
Was More surprised by this speech? Ne znamo. We do know that he tried in vain to support the king’s position. He read anything and everything he could find on the subject. In the end, he could not be persuaded. Katharine was the king’s true wife. He did not share his opinion with the king. And the king did not force the issue. Certainly Henry wanted More’s support. As England’s premier intellectual, More’s opinion mattered. It mattered to London shopkeepers, and to great churchmen. If the great Sir Thomas More believed the king’s marriage to be unlawful, why, it must be so! But if the great Sir Thomas More believed the king to be wrong? Henry was wise enough to state his case and let it go, – for a little while at least. And More was more convinced than ever that he needed to leave royal service.
Unfortunately, Cardinal Wolsey was unable to secure an annulment for the king. The reasons were various, but the most important was Katharine’s position as aunt to the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. Charles would not let his aunt be cast aside (he was also considering the dynastic appeal of her daughter with Henry), and he pressured the pope to deny Henry’s petition. Wolsey, for all his brilliance and cunning, could not compete with that influence. And the king was now newly enamored of a young noblewoman called Anne Boleyn. His desire for an annulment was now not merely to secure a legitimate heir it was also spurred by his desire to marry Anne.
Anne’s personal religious feeling was unimportant. She was by necessity hostile to the Catholic church. They were preventing her marriage to the king. Likewise, Henry became understandably angry at the papacy’s refusal to repudiate Charles. Perhaps his earlier justification for the annulment had been a matter of self-interest, a selective interpretation of opaque text. But time and impatience had made him emphatic in his righteousness. It was perfectly clear to any objective observer that the marriage was unlawful before God! The king raged. He sent envoys. He dictated letter after letter. He badgered Katharine ceaselessly. Nothing worked. The pope would not relent. Meanwhile, time was passing and a king used to instant obedience was determined to wait no longer. Wolsey was destined to die for his failure to secure the annulment. Fortunately for the old cardinal, he died before the king could kill him. Unfortunately for More, Henry appointed him Lord Chancellor of England. The honor was tremendous notably, More was the first layman to hold the office. He handled his responsibilities with his usual skill, but it was a balancing act, and an increasingly dangerous one. For example, as Lord Chancellor, More proclaimed the opinion of the English universities as favorable to the king’s annulment. But he himself did not sign the letter in which most of England’s nobles and prelates petitioned the pope to declare the marriage unlawful. And when the English clergy were forced to acknowledge Henry as the supreme head of their church, More attempted to resign his office.
His resignation was at first not accepted. Henry still hoped for More’s support. But eventually the break between the king and his chief minister could not be ignored. More suffered a sharp chest pain, possibly angina, and begged the king to release him from his duties. This was on 16 May 1532, the date on which the archdiocese of Canterbury, as head of the English clergy, sent a document to Henry VIII in which is promised to never legislate or even convene without royal assent, thus making the king – a lay person – head of the spiritual order in England.
Henry accepted More’s resignation. Their old friendship was past the king’s new advisors were anti-Catholic and pro-Protestant, most notably among them was Thomas Cromwell. He had once served under Wolsey and knew More well. Cromwell was an astute politician whose beliefs changed at the whim of his royal master. He was even more aware than the king of More’s popular appeal and this was to More’s detriment for it meant that his refusal to publicly support the king was not something that could be forgiven or forgotten. More would have to either acknowledge the king’s spiritual supremacy and marriage to Anne Boleyn, or he would die. That was clear to Cromwell almost from the first, and perhaps to More, too.
But in the meantime, More had eighteen months of seclusion and study at his home in Chelsea. He lived in relative poverty, for he held no office and relied solely upon the hundred pounds per annum he collected from a property rental. He did not struggle with the reduction in means, and busied himself with planning a tomb for himself and his wives , as well as defending his faith in various pamphlets. He never explicitly courted controversy, but he felt compelled to answer the ‘reformers’ such as William Tyndale. His months of peace ended in 1533, when he refused to attend the coronation of Anne Boleyn.
This blatant disrespect could not be tolerated and More’s name was included in a Bill of Attainder against Elizabeth Barton, the ‘Holy Maid of Kent’, who had prophesized against the king’s annulment. More’s only communication with Barton had been to warn her against meddling in affairs of state. It did not matter. His name was on the attainder and he was brought before the Privy Council in February 1534. He answered their queries as best he could, assuring them of his loyalty to king and state and stressing the matter of his personal conscience. It was his great popularity that saved him. It gave the king pause, and More was allowed to return home. But he knew what was coming. And his old friend, the duke of Norfolk, took care to warn him of his danger, “Indignatio principis mors est.” To which More famously replied, “Is that all, my lord? Then, in good faith, between your grace and me is but this, that I shall die today, and you tomorrow.”
It was the Act of Succession, passed the following month, that sealed his fate. It stated that all who were called upon must take an oath acknowledging Anne as Henry’s wife and their future children as legitimate heirs to the throne. This More was fully prepared to do. Anne was the anointed queen. But – and of course this clause was added simply to trap More – the Act also required a repudiation of “any foreign authority, prince or potentate.” More could recognize Anne as the crowned queen of England. But he could not recognize the king’s authority as head of the new church of England. And so he was imprisoned in the Tower of London on 17 April 1534.
More was not a man to be broken by prison, but he suffered physically. His spirits were high when visited by family and friends, though they were only permitted to see him if they took the Oath which he had refused. He encouraged them to do so. After several months, he was visited by Cromwell, but More refused to engage him in debate and merely declared himself a faithful subject of the king. In June 1535, after he had been imprisoned for over a year, Cromwell’s servant, Richard Rich, now solicitor general, stated that he had spoken with More and More had denied Parliament’s power to make Henry head of the church. This was an obvious lie More had never said anything of the sort to any other visitor, – why Rich? And why such an obvious and clumsy admission?
Despite widespread belief, even amongst Protestants, that Rich was lying, his statement was enough for a fresh inquiry to begin. It was then discovered that More had written to John Fisher, the bishop of Rochester, who was also imprisoned in the Tower for not taking the oath. This discovery resulted in removal of More’s books and writing materials. He could now only write to his wife and favorite daughter Margaret with a piece of coal or burnt stick on scraps of paper.
Dana 1. srpnja 1535. optužen je za veleizdaju. Suđenje koje je rezultiralo bilo je puka predstava unatoč njegovoj strastvenoj i briljantnoj obrani, nitko nikada nije očekivao da će More biti otkriveno bilo što osim "krivog". I takav je i bio. Osuđen je na izdajničku smrt - izvučen, obješen i raščetvoren - ali kralj je to promijenio u odrubljivanje glave. Bila je to mala milost.
Priča o Morovim posljednjim danima užasno utječe. Ne morate dijeliti njegova vjerska uvjerenja da biste cijenili njegovu unutarnju snagu i plemeniti karakter. Čekao je pet dana prije nego što su ga pozvali na skelu na Tower Hill. "Nađite me na sigurnom", rekao je poručniku koji ga je pratio, "a ja sam sišao da se smjenim." On je sebi stavio povez preko očiju i potaknuo okupljeno mnoštvo da svjedoči njegovu kraju "u vjeri i za vjeru Katoličke crkve, kraljevog dobrog sluge, ali prvog Boga". Čak ni Morejevi protestantski neprijatelji nisu vjerovali da je on izdajica, za njegovu se smrt gotovo općenito smatralo da je ništa manje od mučeništva. Erasmus je oplakivao svog prijatelja i napisao da je Moreova "duša bila čistija od snijega" i da je "njegov genij bio takav da Engleska nikada nije imala i nikada više neće imati slično". Više je Katolička crkva proglasila blaženim 1886., a Pio XI 1935. proglasio je svetim.