Povijesti Podcasti

Povijest nogometnih stadiona

Povijest nogometnih stadiona

Nogometni stadioni u početku su bili vrlo primitivni. Stoga je prvo finale FA kupa održano 1872. na Kennington Ovalu, kriket terenu izgrađenom 1845. Oval je bio domaćin finala do 1892. Sljedeće godine, finale između Wolverhampton Wanderersa i Evertona održano je u Fallowfieldu u Manchesteru.

Goodison Park bio je prvi namjenski izgrađen nogometni stadion u Engleskoj. Koštao je 8.090 funti, a službeno je otvoren 24. kolovoza 1892. Sastojao se od dva otkrivena tribina, od kojih je svaki mogao primiti 4000, te natkrivenog štanda za 3000 ljudi. 1894. bio je domaćin finala FA kupa između Notts Countyja i Bolton Wanderersa, utakmice s 37.000 posjetitelja.

Ženama je u početku bilo dopušteno da se slobodno nalaze na nekim osnovama jer se vjerovalo da će to poboljšati ponašanje obožavatelja. Kad je Preston North End u travnju 1885. uveo besplatne karte, na igru ​​se pojavilo više od 2000 žena. Besplatan ulaz za žene bio je toliko popularan da su do kraja 1890 -ih svi nogometni klubovi prekinuli program.

1896. Arnold Hills, predsjednik West Ham Uniteda, objavio je da je kupio zemljište u Canning Townu, a Hills je izgradio ono što je postalo poznato kao Memorijal. Izgradnja je koštala 20.000 funti i smatralo se jednim od najboljih stadiona u zemlji. Hills je tvrdio da može primiti 133.000 gledatelja i prijavio se za održavanje finala FA kupa na Memorijalnom terenu. To je omogućilo samo 16 inča za svaku osobu, a Nogometni savez je odbio ideju.

Arnold Hills želio je održati druge sportske događaje, uključujući biciklizam i atletiku. Osim nogometne arene, imala je i stazu za trčanje, teniske terene i vanjski bazen. Prema jednom izvješću, bazen dugačak 30 stopa (30 stopa) bio je najveći u Engleskoj. Memorijalni prostor otvoren je u lipnju 1897. Hills je održao govor u kojem je istaknuo kako ima "najveću biciklističku stazu u Londonu na kojoj bi održavali takve sastanke čudovišta da bi pozornost Metropolisa bila usmjerena na željeznu Temzu".

Mjesto je odabrano jer se planiralo izgraditi željezničku stanicu Manor Road u blizini stadiona. Nažalost, projekt je odgođen i dovršen je tek četiri godine kasnije. To je značilo da je posjećenost terena bila znatno niža od očekivane.

Sezonske karte za 1897-98 bile su fiksne na 5 šilinga (25 p). Ulaznice za pojedinačne utakmice koštaju 4d. Međutim, posjećenost igara bila je vrlo razočaravajuća. Samo 200 ljudi vidjelo je prvu utakmicu protiv Northfleet -a. To ne čudi kad to usporedite sa cijenom drugih oblika zabave. Obično košta samo 3d. posjetiti glazbenu dvoranu ili kino. Treba imati na umu da su u to vrijeme vješti trgovci obično dobivali manje od 2 funte tjedno.

Kao što Dave Russell ističe u Nogomet i Englezi: društvena povijest udruženog nogometa u Engleskoj (1997.): "u smislu društvene klase, gužve na utakmicama nogometne lige uglavnom su dolazile od vještih radnih i nižih srednjih klasa ... Društvene skupine ispod te razine bile su uvelike isključene cijenom ulaska." Russell dodaje "Nogometna liga, vrlo vjerojatno u namjernom pokušaju ograničavanja pristupa siromašnijim (i ovom navodno" bezobrazluku ") pristalicama, podigla je minimalnu ulaznu cijenu za odrasle muškarce na 6d".

U 1899.-1900. West Ham United promaknut je u najvišu ligu južne lige i odlučeno je povećati cijene sezonskih ulaznica. Sad je bilo 10s. 6d (52,5p) za tribinu i 7s. 6d. (37,5p) za ostatak tla. Prva domaća utakmica bila je protiv Chathama. Posjećenost od 1.000 bila je niža od većine utakmica prethodne sezone i vjerojatno je bila reakcija na rast cijena. Međutim, za utakmicu FA kupa protiv lokalnog rivala, Millwalla, oko 13.000 ljudi došlo je pogledati utakmicu.

Najvažnija osoba u dizajnu nogometnih stadiona bio je Archibald Leitch. Godine 1899. dobio je narudžbu za izgradnju Ibrox Parka, novog doma Rangersa. Novi stadion sastojao se od velikih drvenih terasa i tribine za oko 4.500 gledatelja. Međutim, ljudi su počeli preispitivati ​​Leitchove sigurnosne značajke kada je 5. travnja 1902., kada je 25 ljudi poginulo, a 517 ozlijeđeno dok se dio zapadne terase srušio tijekom godišnje međunarodne utakmice s Engleskom.

Unatoč ovoj katastrofi, Archibald Leitch je dobio zadatak izgraditi druga nogometna igrališta. 1909. John Henry Davies, predsjednik Manchester Uniteda, odlučio je posuditi klubu 60.000 funti kako bi mogli izgraditi novi stadion kapaciteta 80.000. Na terenu Old Trafforda nalazila su se sjedala na južnoj tribini pod pokrovom, dok su preostale tri tribine ostavljene kao terase i otkrivene. Kada je dovršen, stadion je imao najveću tribinu u Nogometnoj ligi. Također je imala gimnaziju, sobu za masažu, kupke, barove, dizala i čajne sobe.

Stadion Empire na Wembleyju sagradio je Robert McAlpine za izložbu Britanskog carstva 1923. po cijeni od 750.000 funti. Prvotno se namjeravalo srušiti na kraju izložbe. Međutim, kasnije je odlučeno da se zgrada zadrži za održavanje nogometnih utakmica. Prva utakmica na Wembleyju, finale FA kupa 1923. između West Ham Uniteda i Bolton Wanderersa, odigrala se samo četiri dana nakon završetka stadiona.

Stadion Empire imao je kapacitet od 125.000, pa Nogometni savez nije smatrao da bi to trebala biti utakmica za sve karte. Uostalom, obje momčadi imale su prosječnu posjetu od oko 20.000 za prvenstvene utakmice. Međutim, rijetko se dogodilo da je klub iz Londona ušao u finale FA kupa, a navijači drugih klubova u gradu to su vidjeli kao utakmicu Sjever - Jug. Procjenjuje se da je 300.000 ljudi pokušalo ući u zemlju. Više od tisuću ljudi ozlijeđeno je pri ulasku i izlasku sa stadiona.


POVIJEST STADIJA U TAMPI

Postoji samo jedan stadion u zemlji na kojem ćete pronaći replikatski gusarski brod vrijedan 3 milijuna dolara i 103 stope smješten izvan sjeverne krajnje zone u piratskom selu iz 19. stoljeća, poznatijem kao & quotBuccaneer Cove & quot. Ako ste pogodili stadion Raymond James, u pravu ste, međutim, prije preobrazbe od 168,5 milijuna dolara, stadion je imao vrlo skroman početak

4. STUDENOGA 1967. godine: TAMPA STADIUM POSVJETEN-Tennessee pobjeđuje Sveučilište Tampa, 38-0 u prvom natjecanju koje se igralo u tom objektu. Izgradnja stadiona s 46.700 sjedala košta 4,1 milijun dolara.
10. KOLOVOZA 1968. godine: PRVA UTAKMICA NA STADIONU TAMPA-Washington pobijeđuje Atlantu sa 16-14 u utakmici pred sezonu pred 42.000 gledatelja u prvoj NFL akciji na novom stadionu.
21. TRAVNJA 1975: ODOBREN NAJAM STADIJA-Sportska uprava Tampa jednoglasno je odobrila 30-godišnji ugovor o najmu s Buccaneersom za korištenje stadiona Tampa. Tri dana kasnije, Gradsko vijeće Tampa glasalo je 6-1 za odobrenje najma i proširenje na 72.000 mjesta.
09. srpnja 1975: POČINJE PROŠIRENJE STADIJA - Razbijeni su temelji za proširenje stadiona Tampa, financirano prodajom obveznica u Tampi u iznosu od 13 milijuna dolara.

Tampa stadion "The Big Sombrero" Houlihanov stadion

Stadion Tampa (nadimak The Big Sombrero i ukratko poznat kao Houlihan's Stadium) bio je veliki stadion na otvorenom (maksimalnog kapaciteta oko 74.000) koji se nalazi u Tampi na Floridi. Otvoren je 1967., značajno proširen 1974. -75., A srušen je 1999. Objekt je najuže povezan s Tampa Bay Buccaneersima Nacionalne nogometne lige, koji su tamo igrali od svog osnivanja 1976. do 1997. Također je bio domaćin dvije Super Bowle, 1984. i 1991. godine.

Osim Buccaneerssa, stadion Tampa bio je dom Tampa Bay Rowdies izvorne Sjevernoameričke nogometne lige, Tampa Bay Bandita Američke nogometne lige, Tampa Bay pobune Major League Soccer i fakultetskih nogometnih programa Sveučilišta u Tampa i Sveučilište Južne Floride. Također je bio domaćin mnogih velikih koncerata, a neko je vrijeme držao rekord za najveću publiku koja je ikada vidjela jednog umjetnika kada je gotovo 57.000 ljudi svjedočilo predstavi Led Zeppelina u tom objektu 1973. godine.

Prapovijest i izgradnja pojačala

Zemljište na kojem se nalazio stadion Tampa bilo je obod Drew Fielda, aerodroma iz doba Drugog svjetskog rata koji je bio preteča međunarodne zračne luke Tampa. Godine 1949. grad Tampa je od savezne vlade kupio travnatu parcelu površine 720 hektara između zračne luke i West Tampa s idejom da na kraju izgradi sportski kompleks zajednice. Polje Al Lopez bila je prva faza projekta, otvorena 1955. godine.

Do početka 1960 -ih, Tampini su građanski čelnici bili zainteresirani za privlačenje momčadi Nacionalne nogometne lige na to područje. Nekoliko dobro posjećenih izložbenih igara NFL-a održano je na Phillips Fieldu u blizini centra grada, ali mjesto je bilo premalo da bi podržalo profesionalnu nogometnu franšizu. Stoga je, uz poticaj dužnosnika NFL -a, grad odlučio izgraditi veći objekt koji bi nogometni tim Sveučilišta Tampa mogao koristiti u kratkom roku, a u budućnosti bi ga mogao proširiti teoretski profesionalni tim.

Izgradnja stadiona Tampa započela je u jesen 1966. godine neposredno uz polje Al Lopez, koje je do tada bilo dom Tampa Tarpona Floride State League i proljetno vježbalište Cincinnati Redsa. Iako je sadržavao zasebna nogometna i bejzbolska igrališta te vježbališta Redsa, parcela kupljena 1949. godine bila je još uvijek dovoljno velika da je omogućila dovoljno parkiranja na otvorenom zemljištu koje okružuje oba objekta.

Kada je otvoren 1967., stadion Tampa sastojao se od odgovarajućeg para velikih betonskih tribina u obliku luka s otvorenim završnim površinama. Sjedenje se sastojalo od dugih aluminijskih klupa bez naslona kojima se pristupalo kroz kratke tunele (bljuvotine) koji su prostor za sjedenje povezivali s širokim, otvorenim hodnicima na stražnjoj strani tribina. Klupe su bile raspoređene u dva velika sloja podijeljena vodoravnim hodnikom otprilike do pola tribina. Nagib tribina bio je relativno strm, dajući svakom sjedalu izravan i neometan pogled na polje. Službeni kapacitet bio je 46.481, iako su se privremene tribine mogle postaviti u jednu ili obje krajnje zone ako je potrebno.

Igranje površine

Tijekom životnog vijeka stadiona Tampa, prirodni travnjak sastojao se od nekoliko sorti bermudske trave, od kojih je najčešći Tifway 419. Podloga za igru ​​bila je dosljedno jedna od najboljih u NFL -u, a redovito je proglašavana favoritom igrača u istraživanjima Udruženje igrača Nacionalne nogometne lige.

Stadion Tampa izgrađen je gotovo isključivo od betona. Tijekom svog postojanja vanjski zidovi bili su obojeni svijetlosmeđom ili bijelom bojom ili ostavljeni kao goli beton, kao i podne površine. Sjedala su se sastojala od dugih aluminijskih klupa i nije bilo krova ili bilo kakvih nadstrešnica iznad polja ili prostora za sjedenje.

Iako je minimalistički dizajn stadiona omogućio vrlo dobre vidike, izložio je i gledatelje i igrače punom snazi ​​suptropske klime u Tampi. To je bilo posebno istinito nakon što je stadion bio potpuno zatvoren za nastupnu sezonu Bucsa 1976., prekidajući povjetarac koji je prostrujao kroz otvorene zone. Dok su se navijači mogli povući ispod tribina u sjenu širokih dvorana gdje su se nalazili ustupci i zahodi, igrači i osoblje na terenu nisu imali takvu mogućnost. Oprema za hlađenje obično se postavljala u blizini sporednih klupa. Buccaneersima je također bilo dopušteno nositi bijele dresove kod kuće, prisiljavajući svoje protivnike da pate u svojim tamnijim (i vrućim) dresovima. Tijekom ljeta i rane jeseni događaji na stadionu često su se zakazivali u večernjim satima kako bi se izbjegla često opresivna popodnevna vrućina i vlaga. Još jedan znak lokalnog vremena, površina za igru ​​od prirodne trave bila je visoko okrunjena kako bi se osigurala brza odvodnja tijekom intenzivnih grmljavinskih oluja u Tampi, pri čemu su bočne strane gotovo 18 inča niže od središta polja.

Proširenja i obnove pojačala

Kapacitet stadiona Tampa

Godine ---------- Službeni kapacitet
1967–1975 ----- 46,481
1976–1978 ----- 71,951
1979–1981 ----- 72,126
1982–1984 ----- 72,812
1985–1988 ----- 74,315
1989–1992 ----- 74,296
1993–1998 ----- 74,301

Stadion Tampa prošao je opsežan projekt proširenja 1974–1975 nakon što je grad dobio tim za proširenje NFL -a. Preko 27.000 sjedećih mjesta dodano je potpunim zatvaranjem otvorenih zona, što je mjesto učinilo jednim od najvećih u NFL -u s kapacitetom od 71.908. Dobivena arena nije bila u obliku jednostavne zdjele. Bio je najviši u središtu dvaju sporednih tribina i blago se spuštao prema zaobljenom kutu gdje se susreo s novim dijelovima, koji su bili upola manji. Mnogo kasnije, stadion je nazvan "The Big Sombrero" od strane ESPN -a Chris Berman zbog jedinstvenog valovitog oblika šešira / vala koji je nastao na vrhu stadiona dodacima 1975. godine.

Posljednja velika obnova dogodila se početkom 1980 -ih kada su, u pripremi za svoj prvi Super Bowl u siječnju 1984., ažurirana kutija za tisak na zapadnoj tribini, a na istočnoj tribini dodan je veliki paket luksuznih kutija. Ova konfiguracija dala je objektu maksimalni kapacitet od 74.301.

Za sezonu 1990. veliki su jarboli postavljeni na gornji rub stadiona kao dio ažuriranja stadiona koji je uključivao dodavanje JumboTron ekrana u južnoj zoni i manje tablice iznad tunela na razini terena u dva ugla stadiona . Stubovi su se koristili za isticanje velikih zastava za svaki tim NFL -a do 1997. godine, kada su Buccaneersi usvojili jednoobrazni redizajn s crvenom zastavom na kacigama. Velike verzije zastave podignute su na jarbolima stadiona kada su Buccaneersi prodrli u 20-metarsku liniju svojih protivnika. Franšiza je nastavila s tom praksom kada se godinu dana kasnije preselila na susjedni stadion Raymond James.

Sportska povijest

Stanari prvog stadiona

Sveučilište Tampa Spartans

Stadion Tampa dovršen je na vrijeme da ugosti svoj prvi sportski događaj-nogometnu utakmicu između Sveučilišta Tampa Spartans i dobrovoljca Sveučilišta Tennessee na trećem mjestu 4. studenog 1967. Dok su Spartanci tu utakmicu izgubili s 38-0, oni bi uživaju u kasnijem uspjehu u svom novom domu, prelaskom u nogomet I divizije 1971. i slanjem nekoliko igrača u NFL, uključujući Freddieja Solomona i Johna Matuszaka. Međutim, sveučilišni dužnosnici nisu bili sigurni u daljnju podršku zajednice nakon što je Tampi dodijeljena franšiza za proširenje NFL -a. Predsjednik "Tampa U" B. D. Owens završio je nogometni program nakon sezone 1974., rekavši da će se škola suočiti s bankrotom ako mora subvencionirati sport.

Rowdies u Tampa Bayu

Tampa Bay Rowdies bili su prvi profesionalni zakupci stadiona, koji su počeli igrati 1975. godine i osvojili svoje jedino prvenstvo (na otvorenom) u svojoj uvodnoj sezoni. (Tim je također osvojio nekoliko malonogometnih prvenstava igrajući u Bayfront Centreu preko zaljeva Tampa u St. Petersburgu.)

Rowdiesi su igrali svoje domaće utakmice na stadionu Tampa svako ljeto sve dok se originalna sjevernoamerička nogometna liga nije raspala 1984. Nakon toga, Rowdies su nastavili dalje, prvo kao neovisna momčad, zatim u drugim ligama (ASL, APSL) i koristili stadion svake godine do 1990. 1991. i 1992. preselili su se preko grada na manji USF Soccer Stadium, prije nego što su se 1993. vratili na Tampa Stadium radi posljednje sezone igranja u APSL -u.

Izložbene igre proširenja NFL -a

Želeći prikazati novi gradski objekt za NFL, čelnici zajednice su krajem 1960 -ih i početkom 1970 -ih organizirali nekoliko izložbenih igara na stadionu Tampa. Prva takva igra predstavila je Atlanta Falcons i Washington Redskins u kolovozu 1968. i privukla je gotovo rasprodanu publiku. Sljedećih sezona održano je još jedanaest utakmica sa isto tako entuzijastičnom publikom, uključujući tri s Baltimore Coltsima 1972. godine, kada je ekipa trenirala u Tampi tijekom predsezone NFL -a.

Ove predsezonske igre dale su vlasnicima i dužnosnicima NFL -a dovoljno mogućnosti za procjenu područja Tampa Bay i stadiona, a 24. travnja 1974. Tampa je nagrađena NFL timom za proširenje za početak igre u sezoni 1976. godine.

TAMPEĆI Zaljev Tampa

Prva domaća utakmica regularne sezone Buccaneersa održana je 19. rujna 1976., kada su Bucsi izgubili od San Diego Chargersa 23-0. To bi postao trend, budući da je momčad započela svoje postojanje s rekordnim nizom od 26 utakmica poraza u NFL-u. Ne bi dobili utakmicu na svom domaćem terenu sve dok nisu pobijedili St. Louis Cardinals u posljednjoj utakmici sljedeće sezone, 18. prosinca 1977. Navijači Jubilant -a preplavili su travnjak stadiona Tampa i srušili vratnice.

Buccaneersi su se do sezone 1979. dovoljno poboljšali da ugoste NFC Championship Game, koji su izgubili 9-0 od Los Angeles Rams-a. Buci su odigrali 18 dodatnih sezona u objektu, ali su se borili s većinom. Na svom izvornom domaćem terenu ugostili bi samo još jednu utakmicu doigravanja: NFC Wild Card Game protiv Detroit Lions 28. prosinca 1997. u kojem su pobijedili 20-10. Ovo bi bila posljednja utakmica koju je momčad ikada igrala na stadionu Tampa, jer su 1998. godine prešli u susjedstvo na stadion Raymond James.

Tampa stadion Krewe of Honor

Godine 1991. organizacija je pokrenula "Krewe of Honor", koja je sadržavala mural prve klase od tri člana. Kvoterbek Doug Williams primljen je 6. rujna 1992., a vlasnik Hugh Culverhouse 5. rujna 1993. Nisu dodani dodatni članovi prije zatvaranja i rušenja stadiona Tampa.

"Houlihanov stadion"

Malcolm Glazer također je stekao prava na imenovanje na stadionu Tampa kada je kupio Buccaneers 1995. U listopadu te godine imao je lanac restorana Houlihan, još jedno poduzeće u svom portfelju, koji je Bucsu za ta prava platio 10 milijuna dolara. To je rezultiralo time da je službeni naziv objekta 1996. promijenjen u "Houlihanov stadion", a dioničari Houlihana tužili su Glazer, koji nisu bili sretni što su kupili prava na imenovanje stadiona u području u kojem lanac nije imao restorane.

Ostali stanari i pojačala

Stadion Tampa bio je domaći teren za nekoliko dodatnih timova te je tijekom svog života bio domaćin raznih događanja.

Domaći timovi

Banditi iz Tampa Baya

Od 1983. do 1985., jedna od dvanaest originalnih franšiza USFL -a, bila je treći profesionalni stanar stadiona. Banditi su uživali u velikoj prodaji ulaznica i navijačkoj podršci te su bili jedan od samo dva tima USFL -a (drugi su bili Birminghamski pastuvi) koji su ostali u svom izvornom gradu i stadionu i imali istog glavnog trenera (bivši čuvar Floride Gators i Bucs Steve Spurrier) za tri sezone lige. Banditi su se složili zajedno s USFL -om nakon sezone 1985. godine.

Sveučilište Južne Floride Bulls Nogomet

Tim je svoju prvu sezonu odigrao na stadionu 1997. godine, postavši tako drugi i posljednji kolegij na stadionu. Bikovi bi posljednju nogometnu utakmicu igrali na stadionu 12. rujna 1998. godine, pobijedivši Valparaiso sa 51-0 prije nego što su se 3. listopada 1998. preselili na stadion Raymond James za sljedeću domaću utakmicu.

Banditi iz Tampa Baya

Major League Soccer smjestio je 1996. godine jedan od svojih prvotnih timova u Tampi. Tampa Bay Mutiny bili su četvrti i posljednji profesionalni stanar stadiona. Pobuna je stadion koristila kao domaći teren u prve tri sezone, a 1999. preselili su se na stadion Raymond James. Posljednji sportski događaj na stadionu ugostili su 13. rujna 1998., kada su u New Yorku pobijedili New York MetroStars rezultatom 2-1. pred 27.957 ljudi.

Sportski događaji

Rušenje stadiona

Nakon što je 1995. kupio Buccaneers, novi vlasnik Malcolm Glazer izjavio je da je stadion Tampa neadekvatan i zaprijetio da će preseliti franšizu u drugi grad ako novi stadion ne bude izgrađen o trošku poreznih obveznika. Kako bi udovoljilo tim zahtjevima, županija Hillsborough podigla je lokalne poreze na promet i izgradila stadion Raymond James južno od stadiona Tampa u razdoblju od 1997. do 1998. godine.

Rušenje stadiona Tampa nastavilo se ubrzo nakon posljednje domaće utakmice Tampa Bay Mutinyja 13. rujna 1998. Za veliki dio procesa korištene su lomljive loptice i bageri s velikim dosegom. Posljednji dio stadiona (luksuzne kutije na istočnoj strani izgrađene za prvi Super Bowl na stadionu) je implodiran 11. travnja 1999. Zemljište je tada očišćeno i pretvoreno u parkiralište. Dio tog rušenja prikazan je u epizodi Modern Marvels iz 1999. pod naslovom "Rušenje".

Stadion Raymond James


Stadion Raymond James: poznat i kao "Ray Jay", a dom je Tampa Bay Buccaneersa Nacionalne nogometne lige (NFL), kao i nogometne ekipe NCAA -e South Florida Bulls. Stadion ima 65 890 mjesta i proširiv je na 75 000 za posebne događaje. Stadion je također domaćin godišnje Outback Bowl na Novu godinu, a Monster Jam turneja za čudovišne kamione održava događaj na stadionu.

Stadion Raymond James ugostio je Super Bowls XXXV i XLIII, kao i Državno prvenstvo u nogometu 2017.

Povijest

Stadion Raymond James izgrađen je kako bi zamijenio Houlihanov stadion na zahtjev novog vlasnika Bucsa Malcolma Glazera. Nalazi se uz mjesto starog stadiona na nekadašnjoj lokaciji Al Lopez Fielda, bejzbolskog stadiona manje lige koji je srušen 1989. Nakon što je dovršen, konačni trošak novog stadiona iznosio je 168,5 milijuna dolara, s cijelim trošak koji se javno financira.

Bio je poznat kao Tampa Community Stadium tijekom izgradnje, ali su prava na ime kupljena za 32,5 milijuna USD za 13-godišnji ugovor od strane St. Peterburga Raymond James Financial u lipnju 1998. Dana 27. travnja 2006, produženo je zadržati prava na imenovanje do 2015. U svibnju 2016. Buccaneers su objavili da su prava na imenovanje produžena za dodatnih 12 godina osiguravajući da će se ime Raymonda James Financial -a nastaviti pojavljivati ​​do 2028. godine.

Stadion je službeno otvoren 21. rujna 1998., kada su Tampa Bay Buccaneersi pobijedili Chicago Bearse, 27–15. Stadion je bio domaćin prve nogometne utakmice 20. ožujka 1999. godine, kada je Tampa Bay Mutiny izgubio od DC Uniteda, 5-2.

Stadion je izabran za domaćina ACC Championship Game 2008. i 2009. godine.

Stadion je domaći teren za Sveučilišta Južne Floride Bulls američke atletske konferencije. Rekordna gužva ekipe na stadionu Raymond James je 69.383, 29. rujna 2012., kada su Bullsi-tijekom svoje najgore sezone ikad-po prvi put odigrali utakmicu bez konferencije protiv popularnog Seminolesa Sveučilišta Florida Florida sa moćne konferencije. .

Najveća gužva ikad zabilježena na stadionu Raymond James došla je 9. siječnja 2017. jer je stadion bio domaćin Državnog prvenstva u nogometu za 2017. Prisustvovalo je 74.512 ljudi.

Do sezone 2009. svaka utakmica Buccaneersa na stadionu Raymond James bila je rasprodana. 2010. niti jedna domaća utakmica nije uspjela rasprodati karte pa se nijedna nije mogla emitirati na lokalnoj televiziji. Niz se nastavio do četvrtog tjedna sezone 2011., kada je prodao dovoljno ulaznica za utakmicu u ponedjeljak navečer s Indianapolis Coltsom 3. listopada kako bi izbjegao lokalno zamračenje.

Stadion je također bio dom nekadašnje pobune Tampa Bay -a iz Major League Soccer -a i nastavlja povremeno ugostiti druge nogometne utakmice zbog svojih prilagodljivih dimenzija terena. Na primjer, 8. lipnja 2012. ugostila je prvu kvalifikacijsku utakmicu za mušku nogometnu reprezentaciju Sjedinjenih Država protiv Antigve i Barbude za Svjetsko prvenstvo u nogometu 2014., koju su Sjedinjene Države pobijedile s 3-1.

Značajke

Jedna od najprepoznatljivijih značajki stadiona je replikatski piratski brod od čelika i betona od 43 stope (31 stopa), 43 tone, koji ispaljuje replike topova svaki put kada Bucs osvoji bodove ili uđe u crvenu zonu druge momčadi. Top puca jednom za svaki osvojeni bod. Osim toga, kada Buccaneers uđu u protivničku crvenu zonu, stadion ugošćuje zastave momčadi za podizanje po obodu gornje palube. Tijekom različitih vremena tijekom igre, pjesma "Yo Ho (A Pirate's Life for Me)" svira na razglasu stadiona (preuzeto iz Pirati s Kariba), koji signalizira patronima na brodu da bace perle, majice i druge besplatne nagrade ljudima ispod. Taj je segment većini obožavatelja poznat i kao "Mini Gasparilla". Animirani papagaj sjedi na krmi gusarskog broda. Kontroliran radiom i daljinskim upravljačem, papagaj bira navijače iz gomile i razgovara s onima koji prolaze.

Tijekom Super Bowla XXXV na CBS-u, izvještavanje o utakmicama prije utakmice, poluvremena i poslije utakmice odvijalo se s broda pirata. S broda su također dopirali NBC -jevi Super Bowl XLIII i ESPN -ovo pokrivanje Nacionalnog prvenstva u nogometu za 2017. godinu.

Dva Daktronics video zaslona "Buc Vision" površine 200 m2, među najvećima su u ligi kada su izgrađeni, a 2016. zamijenjeni su video pločom visoke definicije od 9600 četvornih metara na oba kraja zonama. 'Buccaneer Cove' sadrži istrošeno, dvoetažno pročelje ribarskog sela, s ustupcima za stadione i zahodima. Sva područja stadiona su usklađena s ADA -om.

Privremene tribine podignute su u krajnjim zonama za Super Bowl XXXV, što je postavilo rekordnu posjećenost stadiona od 71.921. Rekord posjećenosti stadiona od tada je nadmašio Državno prvenstvo u nogometu 2017, koje je također koristilo privremena sjedala.

Godine 2003. kutni panoi na stadionu zamijenjeni su rotirajućim trilon panoima, a oni su 2016. zamijenjeni novim prikazima visoke vidljivosti.

Stadion Raymond James hvali se drugim najboljim travnjakom u NFL-u, prema anketi igrača koja je provedena 2009. godine.

Početkom 2016. stadion je dobio opsežnu nadogradnju lica. Najznačajnije poboljšanje bila je zamjena video ekrana površine 2.200 četvornih stopa (200 m2) s najmodernijim video zaslonima visoke vidljivosti od 990 četvornih stopa (890 m2) na sjeveru i jugu krajnje zone zajedno s dodavanjem novog video tornja od 2.300 četvornih stopa (210 m2) u svakom kutu. Zajedno, video zasloni pokrivaju više od 28.000 četvornih stopa (2.600 m2), pa je stadion Raymond James treći po veličini video displej u NFL-u. Nadograđeno je i originalno ozvučenje te luksuzne kutije stadiona. Drugi krug poboljšanja planiran je nakon završetka sezone 2016. godine.

Nadimci

Stadion se naziva "Ray Jay" ili "The New Sombrero", spinoff iz "The Big Sombrero", nadimak Houlihanovog stadiona. Pomalo podrugljivo, povremeno se naziva i "CITS", imenom koje je skovao dugogodišnji lokalni sportaš Chris Thomas, što znači "Stadion poreza na ulaganja u zajednicu", pozivajući se na činjenicu da su stadion u cijelosti financirali lokalni porezni obveznici.


Povijest nogometnih stadiona - Povijest

Yankee Stadium, časna "Kuća koju je Ruth izgradila" koja je stajala 85 godina prije nego što je ponovno otvorena 2010. godine, bila je domaćin nekim od najupečatljivijih kolegijalnih i profesionalnih nogometnih utakmica u povijesti gridirona, dodajući bogatu povijest Stadion. Od 20. listopada 1923., pobjedom Syracusea 3-0 nad Pittsburghom, bilo je 10 povijesnih trenutaka o kojima se i danas raspravlja i prisjeća se njih.

1. Najveća igra ikad odigrana
Utakmica NFL prvenstva 28. prosinca 1958. između New York Giantsa i Baltimore Coltsa bila je prva utakmica NFL -a koja je otišla u iznenadnu smrt prekovremeno. Coltsi su pobijedili s 23-17 u nečemu što se smatra "najboljom igrom ikada igranom". Publika nacionalne televizije vidjela je prijemnika Coltsa Raymonda Berryja koji je uhvatio 12 dodavanja (rekord prvenstvene utakmice) za 178 metara i rezultat u igri koja je označila početak porasta popularnosti NFL -a.


2. Osvajanje jednog za Gipper
George "The Gipper" Gipp bio je prvoamerički tim u Notre Dameu prije nego što je u 25. godini umro od streptokokne infekcije grla samo nekoliko dana nakon što je Notre Dame odveo do pobjede nad Northwestern-om. Dok je bio na bolničkom krevetu, posjetio ga je trener Knute Rockne prije obračuna protiv vojske 10. studenog 1928. godine. Na poluvremenu igre bez bodova, Rockne je pozvao svoju momčad da je osvoji za Gipp, nadahnuvši Irce do pobjede 12-6 na stadionu Yankee.


3. Pribor
Drugoplasirana Notre Dame i najbolje rangirana vojska odigrali su možda najuzbudljivije natjecanje u svom povijesnom suparništvu 9. studenog 1946. na stadionu Yankee, neriješeno 0-0 koje je legendarno proslavio John Lujack, dobro zabilježen spasilački pribor kadetske zvijezde koji je trčao natrag Doc Blanchard kasno u igri.


4. Udarac
Pat Summerallin 49-metarski gol na terenu u vrtložnoj snježnoj oluji 14. prosinca 1958. donio je Giantsima pobjedu od 13-10 nad Cleveland Brownsima kako bi natjerao doigravanje za krunu NFL East. Summerall je okajan za promašeni pokušaj od 31 jarde s preostalim 4 minute. Sljedećeg je tjedna New York pobijedio Cleveland rezultatom 10: 0, čime se plasirao na utakmicu NFL prvenstva 1958. godine.


5. Na ledu
Giantsi su 30. prosinca 1956. pregazili Chicago Bearse, 47-7, kako bi osvojili NFL prvenstvo i prekinuli svoju prvu sezonu na stadionu Yankee. Igra je poznata po tome što se igrala na zaleđenom terenu na kojem su Giantsi nosili tenisice umjesto kopački, nijanse od 22 godine ranije kada su Giantsi također nosili tenisice za igru ​​na zaleđenom Polo Groundsu u onome što je postalo poznato kao "The Sneakers Game".


6. Sedmo nebo
Godine 1961. Giantsi su kupili beka Y.A. Naslov 49ersa za čuvara Lou Cordileonea. Tittle je vodio divove do tri ravnopravna naslova istočne divizije. Usput je izbacio sedam dodavanja za touchdown kako bi doveo Giants do pobjede od 49-34 nad Redskinsima 28. listopada.


7. Lombardijeva niska točka
Jedan od članova slavnih Sedam blokova granita bio je budući trener Kuće slavnih Vince Lombardi, koji je kasnije u sezoni 1936. podnio ono što je nazvao "najrazornijim gubitkom u svom životu". Potrebna je jedna pobjeda za vez Rose Bowla, Ovnovi su pali na NYU, 7-6, na blatnjavom polju stadiona Yankee na Dan zahvalnosti, pavši s 3. na 15. mjesto u konačnoj ljestvici AP-a.


8. Kramerovi udarci
Tri čuvara terena Jerryja Kramera doveli su Packers do pobjede od 16-7 nad Giantsima, što se pokazalo kao posljednja utakmica NFL prvenstva na Yankee stadionu 30. prosinca 1962. Gomila od 64.892 prisustvovala je utakmici koja se igrala na temperaturama od 13 stupnjeva s 40 milja na sat vjetrovi.


9. Gothamova labudova pjesma
Nebraska je 15. prosinca 1962. pobijedila Miami, 36-34, iza 321 prolaznog jarda MVP-a Georgea Mira i dva tačdauna. Samo 6 166 ljudi posjetilo je Yankee stadion kako bi se izborilo s gorkih 14 stupnjeva u posljednjoj utakmici Gotham Bowla.


10. Završna utakmica
Završni klasik Whitney M. Young Urban League 12. rujna 1987. bio je ujedno i posljednja nogometna utakmica ikad odigrana na starom stadionu Yankee. Centralno državno sveučilište u Ohiju pobijedilo je Grambling, 37-21. Nakon toga, trener Gramblinga Eddie Robinson rekao je: "Oni su samo došli igrati. Mi nismo."

Cijeli plan sezone

Potpuni sezonski plan osigurava vam ulaznicu za sve utakmice regularne sezone na stadionu Yankee i omogućuje vam licenciranje istog mjesta za sve domaće utakmice Yankeesa tijekom posezone. Osim velikih pogodnosti dostupnih za sve vlasnike licence za sezonske karte, automatski ćete postati članom New York Yankees Legacy Cluba za nositelje licence za cijelu sezonu i uživati ​​u najvećim popustima po cijeni od bilo kojeg ponuđenog plana.

Planovi cijele sezone proporcionalni su na 63 utakmice.

Premium lokacije označene su kao boja na stranici za kupnju.

CIJELI SEZONSKI PLAN: Kupite ulaznice Kupite ulaznice za Legends Suite

Plan 41 igre

Plan od 41 utakmice sastoji se od Dana otvaranja plus svake druge utakmice nakon toga za ukupno 41 utakmicu regularne sezone. In addition to the great benefits available for all Season Ticket Licensees, you will automatically become a member of the New York Yankees Legacy Club for 41- and 20-Game Plan Licensees. Licensees of the 41-Game Plan will have the opportunity to license the same seat location for approximately half of the home games scheduled to be played at Yankee Stadium during the postseason. A schedule with complete postseason home game information will be available online at yankees.com.

41-Game Plans have been prorated to 32 games.

Premium locations are noted as the color on the purchase page.

41-GAME PLAN: Buy Tickets Buy Legends Suite Tickets

20-Game plans

Two 20-Game Plan options, each consisting of the same seats for all 20 games are available. In addition to the great benefits available for all Season Ticket Licensees, you will automatically become a member of the New York Yankees Legacy Club for 41- and 20-Game Plan Licensees. Licensees of a 20-Game Plan will have the opportunity to license the same seat location for approximately one quarter of all home games scheduled to be played at Yankee Stadium during the postseason. A schedule with complete postseason home game information will be available online at yankees.com.

20-Game Plan #1 has been prorated to 15 games.

20-Game Plan #2 has been prorated to 16 games.

Premium locations are noted as the color on the purchase page.


Michigan Stadium

Michigan's football Stadium was completed in the fall of 1927 and formed one of the most satisfactory and practical football fields in existence. Its designation was in reality a misnomer since it was of the amphitheater or bowl type of construction, rising only slightly above the ground level on the east side.

The site of the structure was decided upon in the spring of 1926, and plans for construction were made during the following summer. Increased interest in the record of Michigan's football team, resulting at almost every game in an attendance much larger than the old stands on Ferry Field were able to accommodate, eventually led the Board in Control of Athletics to consider expansion of the University's athletic facilities. As the result of a report presented in January, 1926, by a University committee under the chairmanship of Professor Edmund E. Day, later president of Cornell University, a plan was developed for the reorganization and expansion of the athletic facilities of the University. Thus, the Stadium was only one part of a broader program which included the construction of the Intramural Sports Building, the Women's Athletic Building, the development of the University Golf Course, and the Women's Athletic Field.

To finance this extensive program, bonds were sold to alumni and to friends of the University, giving them preferred seats at all games for a period of years, these bonds to be retired progressively as the receipts warranted. The total improvements cost amounted to more than $2,000,000, of which the cost of the Stadium represented $1,183,545.

The site for the Stadium was a matter of some discussion, but eventually property, including some sixteen acres and 119 city lots, was acquired on South Main Street just across the Ann Arbor Railroad tracks from Ferry Field. This area was purchased by the Board in Control of Athletics for $239,000, including the cost of some lots which were taken under condemnation proceedings. The right of the Board in Control of Athletics to acquire land by this means was upheld by the state Supreme Court during the course of the negotiations. The site formed a gentle slope rising from the valley of the old Allen's Creek near the Ann Arbor Railroad to the level of South Main Street.

In considering plans for the Stadium it had been decided, in accordance with the recommendation of the Day committee, to make it a place to hold football games under the most favorable circumstances, with no emphasis upon monumental construction. Accordingly, a bowl type of structure was chosen which took advantage of the natural characteristics of the terrain so that the Stadium rested in the soil of the hillside instead of being enclosed within high concrete walls. The structure was above ground only on the east side, the only wall being on this side on the west the top seats were level with the street, with some seventy rows of seats, seating 85,753 originally, stretching down to the playing field. A series of steps on either side of the main entrance led to a wide areaway for the players.

The architects, instead of designing the structure in the form of a perfect ellipse, as in the Yale Bowl, provided for sides parallel to the playing field, bringing the spectators much closer to the side lines. This feature alone — the proximity of the seats to the playing field — made Michigan's Stadium one of the most satisfactory in this country. The Stadium was 756 feet long and 586 feet wide and included fifteen and one-half acres.

The strategically placed entrances and exits around the entire upper edge and in the center of the east side made it possible for crowds to disperse rapidly in fact, the exact time for emptying the Stadium was thirteen minutes. To care for the throngs which came to Ann Arbor on football days, parking facilities were supplied on all sides of the Stadium, and special city traffic regulations permitted street parking during the games. Locker and shower room facilities for home and visiting teams were provided under the east side of the stands. A press box was erected over the west side of the Stadium. It afforded room for five radio booths and 250 newspaper correspondents. The box was designed by Bernard L. Green (1891e) of the Osborn Engineering Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, and was built by James Leck and Company, of Minneapolis, general contractors. A new press box was built later.

In 1949-50 additional steel seats were erected at the top of the Stadium at a cost of $304,340, making the total seating capacity 97,231.

Wilfred Shaw (The University of Michigan: An Encyclopedic Survey, p. 1584)


Sadržaj

Overall Rank Stadium Town / City Capacity Tim League (Tier) Rank within League Bilješke
1 Wembley Stadium London 90,000 [2] England national football team n/a (national stadium) n/a
2 Old Trafford Manchester 75,635 [3] Manchester United Premier League 1
3 Tottenham Hotspur Stadium London 62,850 [4] Tottenham Hotspur Premier League 2
4 Emirates Stadium London 60,704 [5] Arsenal Premier League 3
5 London Stadium London 60,000 [6] West Ham United Premier League 4 Previously known as the Olympic Stadium. Regulated capacity reduced from 66,000 to 60,000.
6 City of Manchester Stadium Manchester 55,097 [7] Manchester City Premier League 5 Commercially known as the Etihad Stadium.
7 Anfield Liverpool 54,074 [8] Liverpool Premier League 6
8 St James' Park Newcastle upon Tyne 52,354 [9] Newcastle United Premier League 7
9 Stadium of Light Sunderland 49,000 [10] Sunderland League One 1
10 Villa Park Birmingham 42,682 [11] Aston Villa Premier League 8
11 Stamford Bridge London 41,631 [12] Chelsea Premier League 9
12 Hillsborough Stadium Sheffield 39,732 [13] Sheffield Wednesday League One 1
13 Goodison Park Liverpool 39,414 [14] Everton Premier League 10
14 Elland Road Leeds 37,890 [15] Leeds United Premier League 11 Capacity reduced from 40,296 [16] to 37,890 [17] during 2010/2011 season
15 Riverside Stadium Middlesbrough 34,000 [13] Middlesbrough Championship 2
16 Pride Park Stadium Derby 33,597 [13] Derby County Championship 3
17 Bramall Lane Sheffield 32,702 [18] Sheffield United Premier League 12
18 Coventry Building Society Arena Coventry 32,609 [13] Coventry City Championship 4
18 St Mary's Stadium Southampton 32,505 [19] Southampton Premier League 13
19 King Power Stadium Leicester 32,312 [20] Leicester City Premier League 14 Formerly known as the Walkers Stadium.
20 Molineux Wolverhampton 32,050 [13] Wolverhampton Wanderers Premier League 15
21 Ewood Park Blackburn 31,367 [13] Blackburn Rovers Championship 4
22 Falmer Stadium Brighton 30,750 [13] Brighton & Hove Albion Premier League 16 Commercially known as The American Express Community Stadium.
23 Stadium MK Milton Keynes 30,500 [13] Milton Keynes Dons League One 2
24 City Ground Nottingham 30,445 [21] Nottingham Forest Championship 5
25 Portman Road Ipswich 30,311 [13] Ipswich Town League One 3
26 bet365 Stadium Stoke-on-Trent 30,089 [22] Stoke City Championship 6 Formerly known as the Britannia Stadium.
27 St Andrew's Birmingham 29,409 [23] Birmingham City Championship 7 Shared with Coventry City of Championship
28 University of Bolton Stadium Bolton 28,723 [13] Bolton Wanderers League Two 1 Formerly known as the Reebok Stadium.
29 Carrow Road Norwich 27,244 [24] Norwich City Championship 8
30 The Valley London 27,111 [13] Charlton Athletic League One 4
31 The Hawthorns West Bromwich 27,002 [25] West Bromwich Albion Premier League 17
32 Ashton Gate Stadium Bristol 27,000 [26] Bristol City Championship 9 Expansion completed ahead of the 2016/17 season.
33 Selhurst Park London 26,125 Crystal Palace Premier League 18
34 Craven Cottage London 25,700 [13] Fulham Premier League 19
35 KCOM Stadium Trup 25,400 [13] Hull City League One 5 Shared with Super League team Hull F.C.

Formerly known as the KC Stadium.

Following crowd troubles in the 1980s, and regulations imposed after the Taylor Report, several English league stadiums have been built or completely redeveloped in the last few years. Prior to 1988, however, the last newly built Football League ground in England was Roots Hall, Southend, which was opened in 1955.

Stadiums which are currently in development include:

The club are hopeful that building work will commence at the end of the 2019–20 season. The new, modern, state-of-the-art structure will see The City Ground's capacity become the highest in the East Midlands, reaching 38,000 after completion. [120]


History of Football Stadiums - History

Stadium History

The former South Park Commission (the Commission merged with 22 other park systems to establish the Chicago Park District in 1934) hired Chicago architects Holibird and Roche in 1919 to design a stadium that would serve as a showcase “for events and a playground for the people.” On October 9, 1924, the Grant Park Municipal Stadium premiered and one year later, at the request of the Chicago Gold Star Mothers, the stadium was renamed Soldier Field.

It was known as one of the great venues during the "Golden Age of Sports" and one of Chicago's most famous landmarks. Crowds in excess of 100,000 were commonplace, marked by several memorable events including the 1926 Army-Navy game and the epic 1927 Jack Dempsey/Gene Tunney heavyweight rematch featuring the controversial "long count". In 1944, 150,000 spectators attended a wartime visit by President Franklin Roosevelt and thousands turned out to hear evangelist Billy Graham in 1962. Soldier Field is also the birthplace of the first Special Olympic Games in 1968. College and Professional football, rock concerts, festivals, rodeos, stock-car races, and even a skiing/toboggan event have called Soldier Field home. The Chicago Bears moved from Wrigley Field and began using the facility in 1971 and played their first game in the renovated Soldier Field on September 29, 2003.

Soldier Field History

1919 - Plans for the stadium began in 1919, when Holibird and Roche won an architectural competition to build the stadium as a memorial to American soldiers who died in wars.

1922 – 1928 - The stadium was constructed by the South Park Commission (which later merged with other park commissions to become the Chicago Park District in 1934.) Soldier Field is a monument to the times and great sports places typical of the “Golden Age of Sports” and is one of few such stadiums still standing. Soldier Field was built in three stages between 1922 and 1939 at a total cost $13 million.

Soldier Field, when completed, contained 74,280 permanent bleacher seats made of fir planking. An additional 30,000 spectator temporary bleacher seats could be placed along the interior of the field, upper promenades and on the large open terrace beyond the north end zone.

October 9, 1924 – The official opening day – which coincided with the 53rd anniversary of the Chicago Fire—of the Municipal Grant Park Stadium. Within a year it was renamed Soldier Field.

The first event held in Soldier Field was a police meet featuring 1,000 police athletes and reportedly drew 90,000 spectators. Crowds in excess of 100,000 became commonplace in the years that followed, marked by several memorable sporting events.

November 22, 1924 – First football game held at the Municipal Grant Park Stadium was Notre Dame (13) v. Northwestern (6).

November 11, 1925 – The Municipal Grant Park Stadium is officially renamed Soldier Field at the urging of Chicago’s Gold Star Mothers.

November 27, 1926 – Soldier Field was officially dedicated in front of a crowd of 110,000 during the Army v. Navy game. The game ended in a 21-21 tie.

September 23, 1927 - The epic Jack Dempsey/Gene Tunney heavyweight rematch featuring the controversial long count with 104,000 watching. Dempsey knocked down Tunney and Dempsey went to the wrong corner. The referee directed him to the right corner, and five seconds passed before he started counting out Tunney. Tunney, the champ, got up at nine, which should have been 14, and went on to beat Dempsey.

1927 – The largest crowd to watch collegiate football was 123,000 to see Notre Dame take on Southern California.

1937 – The largest crowd to watch a high school football game took place at Soldier Field with an estimated 115,000 watching the Austin v. Leo High School Prep Bowl football game.

1944 - 150,000 spectators attended a wartime visit by President Franklin Roosevelt.

1948 – Chicago Park District engineers won an award at the 1948 International Lighting Expo for their design of a stadium lighting system featuring 5,000 watt flood lights that could be arranged in pre-set patterns by a three man crew.

1954 – 260,000 came to Soldier Field for a Catholic celebration entitled the Eucharistic Congress.

1962 - 116,000 turned out to hear evangelist Billy Graham.

September 19, 1971 - The Chicago Bears began using the facility as a regular season home and capacity was cut to 57,000 to bring season ticket holders closer to the field. Chicago defeats the Pittsburgh Steelers 17-15 before capacity crowd of 55,701 in the Bears’ first game since moving from Wrigley.

1978 – With the Chicago Bears, the Chicago Park District began to reconstruct the aging stadium with lights, playing surface, locker rooms, and rebuilding the stadiums’ plank-board style seating with chair back and armrests.

1981 – With renovations complete, Soldier Field could welcome 66,950 visitors.

September 1988 – Soldier Field converts turf from AstroTurf to Kentucky Bluegrass.

1994 – Soldier Field hosts the opening ceremonies of the 1994 World Cup soccer play, the first time the competition will by played on American shores.

2003 - Soldier Field completes a 20-month renovation that modernized the stadium and surrounding parkland for multi-purpose event use. The stadium grounds now host over 200 event usage days per year.

2011 - Soldier Field is awarded the status of LEED-EB from the United States Green Building Council (USGBC). Soldier Field is the first existing North American stadium to receive the award of LEED-EB Certification and the first NFL stadium to receive this prestigious award. LEED-EB stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design – Existing Building.

2014 - Soldier Field hosted the New Zealand All Blacks rugby team as they faced off against the USA Eagles on November 1, 2014 marking the All Blacks first match in the US since 1980. The All Blacks defeated the Eagles 74-6 to a sold-out crowd.

2015 - Soldier Field hosted the final concert performances by legendary American rock band the Grateful Dead on July 3rd, 4th and 5th in celebration of the band's 50 year history. More than 212,000 Deadheads rocked out at Soldier Field for the Fare Thee Well shows over the holiday weekend, shattering stadium attendance records.

2016 - Copa America Centenario, in celebrating their 100th-anniversary edition of the South American championships, selected Soldier Field to host four matches: Jamaica vs. Venezuela (June 5th, 2016), USA vs. Costa Rice (June 7th, 2016), Argentina vs. Panama (June 10th, 2016), and the Semi-Final between Chile and Colombia (June 22nd, 2016).

Interesting Facts About Soldier Field

Soldier Field has hosted rock concerts, thrill shows, rodeos, tractor and truck pulls, circuses, fireworks displays, stock car races, sunrise services, marching band concerts, open-air operas, skiing and toboggan events including a ski jump event from a 13-story platform.

The stadium’s underpinnings consist of 10,000 giant wood piling foundations driven an average depth of six stories through landfill to bedrock.

It hosted the first boxing event that drew a gate of over $2.5 million (Dempsey-Tunney, 1927), the first ski meet held in a stadium, and the all-time largest football crowd (123,000). The largest crowd for any event in Soldier Field was 260,000 on Sept. 8, 1954, for the religious Marian Year Tribute.


A brief history of football grounds

We might love them, hate them or take them for granted &ndash but how did we end up with the football stadiums? Renowned football architecture historian Simon Inglis investigates the journey from gated fields to big gates and big yields.

Turn on any televised coverage of football these days and you can bet that in between the action your screen will be filled with mesmerising images of stadiums (or ‘stadia’ if you must).

Swooping aerials. Shots of the stands. Glimpses into the dressing rooms. Digitised fly-through animations, even.

Stadiums are more centre-stage than ever before: in our minds, in our faces. And yet before the 1990s and the post-Hillsborough stadium revolution, very little media attention was paid to them at all, except when there were disasters or outbreaks of hooliganism, or if a documentary maker fell for the charms of the Kop at Anfield.

Before the 1990s and the post-Hillsborough stadium revolution, very little media attention was paid to them at all

Going back further, despite the existence throughout the ancient worlds of Greece and Rome of brilliantly designed stadiums and arenas (or ‘arenae’ if you must), when Association football was first codified in 1863, there was no such entity as a ‘football stadium’.

A field on which football was played, for sure, with a rail around the pitch and a tent in the corner for players and officials. At best, there might be a few bench seats or a timber stand, featuring what Americans would call ‘bleachers’ (wooden steps exposed to the elements). But little more. More often than not early clubs merely rented a field on a short lease, and set up their real headquarters in a pub.

The rental era: borrowing other sports’ stadiums

In fact, as the game grew in popularity, the only enclosed venues where football clubs might reasonably accommodate a decent crowd were long-established cricket or athletics grounds.

So from 1872&ndash92 all FA Cup finals took place at the Oval, the London home of Surrey County Cricket Club, with just one exception. That was in 1873, when the venue was Lillie Bridge, a cricket and athletics ground in west London, just next door to where another athletics ground would be laid out in 1877, by the name of Stamford Bridge. (Even after Chelsea took over the Bridge in 1905, the athletics track remained until the 1930s &ndash and the ends retained distinctive curves until the 1990s redevelopment.)

From 1872&ndash92 all FA Cup finals took place at the Oval, the London home of Surrey County Cricket Club, with just one exception

And when the 1886 final between Blackburn Rovers and West Brom needed a replay, in the absence of any decent club venue, the FA chose the Racecourse Ground in Derby. This, as its name suggests, lay in the middle of the town’s racecourse, but, confusingly, was also a cricket ground. Derby County played there until they moved in 1895 to… the Baseball Ground, which had been laid out six years earlier by a foundry owner who caught the baseball bug on a visit to the United States.

Even after the FA were booted out of the Oval by Surrey following the 1892 final &ndash by which time crowds had grown from 2,000 to 25,000 &ndash the best venue they could find for the 1893 final was an athletics ground in Fallowfield, Manchester. A new record crowd of some 45,000 was reported, but the afternoon was a debacle: fans broke in, and ticket holders couldn’t get to their seats.

A home of our own: the self-build era

What professional football needed was professionally designed and solidly built, tailor-made grounds. Three main factors facilitated this great leap forward, all during the period 1890-1914.

Firstly, clubs started to form themselves into limited liability companies. This allowed them to issue shares and raise the necessary capital to buy a home of their own.

Secondly, thanks to industrialisation, materials such as mass-produced steel and concrete were more available and affordable. At last clubs could start to build big.

In 1895 a new form of turnstile came onto the market: the Ellison ‘Rush Preventive’

Thirdly, basic though this might seem, in 1895 a new form of turnstile came onto the market. Manufactured in Salford and called the Ellison ‘Rush Preventive’, this simple new device allowed clubs to count and take money from every individual entering their ground, one by one, before releasing a barrier to let them enter, rather than relying on the old system of having to trust gatemen to collect money and then hand it over to the club.

The new turnstiles didn’t prevent fraud completely &ndash but once installed, clubs found that their revenues soared. And with more money in the bank, the better able and the more incentivised clubs were to develop their grounds along modern lines.

During this first wave emerged such famous grounds as Goodison Park (probably the most developed ground of the early 1890s), Villa Park (which had a cycle track around the pitch), and the three Glasgow giants Ibrox Park, Hampden Park and Celtic Park (which also staged cycling).

A grand plan or a beautiful mess?

Instrumental in helping to design several of these grounds was the Scottish engineer, Archibald Leitch, the world’s first specialist football architect. Leitch was also commissioned to lay out the original Highbury ground for Arsenal in 1913.

But the first British ground that appeared from the off to have a long-term masterplan (as is standard practice today), and offer the possibility of incremental expansion on a large unencumbered site, was Manchester United’s Old Trafford. Also designed by Leitch, this opened in 1910.

Not that many other clubs followed suit. Most still ended up on cramped sites, building a bit here and a bit there, never to a masterplan &ndash and only when funds allowed.

Some, as a result, evolved into a wonderful hodgepodge of stands, roofs and angles, oozing with character &ndash Craven Cottage, Molineux and St James’ Park to name but three.

Others were hardly more than open bowls, the emphasis being on capacity (large terraces, mostly uncovered), utilitarian materials (for cheapness) and minimal facilities (because the fans seemed to keep on coming, so why bother doing more?).

In redeveloping Highbury during the 1930s Arsenal broke out of that mould, building two spendid Art Deco stands with genuine architectural qualities. But not until the 1960s did other clubs see fit to follow.

Again Manchester United were at the fore, with their sleek 10,000-capacity United Road Stand in 1965. This featured British football’s first bespoke executive boxes, an idea borrowed from horse racing. The intention was to replace the other three stands with similar designs, linking them to create a uniform modern stadium.

Conservative or forward-thinking?

United’s new stand also had a cantilevered roof. That is, it was, seemingly miraculously, &ldquocolumn-free&rdquo. One measure of how conservative Britain was during the 20th Century is that it took until 1958 for the nation’s first cantilevered-roof stand at a football ground, in the steel town of Scunthorpe, followed by Sheffield Wednesday in 1961. This was some 40 or 50 years after such roofs had started appearing routinely in France, Germany and Italy.

British football’s unwillingness to invest in high-calibre facilities paid its toll

British football’s unwillingness to invest in high-calibre facilities paid its toll. First there was the disaster at Bolton in 1946 (33 dead), then Ibrox in 1971 (66), Bradford in 1985 (56) and Hillsborough in 1989 (96). Added to this toll was a weekly log of injuries, seldom reported (40 to 60 per match on the Kop alone).

When Lord Justice Taylor investigated the Hillsborough disaster, he told the press that his intention was not to prepare English football clubs for the 21st century but to drag them into the 20th.

Not everyone agreed with his main recommendation for all-seated stadiums. But no footballing nation in the world had such a poor safety record as did England.

Incidentally, what, you may ask, is the difference between a ‘ground’ and a ‘stadium’? Well according to this writer's own rule, a ‘stadium’ is designed as a whole, with a complete end product in mind &ndash whereas a ‘ground’ is a venue that is developed, bit by bit, over the years, with no masterplan at all.

Wembley is thus a genuine stadium. Anfield (and Villa Park, and countless others) are but grounds &ndash and some would say all the better for it.


Stadium History

The Jaguars' home stadium has undergone significant changes and upgrades in its 22-year history. But as many new buildings and designs have come on line around the NFL, Jacksonville is still able to boast one of the most fan-friendly and technologically-advanced stadiums in the league.

On August 18, 1995, when the Jacksonville Jaguars played their first home preseason game in their new stadium, it marked the first time in sports history that an expansion team played its first home game in its inaugural season in a new stadium or arena. In the short period of 19 and a half months, the old Gator Bowl was demolished and a new stadium arose on the shores of the St. Johns River. Just before the Jaguars kicked off their first regular season game on September 3, 1995, NBC broadcaster Don Criqui said, "There isn't a better football facility in America."

In its 10th year of operation, the stadium was the host site of Super Bowl XXXIX, the world's largest one-day sporting event. Known at that time as Alltel Stadium, the building underwent a $63 million renovation in preparation for Super Bowl XXXIX. Among the additions were the Terrace Suite, a 25,000-square-foot sports bar called the Bud Light Party Zone, a 20,000-square-foot Sky Patio, 20 new escalators and four new elevators.

Originally named Jacksonville Municipal Stadium, the home of the Jaguars got a new name on the eve of the 2010 training camp, when EverBank Financial Corp. and the Jaguars introduced EverBank Field on July 27, 2010. One of the nation's largest privately-held bank holding companies, EverBank employs more than 2,200 workers and is headquartered in Jacksonville. The partnership included a five-year naming rights agreement, which was extended by another 10 years in 2014.

EverBank Field became the proud home of the world's largest in-stadium video boards in 2014. At 362 feet wide and 60 feet high, the two massive end zone displays are wider than the length of a football field and have set the standard for in-venue visual experience. Additional video boards and ribbon panels help enhance fans' in –stadium experience on game day.

In addition to the video boards, 2014 brought innovative changes to the north end zone. Christened FanDuelVille in 2015, the two-story, north end zone fan plaza is the ultimate home of fantasy football. The biggest party scene in professional sports also is home to the the Axalta Spas, an asset about which no other NFL stadium can boast. In the Florida sunshine, there's no better place for fans to cool off and cheer on the Jags.

The reimagining of EverBank Field continued in 2016 with a $90 million shared investment by the City of Jacksonville and the Jaguars. Phase 1 brought a complete overhaul of the Clubs, bringing new 50-yard-line patios to the NFL for the first time and a brand new south end zone tunnel to the start of the season. Phase 2 introduced a new 5,500 seat amphitheater and the Dream Finders Homes Flex Field to the downtown sports complex. Known as Daily's Place, the new venues are part the ambitious vision for the future of downtown Jacksonville as a world-class sports and entertainment destination.

On June 4, 2018, EverBank became TIAA Bank and the stadium was renamed to TIAA Bank Field.


History of Football Stadiums - History

The Silver Bowl was built in 1932 by a committee of Mount Carmel business men headed by Hal Grossman and other community leaders including: George Wardrop, Elmer Williams, Harold Schaefer, Harry Jones, Walter Levine, Charles Lucas, Herman Ludes, Dr. Charles Feifer, Albert Landis, Ray Williams, William Ruffing, Ira Roadarmel, and Hal Anthony.

The original stands, which seated 6,600, where constructed of wood. The 80 feet high steel light towers were erected for the opening game of the 1932 season. The lighting system was installed by a team of technicians from General Electric’s headquarters in Schenectady, New York. The team was so impressed with the facilities they boosted it was the most beautiful high school sports complex in existence and it would be the best lit high school stadium anywhere.

In the mid-1930’s, stands were constructed in both end zones and painted silver. The new bleachers gave the stadium a bowl-like appearance. Thus, a sports scribe called the stadium the “Silver Bowl,” the name which is still used today. At this time, the stadium could accommodate 10,000 fans.

In June of 1940, the wooden stands on the visitors side (west) were replaced with all steel grandstands, increasing the capacity to over 10,000. Also at this time, the home side was switched from the east side stands to the west side stands.

In the 1950’s the end zone stands were removed, but by the 1970’s the south end zone stand was reconstructed. The press box was completed in 1972 and in 1978 the east visitors stands were replaced with the current steel grandstands, giving the stadium a seating capacity of 7,202.

The field house was replaced in 2012 and the track was resurfaced in 2013. In the next year the field was officially renamed ‘The Joseph ‘Jazz’ Diminick Field in honor of Mount Carmel’s legendary former football coach. Later in the same year the track was rededicated to Mr. Gerald Breslin, former MCA Track Coach who compiled a record of 29 years without a dual-meet loss.


The humble history of the Cougars’ stadiums

BYU football isn’t what it used to be. The Cougar football program has grown and developed over the past 80 years to winning a national championship and having some of the nicest facilities in the country. Originally, the team played games in front of a much smaller crowd where the Richards Building now stands.

Although students use the never-ending stairs between the Tanner Building and the southwest end of campus to get to and from their classes each day, that was not their original purpose. The stairs used to be the stands of the old hillside stadium, which was home to the BYU football team in the 1930s.

The permanent stands at the old stadium seated 5,000 people, with temporary bleachers on the west side accommodating up to 12,000 people. This, however, is a small number of people compared to the current capabilities of the LaVell Edwards Stadium, which seats up to 65,000 people.

The old stadium was first used in 1928, when BYU football Coach Ott Romney led the Cougars to their first victory against the College of Idaho Coyotes.

“From its humble beginnings, it’s pretty awesome what BYU football has become,” Mel Olsen, previous offensive center and offensive line coach for BYU football, said. “It’s kind of unheard of to go from a place like that old stadium to winning a national championship.”

[media-credit align=”alignright” width=�″][/media-credit]The LaVell Edwards Stadium, the current home to the Cougars, has not been the only innovation to the BYU football program over the years. Since 1964, BYU has added the indoor practice facility as well as the Student Athlete Building, which is equipped with academic advisement for the athletes, a physical therapy center, the football gallery, the exclusive football locker room and many other services.

Olsen recalled that before and during Edwards’ coaching of the BYU Cougars, the team had to use the west annex of the Smith Fieldhouse for practice whenever it rained or snowed because the indoor practice facility was not built yet.

“The area was so small that the offense would practice for an hour and a half, followed by defense,” Olsen said.

After LaVell’s run, BYU football continued to progress to become the team it is now. The team is now equipped with Nike uniforms and state-of-the-art facilities.

“I think that BYU’s football facilities are among the nicest in the country,” wide receiver Cody Hoffman said. “Not too many stadiums still have natural grass fields … it takes a lot of work to care for a grass field.”

According to Roy Peterman, director of grounds, from the trimming of the hedges outside the stadium to the mowing of the grass field, all the immaculate details of the field grass and landscaping outside the stadium are cared for by BYU Grounds.

Whether it’s accompanying thousands of fans on a Saturday night or providing an excellent environment for the football team, the LaVell Edwards Stadium is home of BYU football and the result of a rich history.

“The improvements and successes of the football team (are) largely due to new facilities, skilled coaching and commitment to and pride in the team,” Olsen said. “It was all pretty exciting to watch unfold.”


Gledaj video: Poslušajte: Hrvatski istoričar objasnio Srbima ko su Hrvati! (Prosinac 2021).