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Kakav je bio status seljaka koji su otišli u Narodni križarski rat?

Kakav je bio status seljaka koji su otišli u Narodni križarski rat?

Narodnom križarskom ratu 1096. pridružili su se uglavnom seljaci, na čelu sa svećenikom Petrom Pustinjakom neovisno od njihovih gospodara. Kakav je bio status putovanja ovih seljaka? Jesu li mogli slobodno putovati i ne služiti svojim gospodarima, ili je ovo potpadalo pod neku iznimku, ili su odlaskom na ovo putovanje povrijedili svoju feudalnu obvezu?


Križarski rat možda je potaknut svjedočanstvima Petra Pustinjaka, ali ga je podržao papa Urban Drugi:

... Papa Urban Drugi koji je predsjedavao skupštinom podržao je prijedlog Petra Pustinjaka s toliko snage i rječitosti da je cijelo vijeće jednoglasno uzviknulo "Bog da; odlazimo !!"

i s iste stranice:

Ni Phillip iz Francuske ni drugi europski monarhi nisu se pridružili ligi, ali dopustio svojim vazalima i podanicima da ih slijede opći pokret.

Gore navedeno iz Univerzalnog kronologa i povijesnog registra, iz…, svezak 1 William Henry Ireland, Joseph Martin

Dakle, izgleda da su ti seljaci vjerojatno imao dozvolu od njihovih dotičnih gospodara, budući da je to odobravao Papa, a podupiranje cilja kojega je podržala crkva vjerojatno bi izazvalo naklonost ovih velikaša, dok je odbijanje moglo izazvati bijes crkava.


Njegovo ime na francuskom je Pierre l'Ermite. Struktura ovog imena na francuskom, za razliku od engleskog, navela je neke frankofone da se l'Ermite odnose prema prezimenu, a ne prema tituli.

Prema nekim autorima, rođen je oko 1050. godine i bio je sin Renaulda L'Ermitea iz Auvergnea i njegove supruge Alide Montaigu, de Picardie. [4] Drugi tvrde da je bio član L'Hermite obitelj Auvergne u Nizozemskoj. [5] Ove tvrdnje osporavaju drugi autori, koji tvrde da ništa ne može potvrditi da je "pustinjak" stvarno prezime i da su se prezimena razvila tek nakon njegovih dana. [6] [7]

Prema Anna Comnena's Aleksijada, [8] Petar je pokušao hodočastiti u Jeruzalem prije 1096. godine, ali su ga Turci Seldžuci spriječili da postignu svoj cilj te su ga navodno maltretirali. To ga je iskustvo navelo da propovijeda zapaljive izjave o Turcima kako bi uznemirio kršćane. Međutim, ostaju sumnje je li ikada krenuo na takvo putovanje.

Izvori se razlikuju u pogledu toga je li bio prisutan na čuvenom saboru pape Urbana II u Clermontu 1095. Sigurno je da je poslije bio jedan od propovjednika križarskog rata u Francuskoj, a njegovo vlastito iskustvo moglo je pomoći da se zapali križarski rat . Tradicija u Huyu kaže da je bio tamo kad je najavljen križarski rat i da je odmah započeo s propovijedanjem. Ubrzo je postao slavan kao emocionalni preporoditelj, a velika većina izvora i povjesničara slaže se da su tisuće seljaka željno uzele križ po njegovom nalogu. [1]

Ovaj dio Prvog križarskog rata bio je poznat i kao križarski rat "siromaha", izraz koji je u srednjem vijeku označavao status osiromašenih ili siromašnih štićenika Rimokatoličke crkve. Petar je organizirao i vodio siromahe kao duhovno pročišćenu i svetu skupinu hodočasnika koje će, navodno, zaštititi Duh Sveti. Također je moguće da su u Narodnom križarskom ratu bili i dobro naoružani vojnici i velikaši. [9] (Popis poznatih sudionika Petrove vojske može se pronaći na The Digital Humanities Institute. [10])

Prije nego što je Petar krenuo u svoj križarski rat, dobio je dopuštenje od jeruzalemskog patrijarha Simeona II. [11] Petar je uspio regrutirati iz Engleske, Lorene, Francuske i Flandrije. [11] Petar Pustinjak stigao je u Köln, Njemačka, na Veliku subotu, 12. travnja 1096. [12] U proljeće 1096. Petar je bio jedan od istaknutih vođa križara uključenih u pokolje u Rajnskoj oblasti nad Židovima. [13] Petar i njegovi sljedbenici sudjelovali su u mučenju i klanju Židova u Loreni, Kölnu i Mainzu. [11] U Mainzu su Petrovi sljedbenici ubili veliku skupinu Židova kojima je lokalni biskup dao utočište.

Vodeći prvi od pet odjeljaka Narodnog križarskog rata do odredišta njihova hodočašća, crkve Svetog groba, krenuo je (s 40.000 muškaraca i žena) iz Kölna u travnju 1096., a stigao je (s 30.000 muškaraca i žena) u Carigrad krajem srpnja. Bizantski car Aleksije I. Komnenos nije bio zadovoljan njihovim dolaskom, jer je zajedno s poglavarom Istočne pravoslavne crkve, carigradskim patrijarhom Nikolom III., Od njega sada bilo potrebno brinuti se za uzdržavanje i uzdržavanje velikog broja bijelaca njihovog putovanja.

Prije nego što su stigli u Carigrad, Petar i njegovi sljedbenici počeli su imati poteškoća. [12] U Zemunu, guverner, koji je bio potomak Turaka Ghuzza, i njegov kolega, bio je uplašen veličinom vojske i odlučio je pooštriti propise na granici. To bi bilo u redu da nije došlo do spora oko prodaje para cipela. [12] To je dovelo do pobune i protiv Petrove želje grad je napadnut i citadela je napadnuta. To je rezultiralo ubijanjem 4000 Mađara i krađom mnogih namirnica. Tada je 26. lipnja 1096. Petrova vojska uspjela prijeći rijeku Savu. Zatim je vojska ušla u Beograd, zapalila grad i opljačkala ga. [12] Vojska je nakon osmodnevnog kašnjenja ušla u Niš i kroz Niš. Nakon vožnje kroz Niš, križari su krenuli prema Sofiji kada su napadnuti na cesti. Vojska je pretrpjela velike gubitke. Izgubili su 1/4 svojih ljudi, ali su ipak stigli u Sofiju 12. srpnja. [12] Snage su zatim stigle u Carigrad 1. kolovoza 1096. Nakon nekog vremena stigle su u dvorac Xerigordon i zauzele ga. Zauzeli su dvorac zauzevši izvor i bunar dvorca. Nakon što su krenuli prema Civetotu, postavili su kamp u blizini sela koje se zove Dracon. Tu su Turci zasjedili Petra i njegove snage. Ovo je bila posljednja bitka Narodnog križarskog rata koju je Petar vodio.

Većina bijednika nije uspjela izaći iz katoličke jurisdikcije. Većinu nisu uspjela opskrbiti razna gospodstva i biskupije usput, ili su gladovali, vratili se kući ili su stavljeni u ropstvo, dok su znatan broj zarobili i prodali u ropstvo različiti slavenski razbojnički baruni na Balkanu pogled na balkanske Slavene kao neotkupljene razbojnike i zlikovce. [ potreban je citat ]

Petar se pridružio jedinom drugom odjelu kojemu je uspjelo doći do Carigrada [1], dijelu Waltera Sans Avoira, u jednu grupu i utaborio je još uvijek brojne hodočasnike oko Carigrada dok je pregovarao o otpremi Narodnog križarskog rata u Svetu Zemlju. Car u međuvremenu nije uspio na odgovarajući način opskrbiti hodočasnike, a kamp je postao sve veća smetnja, jer su se sve gladniji bijednici okretali pljačkanju carskih trgovina.

Alexios, zabrinut zbog rastućeg nereda i straha od svog položaja pred nadolazećim naoružanim križarskim vojskama, brzo je zaključio pregovore i poslao ih preko Bospora na azijsku obalu početkom kolovoza, uz obećanja stražara i prolaz kroz turske linije. Upozorio je Narodni križarski rat da čeka njegove zapovijedi, no unatoč njegovim upozorenjima, bijednici su ušli na tursko područje. Turci su počeli sukobe s većinom nenaoružanim domaćinom. Petar se u očaju vratio u Carigrad, tražeći carevu pomoć.

U Petrovoj odsutnosti, Turci, koji su bili discipliniraniji, u bitci kod Civetota hodočasnike su zasjedili i detaljno razrezali na komade. Unatoč Petrovim izgovorima o božanskoj zaštiti, velika većina hodočasnika poklana je od mačeva i strijela Turaka ili je porobljena. Ostavljen u Carigradu s malim brojem preživjelih sljedbenika, tijekom zime 1096. -1097., S malo nade da će osigurati bizantsku potporu, Narodni križarski rat je čekao dolazak naoružanih križara kao svog jedinog izvora zaštite za dovršetak hodočašća.

Kad su knezovi stigli, Petar se pridružio njihovim redovima kao član vijeća u svibnju 1097., a s malo preostalog broja koji su ostali, zajedno su krenuli kroz Malu Aziju do Jeruzalema. Dok njegovi "bijednici" nikada nisu povratili brojke prije bitke kod Civetota, njegovi su se redovi sve više nadopunjavali razoružanim, ozlijeđenim ili bankrotiranim križarima. Bez obzira na to, osim nekoliko uzbudljivih govora koji su motivirali križare, odigrao je podređenu ulogu u preostaloj povijesti Prvog križarskog rata koji se u ovom trenutku očito odlučio za vojnu kampanju kao sredstvo za osiguranje hodočasničkih ruta i svetih mjesta u Palestini.

Petar se, početkom 1098. godine, pojavljuje kao pokušaj bijega iz osvajanja opsade Antiohije - pokazujući se, kako kaže Guibert Nogent, "pala zvijezda". Guibert i drugi izvori nastavljaju pisati da je Petar bio odgovoran za govor pred napola izgladnjelim i mrtvim križarima koji je motivirao njihov napad pred vratima Antiohije i njihov kasniji porazni poraz nadmoćnije muslimanske vojske koja je opsjedala grad. Tako su, nakon što je povratio svoj rast, sredinom godine knezovi poslali da pozove Kerboghu da riješi sve razlike u dvoboju [1], što je emir kasnije odbio.

Godine 1099. Petar se pojavljuje kao rizničar milostinje pri opsadi Arke i kao vođa moliteljskih povorki oko zidina Jeruzalema prije nego što je pao, a kasnije u Jeruzalemu koji je prethodio iznenađujućoj pobjedi križara u bitci kod Ascalona (kolovoz ). Krajem 1099. Petar je otišao u Latakiju i odatle otplovio prema Zapadu. Od tada nestaje iz povijesnih zapisa. Albert Aix bilježi da je umro 1131. godine kao prior crkve Svetog groba koju je osnovao u Francuskoj. [1]

Albert iz Eksa u svom Historia Hierosolymitanae Expeditionis [14] tvrdi da je Petar Pustinjak bio pravi autor i začetnik Prvog križarskog rata. Ova se priča kasnije pojavljuje na stranicama Williama iz Tira, što ukazuje da su čak i nekoliko generacija nakon križarskog rata potomci križara vjerovali da je Petar njezin začetnik. Ovaj su mit odbacili moderni povjesničari počevši od Heinricha von Sybela. [15] Razni povijesni izvori također spominju da se tijekom ranog posjeta Jeruzalemu, nešto prije 1096. godine, Isus ukazao Petru Pustinjaku u crkvi Groba Svetoga i naredio mu da propovijeda križarski rat. Podrijetlo ove legende predmet je nekog interesa. Von Sybel sugerirao je da je u taboru bijednika (koji je postojao usporedo s viteškim, i postajao sve veći kako je križarski rat uzimao sve teži danak na torbicama križara) došlo do izvjesnog idoliziranja Petra Pustinjaka već započeo, paralelno sa sličnim veličanjem Godfreya od Bouillona od strane Lorrainera. [1]

O njegovu životu nakon povratka u Europu ima vrlo malo konkretnih zapisa, a mnogo toga što se zna su nagađanja ili legende. Međutim, Albert iz Aixa bilježi da je umro 1131. godine kao prior crkve Božjeg groba koju je osnovao u Francuskoj [16] [17] [1] ili Flandriji. Smatra se da je tijekom opsade Antiohije, za vrijeme gladi i hladnog vremena, [3] Petar pokušao pobjeći samo da bi ga Norman Tancred zarobio i vratio na bojište 1112. godine [1]. Petar je također služio zagovornu službu za latinske i domaće novake. Petar je savjetovao Grcima i Latinima da također formiraju povorke. [3]

Općenito se navodi da je u Francuskoj osnovao augustinski samostan nazvan po Crkvi Svetog groba. Međutim, to je zapravo bilo u Flandriji [16] [17] u Neufmoustieru blizu Huya, [18] ili sam Huy koji je možda bio njegov rodni grad. Njegova se grobnica nalazi u opatiji Neufmoustier, pa se pretpostavlja da je to bila njegova opatija, ali u drugoj tradiciji obližnja opatija Solières tvrdi da je to bila njegova osnova.

Petrova osmrtnica nalazi se u kronici opatije Neufmoustier, Huy. [19] Na svojoj stranici, 8. srpnja 1115., kronika kaže da se na ovaj dan vidjela „smrt Dom Pierrea, pobožnog sjećanja, časnog svećenika i pustinjaka, koji je zaslužio da ga Gospodin imenuje za objavljivanje prvog svetom Križu ", a tekst se nastavlja s" nakon osvajanja svete zemlje, Pierre se vratio u svoju rodnu zemlju ", a također i da je" on osnovao ovu crkvu. i bira ih za pristojan ukop ". Ovaj zapis dodatno podupire Neufmoustierovu tvrdnju kao njegovu zakladu.

Od njegove smrti oko Petra su nastale razne legende. Jedna legenda ima korijene u spisima Jacquesa de Vitryja, kojemu je bilo zgodno uvjeriti ljude iz biskupije u Liježu u zasluge sudjelovanja u albigenzijskom križarskom ratu manipulirajući pričom o Petru. [20] [21]

Još jednu legendu daje u 14. stoljeću francuski trubadur Jehan-de-Bouteiller, koji pjeva sjećanje na "diktatora Petra Pustinjaka, nasljednika grofa Clairmonta od Sieura d'Herrymonta [koji se] oženio Montagutom". Roditelji Petra Pustinjaka bili bi, prema tome, Renauld de Hérimont i Aleidis Montaigu (Aleidis je u Huyu poznata kao "majka Dom Pierrea, s domom u Huyu"). [22]

Postoji i snažna i stara tradicija da je Petar Pustinjak prvi uveo uporabu krunice. [16] [17] Slijedi da je on započeo ovu tradiciju oko 1090. [23] Ako je to slučaj i ako je također bio na prethodnom hodočašću u Jeruzalem, moguće je da je on tu praksu izveo iz sličnih islamskih običaja .


Pripreme za križarski rat

Nakon govora pape Urbana, pripreme su započele i na istoku i na zapadu. Car Aleksije, koji je nesumnjivo predvidio prikupljanje neke vrste pomoćne sile, očito je ubrzo shvatio da će morati osigurati i savladati mnogo veći priljev ratnika. Na Zapadu, kad su vođe počeli okupljati svoju vojsku, oni koji su zauzeli križ nastojali su prikupiti novac, često prodajom ili hipotekom imovine, kako za neposrednu kupnju opreme, tako i za dugoročne potrebe putovanja.

Dok su pripreme bile u tijeku, nekoliko manje organiziranih četa vitezova i seljaka, općenito poznatih kao "Narodni križarski rat", krenulo je diljem Europe. Najpoznatiji od njih, koje su okupili izvanredni popularni propovjednik, Petar Pustinjak i njegov suradnik Walter Sansavoir, stigli su u Carigrad nakon što su izazvali znatne nerede u Mađarskoj i Bugarskoj. Aleksije je Petra srdačno primio i savjetovao mu da pričeka dolazak glavnih križarskih snaga. No, redovi su postali neposlušni i 6. kolovoza 1096. prevezeni su preko Bospora. Dok je Petar bio u Carigradu i tražio dodatnu pomoć, njegova je vojska bila u zasjedi kod Cibota (koju su križari nazvali Civetot), a Turci su je sve uništili.

Propovijedanje Petra Pustinjaka u Njemačkoj nadahnulo je druge skupine križara, koji također nisu uspjeli doći do Jeruzalema. Jednu od tih skupina vodio je zloglasni grof Emicho, a bila je odgovorna za niz pogroma ili masakra nad Židovima u nekoliko renskih gradova 1096. Tradicionalno priznata kao važna prekretnica u židovskim i kršćanskim odnosima u srednjem vijeku zapravo, često se navodi kao ključni trenutak u povijesti antisemitizma-ti su se napadi dogodili prvo u Speyeru, a zatim sa sve većom žestinom u Wormsu, Mainzu i Kölnu. Židovi iz ovih gradova često su tražili, a ponekad i primali, zaštitu biskupa ili uzaludno sklanjali se u lokalne domove i hramove. Prisiljeni od križara da se obrate ili umru, mnogi su Židovi odabrali smrt. Postoje izvještaji o tome da su Židovi počinili samoubojstvo, pa čak i ubili svoju djecu, a ne da su se preobratili ili podvrgli pogubljenju od strane križara. Iako revnost ove prirode nije svojstvena samo kršćanstvu, ti pokolji nisu prošli nezapaženo ni kod sukršćana. Doista, neki suvremeni kršćanski izvještaji pripisali su im poraz Narodnog križarskog rata. Nakon pokolja križari su prešli u Ugarsku, gdje ih je ugarski kralj razbio i pretrpio velike gubitke. Emicho, koji možda nije sudjelovao u svim pogromima, pobjegao je i sramotno se vratio kući.

Glavnu križarsku silu, koja je krenula u kolovozu 1096. prema uputama Urbana, činila su četiri glavna kontingenta. Manja, peta sila, koju je predvodio Hugh od Vermandoisa, brat francuskog kralja Filipa I., otišla je prije ostalih, ali je smanjena brodolomom tijekom prelaska Jadrana od Barija do Dyrrhachiuma (sada Durrës, Albanija). Godfrey od Bouillona, ​​vođa prve velike vojske koja je otišla i vojvoda Donje Lorene od 1087. godine, bio je jedini veliki princ iz njemačkog kraljevstva uključen u križarski rat, iako su on i njegovi suradnici uglavnom govorili francuski. Pridružili su mu se njegova braća, Eustace i Baldwin, te rođak Baldwin iz Le Bourcqa, Godfrey je krenuo kopnenim putem i bez incidenata prešao Mađarsku. Tržnice i namirnice opskrbljivali su se na bizantskom teritoriju, a osim nekih pljački, vojska je 23. prosinca 1096. bez ozbiljnih problema stigla do Carigrada.

Drugu silu organizirao je Bohemond, Norman iz južne Italije. Sin Roberta Guiscarda, Bohemond je bio na poznatom tlu preko Jadrana, gdje se borio sa svojim ocem i kojeg su se razumljivo plašili Bizantinci. Međutim, imao je 40 godina kada je 9. travnja 1097. stigao u Carigrad i odlučio se pomiriti sa svojim bivšim neprijateljem.

Treću i najveću vojsku okupio je Raymond od Saint-Gillesa, grof od Toulousea. S 55 godina bio je najstariji i najistaknutiji od knezova u križarskom ratu, težio je i možda očekivao da postane vođa cijele ekspedicije. S njim je bio i Adhémar, biskup Le Puya, kojeg je papa imenovao legatom križarskog rata. Raymond je svoje sljedbenike, uključujući brojne hodočasnike bez borbe, koje je uzdržavao o svom trošku vodio preko sjeverne Italije, oko vrha Jadranskog mora, a zatim prema jugu do bizantskog teritorija. Ovo veliko tijelo izazvalo je znatne probleme u Dalmaciji i sukobilo se s bizantskim trupama pri približavanju glavnom gradu, kamo je Raymond stigao 21. travnja.

U međuvremenu je četvrta vojska, pod Robertom Flandrijskim, prešla Jadran iz Brindizija. Uz Roberta bili su njegov rođak Robert od Normandije (brat engleskog kralja Williama II) i Stephen od Bloisa (zet Williama Osvajača). Nijedan kralj nije sudjelovao u Prvom križarskom ratu, a muslimane su većinu učesnika koji su govorili francuski počeli nazivati ​​Francima.

Prisutnost u blizini Carigrada ogromnih vojnih snaga, koje su brojile možda 4000 konjanika i 25 000 pješaka, predstavljala je ozbiljan problem za Aleksija, a povremeno je dolazilo i do nereda. Prisiljen uzeti u obzir carske interese, koji su, ubrzo je postalo očito, različiti od ciljeva križara, car je od svakog križarskog vođe zahtijevao da pod zakletvom obeća da će mu vratiti sve osvojeno područje koje je pripadalo carstvu prije turske invazije i zakleti mu se na vjernost dok su križari ostali u njegovoj domeni. Budući da nikada nije postojao nikakav plan za križarski rat koji bi nadišao daleke granice starog Rimskog Carstva, to bi učinkovito dalo sva osvajanja caru. Samo je Bohemond voljno položio carevu zakletvu. Ostali su to učinili pod prisilom, a Raymond se zakleo samo mlakom zakletvom da će poštivati ​​vlasništvo i ličnost cara. Unatoč tome, Raymond i Alexius postali su dobri prijatelji, a Raymond je ostao najjači branitelj carevih prava tijekom cijelog križarskog rata.


Kronološki slijed križarskog rata [uredi | uredi izvor]

Vijeće u Clermontu [uredi | uredi izvor]

U ožujku 1095. Aleksije I. poslao je izaslanike na Vijeće u Piacenzi kako bi zamolili papu Urbana II za pomoć protiv Turaka. Carev zahtjev naišao je na povoljan odgovor Urbana, koji se nadao da će iscijeliti veliki raskol od prije 40 godina i ponovno ujediniti Crkvu pod papinskim primatom kao "glavni biskup i prelat u cijelom svijetu" (kako je sebe nazivao u Clermontu ), Ώ ] pomažući istočnim crkvama u vrijeme njihove potrebe.

Vijeće u Piacenzi učvrstilo je papinu vlast u Italiji u razdoblju papinske krize (pojavilo se više od 3.000 svećenstva i približno 30.000 laika, kao i veleposlanici na istoku koji su molili za svu "pomoć kršćanstva protiv nevjernika"). S postignutim ciljem pape Urbana II da ponovno uspostavi svoj autoritet u Italiji, sada se mogao potpuno usredotočiti na rješavanje i utvrđivanje načina djelovanja za križarski rat do kojeg su prvenstveno došli istočni veleposlanici iz Bizantskog Carstva. Urban je također bio svjestan da Italija nije zemlja koja će se, "probuditi u naletu vjerskog entuzijazma na poziv pape, s još uvijek osporavanom titulom." Njegov poticaj da nagovori "mnoge da obećaju, uzevši prisegu, da će najvjernije pomoći caru koliko su mogli protiv pogana "nije uspjelo.

Na Koncilu u Clermontu, koji je okupljen u srcu Francuske 27. studenog 1095., Urban je održao strastvenu propovijed velikoj publici francuskih velikaša i svećenstva. Pozvao je prisutne da otmu kontrolu nad Jeruzalemom iz ruku muslimana. Francuska je, rekao je, bila prenapučena, a zemlja Kanaan bila je prepuna mlijeka i meda. Govorio je o problemima plemenitog nasilja i rješenje je bilo okrenuti mačeve Božjoj službi: "Neka razbojnici postanu vitezovi". Ώ ] Govorio je o nagradama i na zemlji i na nebu, gdje se oproštenje grijeha nudilo svakome tko bi mogao umrijeti u tom pothvatu. Urban je to obećao kroz Božju snagu koja mu je uložena. Publika je bila uzburkana do pomahnitalog entuzijazma i prekinula njegov govor uzvicima Deus lo volt! ("To je Božja volja!").

Urbanova propovijed jedna je od najvažnijih govora u europskoj povijesti. Zabilježeno je mnogo verzija govora, ali sve su napisane nakon što je Jeruzalem zauzet, a teško je znati što se zapravo govorilo i što je nastalo nakon uspješnog križarskog rata. Međutim, jasno je da je odaziv na govor bio mnogo veći od očekivanog. Do kraja 1095. i 1096. godine Urban je širio poruku po cijeloj Francuskoj i pozvao svoje biskupe i legate da propovijedaju u svojim biskupijama i drugdje u Francuskoj, Njemačkoj i Italiji. Urban je pokušao zabraniti određenim ljudima (uključujući žene, redovnike i bolesne) da se pridruže križarskom ratu, ali je to smatralo gotovo nemogućim. Na kraju većina onih koji su se javili na poziv nisu bili vitezovi, već seljaci koji nisu bili bogati i imali su malo borbenih vještina, ali čija su tisućljetna i apokaliptična čežnja pronašla oslobođenje od svakodnevnog ugnjetavanja njihovih života, u izlijevanje nove emocionalne i osobne pobožnosti koju crkvena i laička aristokracija nije lako iskoristila.

Narodni križarski rat [uredi | uredi izvor]

Vođe Prvog križarskog rata.

Urban je planirao polazak križarskog rata za 15. kolovoza 1096., blagdan Velike Gospe, no nekoliko mjeseci prije toga brojne neočekivane vojske seljaka i skromnih vitezova organizirale su se i krenule prema Jeruzalemu. Vodio ih je karizmatični redovnik i moćni govornik po imenu Petar Pustinjak iz Amiensa. Odgovor je bio iznad očekivanja: iako je Urban mogao očekivati ​​nekoliko tisuća vitezova, završio je s migracijom do 100.000 —, iako uglavnom nekvalificiranih boraca, uključujući žene i djecu.

Bez vojne discipline i u onom što se sudionicima vjerojatno činilo čudnom zemljom (istočna Europa) sa čudnim običajima, ti prvi križari brzo su se spustili u nevolje, na kršćansko područje. Problem s kojim se suočavao bio je opskrba, ali i kultura: ljudima je bila potrebna hrana i zalihe, a oni su očekivali da će im gradovi domaćini dati hranu i zalihe ili ih barem prodati po cijenama koje su smatrali razumnima. Rano napustivši Zapadnu Europu, propustili su veliku žetvu tog proljeća, nakon godina suše i loše žetve. Nažalost po križare, mještani se nisu uvijek slagali, a to je brzo dovelo do borbi i okršaja. Na svom putu niz Dunav, Petrovi sljedbenici opljačkali su mađarski teritorij, a napadli su ih Mađari, Bugari, pa čak i bizantska vojska u blizini Niša. Oko četvrtine Petrovih sljedbenika ubijeno je, ali su ostali u kolovozu stigli uglavnom netaknuti u Carigrad. Carigrad je za to razdoblje u Europi bio velik, ali je i Petrova "vojska" bila velika, a kulturne razlike i oklijevanje u opskrbi tako velikim brojem dolazećih ljudi doveli su do daljnjih napetosti. Štoviše, u Carigradu Petrovi sljedbenici nisu bili jedina skupina križara - pridružili su se s drugim križarskim vojskama iz Francuske i Italije. Aleksije, ne znajući što bi drugo s tako velikom i neobičnom (i stranom) vojskom, brzo ih je prevezao preko Bospora.

Nakon prelaska u Malu Aziju, križari su se počeli svađati, a vojske su se razbile u dva odvojena tabora. Turci su bili iskusni, razumni i imali lokalno znanje. Većina Narodnog križarskog rata - hrpa ratnika amatera i nenaoružanih žena - pobijena je pri ulasku na teritorij Seldžuka. Petar je ipak preživio i kasnije će se pridružiti glavnoj križarskoj vojsci. Druga vojska Čeških i Saksonaca nije uspjela proći Mađarsku prije nego što se podijelila.

Njemački križarski rat [uredi | uredi izvor]

Prvi križarski rat zapalio je dugu tradiciju organiziranog nasilja nad Židovima u europskoj kulturi. Iako je antisemitizam u Europi postojao stoljećima, Prvi križarski rat označava prvo masovno organizirano nasilje nad židovskim zajednicama. U Njemačkoj su neki vođe shvatili da se ovaj rat protiv nevjernika može primijeniti ne samo na muslimane u Svetoj zemlji, već čak i na Židove u njihovim zemljama. Krenuvši početkom ljeta 1096. godine, njemačka vojska od oko 10.000 vojnika predvođena Gottschalkom, Volkmarom i Emichom, krenula je prema sjeveru dolinom Rajne, u suprotnom smjeru od Jeruzalema, i započela niz pogroma koje neki povjesničari nazivaju " prvi holokaust ". ΐ ] To razumijevanje ideje križarskog rata nije bilo univerzalno, pa su Židovi našli utočište u svetištima, a jedan je primjer pokušaj nadbiskupa Kölna da zaštiti Židove u gradu od pokolja koje su izvršili gradsko stanovništvo.

Propovijedanje križarskog rata nadahnulo je daljnji antisemitizam. Prema nekim propovjednicima, Židovi i muslimani bili su Kristovi neprijatelji, a s neprijateljima se trebalo boriti ili preći na kršćanstvo. Šira javnost očito je pretpostavila da "borio se" znači "borio se do smrti" ili "ubijen". Kršćansko osvajanje Jeruzalema i uspostava tamošnjeg kršćanskog cara navodno bi potaklo Posljednja vremena, tijekom kojih su Židovi trebali preći na kršćanstvo. U dijelovima Francuske i Njemačke smatralo se da su Židovi odgovorni za razapinjanje na krstu, a odmah su bili vidljiviji nego udaljeni muslimani. Mnogi su se ljudi pitali zašto bi morali putovati tisućama kilometara kako bi se borili protiv nevjernika kad je već bilo nevjernika bliže kući.

Križari su se dolinom Rajne preselili na sjever u poznate židovske zajednice poput Kölna, a zatim prema jugu. Židovske zajednice imale su mogućnost prijeći na kršćanstvo ili biti poklane. Većina se nije obratila, a kako se vijest o masovnim ubojstvima širila, mnoge židovske zajednice počinile su masovna samoubojstva u užasnim scenama. Tisuće Židova pobijeno je, unatoč nekim pokušajima lokalnog svećenstva i svjetovnih vlasti da ih sklone. Masakri su opravdani tvrdnjom da je Urbanov govor u Clermontu obećao Božju nagradu za ubijanje nekršćana bilo koje vrste, a ne samo muslimana. Iako se papstvo gnušalo i propovijedalo protiv čišćenja muslimanskog i židovskog stanovništva tijekom ovog i budućih križarskih ratova, nakon svakog križarskog pokreta bilo je brojnih napada na Židove.

Kneževski križarski rat [uredi | uredi izvor]

Križarski rat knezova, poznat i kao križarski rat baruna, krenuo je kasnije 1096. godine na uređeniji način, predvođen raznim plemićima s viteškim četama iz različitih regija Europe. Četiri najznačajnija među njima bili su Raymond IV od Toulousea, koji je predstavljao vitezove Provanse, u pratnji papinskog legata Adhemara iz Le Puy Bohemonda iz Taranta, koji je predstavljao Normane južne Italije sa svojim nećakom Tancredom Lorrainersima pod braćom Godfreyom od Bouillona , Eustace i Baldwin od Boulognea i sjevernih Francuza predvođenih grofom Robertom II od Flandrije, Robertom od Normandije (starijim bratom engleskog kralja Williama II), Stephenom, grofom od Bloisa i Hughom od Vermandoisa mlađim bratom kralja Filipa I. od Francuska, koja je nosila papinsku zastavu Α ]. Kralju Filipu bilo je zabranjeno sudjelovanje u pohodu jer je bio izopćen.

Ožujka u Jeruzalem [uredi | uredi izvor]

Napustivši Europu u dogovoreno vrijeme u kolovozu, različite su vojske krenule različitim putovima do Carigrada i okupile se izvan njegovih gradskih zidina između studenog 1096. i svibnja 1097., dva mjeseca nakon što su Turci uništili Narodni križarski rat. Uz vitezove bilo je mnogo siromašnih ljudi (pauperes) koji si je mogao priuštiti osnovnu odjeću i možda staro oružje. Petar Pustinjak, koji se pridružio križarskom ratu knezova u Carigradu, smatrao se odgovornim za njihovu dobrobit, te su se mogli organizirati u male skupine, možda srodne vojnim četama, često predvođenim osiromašenim vitezom. Jedna od najvećih od ovih skupina, koju čine preživjeli iz Narodnog križarskog rata, nazvala se "Tafurs".

Knezovi su stigli u Carigrad s malo hrane i očekivanim namirnicama i pomoći od Aleksija I. Aleksije je bio razumljivo sumnjičav nakon svojih iskustava s Narodnim križarskim ratom, a također i zato što je među vitezovima bio i njegov stari normanski neprijatelj Bohemond. U isto vrijeme, Aleksije je gajio nade u vršenje kontrole nad križarima, za koje se činilo da su smatrali da imaju mogućnost djelovanja kao bizantski opunomoćenik. Tako je, u zamjenu za hranu i zalihe, Aleksije zatražio od vođa da mu se zakunu na vjernost i obećaju da će vratiti Bizantskom Carstvu svu zemlju koju su Turci oporavili. Bez hrane i hrane, na kraju im nije preostalo ništa drugo nego položiti prisegu, iako ne sve dok se sve strane nisu složile s raznim kompromisima, a tek nakon što je u gradu gotovo izbio rat. Samo je Raymond izbjegao prisegu, pametno se obećavši Aleksiju hoće li car osobno voditi križarski rat. Aleksije je to odbio, ali su njih dvojica postali saveznici, dijeleći zajedničko nepovjerenje prema Bohemondu.

Aleksije je pristao poslati bizantsku vojsku pod zapovjedništvom Taticija da prati križare kroz Malu Aziju. Their first objective was Nicaea, an old Byzantine city, but now the capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rüm under Kilij Arslan I. The city was subjected to a lengthy siege, which was somewhat ineffectual as the crusaders could not blockade the lake on which the city was situated, and from which it could be provisioned. Arslan, from outside the city, advised the garrison to surrender if their situation became untenable. Alexius, fearing the crusaders would sack Nicaea and destroy its wealth, secretly accepted the surrender of the city the crusaders awoke on the morning of June 19, 1097 to see Byzantine standards flying from the walls. The crusaders were forbidden to loot it, and were not allowed to enter the city except in small escorted bands. This caused a further rift between the Byzantines and the crusaders. The crusaders now began the journey to Jerusalem. Stephen of Blois wrote home, stating he believed it would take five weeks. In fact, the journey would take two years.

The crusaders, still accompanied by some Byzantine troops under Taticius, marched on towards Dorylaeum, where Bohemond was pinned down by Kilij Arslan. At the Battle of Dorylaeum on July 1, Godfrey broke through the Turkish lines, and with the help of the troops led by the legate Adhemar, defeated the Turks and looted their camp. Kilij Arslan withdrew and the crusaders marched almost unopposed through Asia Minor towards Antioch, except for a battle, in September, in which they again defeated the Turks. Along the way, the Crusaders were able to capture a number of cities such as Sozopolis, Iconium and Caesarea although most of these were lost to the Turks by 1101. Β]

The march through Asia was unpleasant. It was the middle of summer and the crusaders had very little food and water many men died, as did many horses. Christians, in Asia as in Europe, sometimes gave them gifts of food and money, but more often the crusaders looted and pillaged whenever the opportunity presented itself. Individual leaders continued to dispute the overall leadership, although none of them were powerful enough to take command still, Adhemar was always recognized as the spiritual leader. After passing through the Cilician Gates, Baldwin of Boulogne set off on his own towards the Armenian lands around the Euphrates. In Edessa early in 1098, he was adopted as heir by King Thoros, a Greek Orthodox ruler who was disliked by his Armenian subjects. Thoros was soon assassinated and Baldwin became the new ruler, thus creating the County of Edessa, the first of the crusader states.

Siege of Antioch [ edit | uredi izvor]

The crusader army, meanwhile, marched on to Antioch, which lay about half way between Constantinople and Jerusalem. They arrived in October 1097 and set it to a siege which lasted almost eight months, during which time they also had to defeat two large relief armies under Duqaq of Damascus and Ridwan of Aleppo. Antioch was so large that the crusaders did not have enough troops to fully surround it, and thus it was able to stay partially supplied. As the siege dragged on it was clear that Bohemond wanted the city for himself.

In May 1098, Kerbogha of Mosul approached Antioch to relieve the siege. Bohemond bribed an Armenian guard of the city to surrender his tower, and in June the crusaders entered the city and killed most of the inhabitants. However, only a few days later the Muslims arrived, laying siege to the former besiegers. At this point a minor monk by the name of Peter Bartholomew claimed to have discovered the Holy Lance in the city, and although some were skeptical, this was seen as a sign that they would be victorious.

On June 28 the crusaders defeated Kerbogha in a pitched battle outside the city, as Kerbogha was unable to organize the different factions in his army. While the crusaders were marching towards the Muslims, the Fatimid section of the army deserted the Turkish contingent, as they feared Kerbogha would become too powerful if he were to defeat the Crusaders. According to legend, an army of Christian saints came to the aid of the crusaders during the battle and crippled Kerbogha's army.

Bohemond argued that Alexius had deserted the crusade and thus invalidated all of their oaths to him. Bohemond asserted his claim to Antioch, but not everyone agreed, and the crusade was delayed for the rest of the year while the nobles argued amongst themselves. It is a common historiographical assumption that the Franks of northern France, the Provençals of southern France, and the Normans of southern Italy considered themselves separate "nations" and that each wanted to increase its status. This may have had something to do with the disputes, but personal ambition was just as likely to blame.

Meanwhile, a plague (perhaps typhus) broke out, killing many, including the legate Adhemar. There were now even fewer horses than before, and Muslim peasants refused to give them food. In December, the capture of the Arab town of Ma'arrat al-Numan took place, and with it the first known incident of cannibalism by the crusaders. The minor knights and soldiers became restless and threatened to continue to Jerusalem without their squabbling leaders. Finally, at the beginning of 1099, the march was renewed, leaving Bohemond behind as the first Prince of Antioch.

Siege of Jerusalem [ edit | uredi izvor]

Proceeding down the coast of the Mediterranean, the crusaders encountered little resistance, as local rulers preferred to make peace with them and give them supplies rather than fight. On June 7 the crusaders reached Jerusalem, which had been recaptured from the Seljuks by the Fatimids of Egypt only the year before. Many Crusaders wept on seeing the city they had journeyed so long to reach.

As with Antioch, the crusaders put the city to a lengthy siege, in which the crusaders themselves suffered many casualties, due to the lack of food and water around Jerusalem. Of the estimated 7,000 knights who took part in the Princes' Crusade, only about 1,500 remained. Faced with a seemingly impossible task, their morale was raised when a priest, by the name of Peter Desiderius, claimed to have had a divine vision instructing them to fast and then march in a barefoot procession around the city walls, after which the city would fall in nine days, following the Biblical example of Joshua at the siege of Jericho. On July 8, 1099 the crusaders performed the procession as instructed by Desiderius. The Genoese troops, led by commander Guglielmo Embriaco, had previously dismantled the ships in which the Genoese came to the port of Jaffa Embriaco, using the ship's wood, made some siege towers and seven days later on July 15, the crusaders were able to end the siege by breaking down sections of the walls and entering the city. Some Crusaders also entered through the former pilgrim's entrance.

Over the course of that afternoon, evening and next morning, the crusaders murdered almost every inhabitant of Jerusalem. Muslims, Jews, and even eastern Christians were all massacred. Although many Muslims sought shelter in Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Jews in their synagogue by the Western wall, the crusaders spared few lives. According to the anonymous Gesta Francorum, in what some believe to be an exaggerated account of the massacre which subsequently took place there, ". the slaughter was so great that our men waded in blood up to their ankles. " Γ] . Other accounts of blood flowing up to the bridles of horses are reminiscent of a passage from the Book of Revelation (14:20). Tancred claimed the Temple quarter for himself and offered protection to some of the Muslims there, but he was unable to prevent their deaths at the hands of his fellow crusaders. According to Fulcher of Chartres: "Indeed, if you had been there you would have seen our feet coloured to our ankles with the blood of the slain. But what more shall I relate? None of them were left alive neither women nor children were spared". Δ ]

However, the Gesta Francorum states some people managed to escape the siege unharmed. Its anonymous author wrote, "When the pagans had been overcome, our men seized great numbers, both men and women, either killing them or keeping them captive, as they wished". Ε] Later it is written, "[Our leaders] also ordered all the Saracen dead to be cast outside because of the great stench, since the whole city was filled with their corpses and so the living Saracens dragged the dead before the exits of the gates and arranged them in heaps, as if they were houses. No one ever saw or heard of such slaughter of pagan people, for funeral pyres were formed from them like pyramids, and no one knows their number except God alone". Ζ]

Raymond of Toulouse was offered the kingship of Jerusalem but refused, saying that he wouldn't wear "a crown of gold" where Christ had worn "a crown of thorns". In the days following the massacre, Godfrey of Bouillon was made Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri ("Protector of the Holy Sepulchre"). In the last action of the crusade, he led an army which defeated an invading Fatimid army at the Battle of Ascalon. Godfrey died in July 1100, and was succeeded by his brother, Baldwin of Edessa, who took the title King of Jerusalem.

Crusade of 1101 and the establishment of the kingdom [ edit | uredi izvor]

Having captured Jerusalem and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the crusading vow was now fulfilled. However, there were many who had gone home before reaching Jerusalem, and many who had never left Europe at all. When the success of the crusade became known, these people were mocked and scorned by their families and threatened with excommunication by the clergy. Many crusaders who had remained with the crusade all the way to Jerusalem also went home according to Fulcher of Chartres there were only a few hundred knights left in the newfound kingdom in 1100. In 1101, another crusade set out, including Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois, both of whom had returned home before reaching Jerusalem. This crusade was almost annihilated in Asia Minor by the Seljuks, but the survivors helped reinforce the kingdom when they arrived in Jerusalem. In the following years, assistance was also provided by Italian merchants who established themselves in the Syrian ports, and from the religious and military orders of the Knights Templars and the Knights Hospitaller which were created during Baldwin I's reign.


Pozadina

The Great Seljuk Empire at its largest extent, in 1092

In the Eastern Mediterranean after Muslim forces defeated the Eastern Roman/Byzantines at the Battle of Yarmouk in 636, the control of Palestine passed through the Umayyad Dynasty , Abbasid Dynasty . i Fatimids . [35] [36] [37] Toleration, trade, and political relationships between the Arabs and the Christian states of Europe ebbed and flowed until 1072 when the Fatimids lost control of Palestine to the rapidly expanding Great Seljuk Empire . [38] Na primjer, Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ordered the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre , only to have his successor allow the Byzantine Empire to rebuild it. [39] The Muslim rulers allowed pilgrimages by Catholics to the holy sites. Resident Christians were considered people of the book and so were tolerated as Dhimmi or “subjugated people” accorded a second-class status, and inter-marriage was not uncommon. [40] Cultures and creeds coexisted as much as competed, but the frontier conditions were not conducive to Latin Catholic pilgrims and merchants. [41] The disruption of pilgrimages by conquering Seljuk Turks prompted support for the Crusades in Western Europe. [42]

Image of Seljuk car Alp Arslan humiliating Romanos IV in 1071 after Manzikert. Alp Arslan actually treated Romanos IV well and let him return to Constantinople , where he was killed by the Byzantines. Image from a 15th-century illustrated French translation of Boccaccio ‘s De Casibus Virorum Illustrium.

The Byzantine Empire was resurgent from the end of the 10th century, with Bazilije II spending most of his 50-year reign on campaign, conquering a great amount of territory. He left a growing treasury, at the expense of neglecting domestic affairs and also ignoring the cost of incorporating his conquests into the Byzantine Ecumene . None of Basil’s successors had any particular military or political talent, and governing the Empire increasingly fell into the hands of the civil service. Their efforts to spend the Byzantine economy back into prosperity only resulted in burgeoning inflation. To balance the increasingly unstable budget, Basil’s large standing army was dismissed as unnecessary, and native thematic troops were cashiered and replaced by foreign mercenaries . Following the defeat of the Byzantine army at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, the Seljuk Turks had taken over almost all of Anatolija , and the Empire descended into frequent civil wars. [43] In the Western Mediterranean the reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula from Muslims began in the 8th century and reached its turning point with the recapture of Toledo in 1085. [44] At the subsequent Council of Clermont in 1095. [45] Urban II tied the ongoing wars in Iberia to his preaching of the First Crusade and the crusading effort but it was not until the papal encyclical in 1123 by Pope Calixtus II that these wars attained the status of crusades. [46] After this, the papacy declared Iberian crusades in 1147, 1193, 1197, 1210, 1212, 1221 and 1229. Crusading privileges were also given to those people who were helping the military orders – both the traditional Templars and Hospitallers as well as the specifically Iberian orders that were founded and eventually merged into two main orders – that of the Order of Calatrava i Order of Santiago . From 1212 to 1265, the Christian kingdoms of Iberia drove Muslim rule into the far south of the Iberian Peninsula, confined to the small Emirate of Granada . In 1492, this remnant was conquered and Muslims and Jews were expelled from the peninsula. [47]

In Western Europe an aggressive and reformist papacy came into conflict with both the Eastern Empire and Western secular monarchs, leading to the East-West Schism in 1054, [48] i Investiture Controversy , which had started around 1075 and was still on-going during the First Crusade. The papacy began to assert its independence from secular rulers, marshaling arguments for the proper use of armed force by Catholics. The result was intense Catholic piety, interest in religious affairs, and religious propaganda advocating “ Just War ” in order to retake Palestine from the Muslims. The majority view was that non-Christians could not be forced to accept Christian baptism or should not be physically assaulted for having a different faith as opposed to a less common opinion that vengeance was a response to injuries such as the denial of Christian faith, government or the opportunity for justified forcible conversion. [49] Taking part in such a war was seen as a form of penance , which could remit sins. [50] Meanwhile, in Europe, the Germans were expanding at the expense of the Slavs . [51] Dok Sicilija was conquered by the Norman adventurer Robert Guiscard in 1072. [52]

Illumination from the Livre des Passages d’Outre-mer (c. 1490) of Urban II at the Council of Clermont ( Bibliothèque Nationale )

Car Alexios I Komnenos requested military assistance from Pope Urban II at the Council of Piacenza to fight the Seljuqs in 1095, probably envisaging this in the form of mercenaries to reinforce his tagmata and exaggerating the dangers facing the Eastern Empire in order to secure the needed troops [53] On the penultimate day of the subsequent council at Clermont, attended by nearly 300 clerics from throughout Francuska from 19 to 28 November, Urban raised the problems in the Εast and the struggle of the Eastern Roman Empire protiv Muslims . There are six main sources of information on the Council: the anonymous Gesta Francorum (“The Deeds of the Franks”) dated c. 1100/1101, by Fulcher of Chartres who was present at the council Robert the Monk , who may have been present as well as Baldric, archbishop of Dol , i Guibert de Nogent , who were not. All the accounts were written retrsopectively and differ greatly. [54] Robert the Monk—Historia Iherosolimitana, written in 1106/7— writes that the pope asked western Christians, poor and rich, to come to the aid of the Byzantine Empire because “ Deus vult,” (“God wills it”) adding that Urban promised Absolution for those who took part, although other sources claim instead, it was remission of all penance due from sins, later called an indulgence . In the accounts Urban emphasizes reconquering the Holy Land more than aiding the Emperor, listing gruesome offences committed by Muslims and focussing on the reconquest of the Holy Land. The propogand for this call to arms was preached across France with Urban himself writing those “waiting in Flanders ” lamenting that Turks, in addition to ravaging the “churches of God in the eastern regions,” have seized “the Holy City of Christ, embellished by his passion and resurrection—and blasphemy to say it—have sold her and her churches into abominable slavery.” While not explicitly calling for the reconquest of Jerusalem he does call for the military “liberation” of the Eastern Churches and appoints Adhemar of Le Puy to lead the Crusade, commencing on the day of the Assumption of Mary , 15 August. [55]


A fief, an estate of land, was provided to a free man from a lord in exchange for services and loyalty. The main service provided was a military allegiance in the event that war broke out and the lord needed to raise an army.

An apprentice in the Middle Ages could became a journeyman after three to four years of practice at a craft, which they often started as young as 10 years old. As a journeyman, they were still training to become an expert, but they could start working within the marketplace.


Podrijetlo

Popular movements of religious revivalism like the Children’s Crusade usually appeared when official Crusades were preached. Preaching aroused collective enthusiasm, particularly in areas with a long tradition of Crusading, as in the town of Chartres and its surrounding region (the Chartrain) in north-central France. Beginning at the time of the First Crusade in the late 11th century and continuing into the 13th century, successive waves of Crusading fervour swept over this region. During the winter of 1211 and the spring of 1212 the Albigensian Crusade was preached against the heretical Cathars of southern France, resulting in strong military recruitment from the Chartrain. Spain, on Christendom’s western frontier, was the scene of another Crusading crisis. A Muslim invasion from North Africa in 1210 led to the fall of the castle of Salvatierra in 1211. A climactic battle was expected by Pentecost in 1212. Pope Innocent III anxiously attempted to mobilize the prayers of Christians on behalf of the threatened Spanish church by holding processions in Rome on May 16, 1212.

It is likely that similar processions were held at Chartres on May 20. In all probability, a shepherd boy, Stephen of Cloyes, and some of his fellow workers took part in them. The enthusiasm generated by these processions gave birth to a popular Crusading movement whose aims were summed up in acclamations shouted out by the pueri: “Lord God, raise up Christendom!” and “Lord God, return to us the True Cross!”


2nd Crusade (1147-1149)

The Muslims deeply angered by their uncalled for killing, rallied and organized into and army and fought back. This resulted in a tie of power and struggle as both the Muslims and Christians were evenly matched. After a while, the Muslims were finally able to reconquer parts of Palestine. This caused the Pope to call for another Crusade this time led by King Louis VII of France and King Conrad III of Germany. Fortunately, these leaders were ineffective at military leadership. According to History.com, the Turks annihilated Conrad’s forces at Dorylaeum, the site of a great Christian victory during the First Crusade (History.com Staff, 2010). Then after, both King Louis and King Conrad decided to combine their forces at attack the city of Damascus together. This lead to a crushing defeat for the Crusaders as the Muslims called to aid for help from an ally and also combine their Muslim forces. This ended the second Crusade and the Crusaders were then forced to go back home in humiliation at their defeat.


Key Elements of Warcraft

Military Orders (Hospitallers, Templars)

The Military Orders were among the most important institutions and fighting forces during the Crusades. They combined the discipline of monks with the martial skills of the knights. From their rather modest beginnings, the Military Orders increased not only in importance as military units but in land holdings. As time went on, the Crusaders increasingly depended on their manpower to garrison the fortresses of the Holy Land.

Origin of the Templars

The Templars were the first and most famous Military Order. Hugh of Payns and eight companions established the order in 1119 in order to protect pilgrims on the road from Jaffa to Jerusalem. The group was granted use of the Al-Aqsa mosque on the Temple Mount (where the Temple of Solomon was once located) for their headquarters. From this location, their name evolved into the Templars.

The Templars were granted a formal rule by Bernard of Clairvaux in 1129. With Bernard’s support and a general enthusiasm for their work, the order grew quickly. Temples, as their monasteries were often called in Europe, were established in Europe, and these served as recruiting offices. In the 1130s, with their expanded manpower, the Templars received several castles to defend.

Most of the Templars came from noble families as most knights did, but the majority of the Templars were sergeants. Sergeants were the backbone of all European armies. They were professional soldiers who served as infantry or as cavalry, but were of common background. Although they could never be knights, they often fought in the same manner.

In addition, regular priests could join in order to provide religious services. Because of increased garrisoning duties, the Templars also hired mercenaries to serve with them. The Templars were easily recognizable as they wore white tunics emblazoned with a red cross.

Like monks, they took an oath of poverty, chastity, and obedience. The Templars—and for that matter, all of the military orders—had to maintain daily liturgical hours, even while in the field. They were governed by a Grand Master located in Jerusalem. All of their properties were divided and governed by commanders who answered to the Grand Master proceeds were sent to the east.

Creation of the Hospitallers

The second most important Military Order were the Knights of St. John, also known as the Hospitallers. Originally founded by Italian merchants in Jerusalem, they were a monastic order that offered hospital services. The hospital was attached to a monastery dedicated to St. John the Baptist. The papacy recognized it as a monastic order in 1113, but it did not acquire a military component until the 1130s. Although the military wing became more dominant, it never abandoned its hospital work, which provided services to pilgrims to the Holy Land regardless of wealth or social status.

Its organization and membership was similar to that of the Templars. Originally, the military wing of the Hospitallers was probably created to protect the hospitals that the order established in various towns in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. As the Crusader states were chronically short of manpower, they often called upon the Hospitallers for assistance.

Like the Templars, they were disciplined fighters. Initially they wore black tunics with a white cross, but after 1259 they wore red surcoats with a white cross. Soon, they also acquired many castles to garrison, the most important being Krak des Chevaliers in Syria. This mammoth structure served as their headquarters.

Like the Templars, the Hospitallers also had offices throughout Europe and were subject only to the pope’s authority. There was a rivalry between the two orders that was not very conducive to the well being of the Crusader states. However, they could also cooperate. On campaigns, due to their discipline and prowess, the Templars served as the vanguard of the army, while the Hospitallers served as the rear guard.

After the fall of Acre in 1291, the Hospitallers moved to Cyprus and then Rhodes, which became their headquarters in 1309. Forced to become a naval power by this relocation, they acted essentially as pirates on Muslim shipping. Eventually, the Ottomans forced them from Rhodes in 1523. Homeless for seven years, they were granted the island of Malta, where they stayed until their destruction by Napoleon in 1798.

In the twenty-first century, the Hospitallers live on as a monastic order in Rome.

Siege Engines

Although the Crusades were known for knights in armor and famous warriors such as Bohemund, Saladin, and Richard the Lionheart, the vast majority of battles took place in the form of sieges rather than field battles. Part of this was due to a chronic lack of manpower on the part of the Crusaders. It was easier to control territory with castles than large armies. For both sides, a disastrous encounter in the field could leave an entire region exposed to conquest, so most decided to stay in their fortresses and wait out marauding armies.

Because of the emphasis on siege warfare, both fortification and siege engines advanced significantly. Many of the castle designs and weaponry used in the Crusades spread into Europe and even into China.

Ladders, battering rams, and sapping (digging tunnels to undermine the foundations of a wall) had been standard parts of siege warfare for centuries. However, none of these tactics were successful unless they were used in conjunction with siege engines such as towers, catapults, and trebuchets.

Design of a Siege Tower

Siege towers were critical at Jerusalem and Ascalon, and it is doubtful if the sieges would have been successful without them. This construct was essentially a wooden tower on wheels that could be pushed up to the wall. Typically, it was designed to be higher than the wall, since this allowed archers or catapults to dominate their sector.

As they were made from wood, towers were susceptible to fire (particularly Greek fire which could only be extinguished with vinegar). To help shield it, animal hides covered a tower, as the hides tended to resist the fire, or if set aflame, could be cut away before the fire ignited the entire structure.

Towers often had one or more openings. Battering rams could be used to open a breach, or a bridge could be lowered to allow troops to cross over to the enemy’s walls.

Machines of Destruction

Catapults had been standard siege engines since the ancient period. Those used in the Middle Ages were based on torsion and tension. One such device was the mangonel, which was powered by twisted rope. A bowl-shaped holder held a projectile and was attached to an arm. When fired, the energy stored in the ropes released the arm, which hit a crossbeam, sending the projectile forward. It was not accurate, but it could be effective.

Another weapon was a trebuchet. This was simply a long beam with a sling attached to it. The arm was attached to a framework and powered by men pulling ropes attached to the other end of the arm. The longer end with the sling would move forward and release the missile. These were known as traction trebuchets. Their range and power was based on the number of people pulling the ropes.

The most destructive weapon was the counterweight trebuchet. Rather than having men pulling ropes, a box filled with heavy weights would power it. When released, the weights would swing down with more force, giving the missile greater range and velocity, and consequently causing more damage. Many of these engines were given colorful nicknames, such as “Bad Neighbor.” A European invention, the first recorded use of them was around 1187 by Saladin.

Another weapon in common use was the ballista. This was an oversized crossbow. Although oversized bolts could be used, it was more common to use stones. As trebuchets became more common, the ballista gradually declined in use.


Pozadina

The origins of the crusades in general, and of the First Crusade in particular, stem from events earlier in the Middle Ages. The breakdown of the Carolingian empire in previous centuries, combined with the relative stability of European borders after the Christianization of the Vikings and Magyars, gave rise to an entire class of warriors who now had very little to do but fight among themselves and terrorize the peasant population.

Outlets for this violence took the form of campaigns against non-Christians. The Reconquista in Spain was one such outlet, which occupied Spanish knights and some mercenaries from elsewhere in Europe in the fight against the Islamic Moors. Elsewhere, the Normans were fighting for control of Sicily, while Pisa, Genoa and Aragon were all actively fighting Islamic strongholds in Majorca and Sardinia, freeing the coasts of Italy and Spain from Muslim raids.

Because of these ongoing wars, the idea of a war against the Muslims was not implausible to the European nations. Muslims occupied the centre of the Christian universe, Jerusalem, which, along with the surrounding land, was considered one giant relic, the place where Christ had lived and died. In 1074, Pope Gregory VII called for the milites Christi ("knights of Christ") to go to the aid of the Byzantine Empire in the east. The Byzantines had suffered a serious defeat at the hands of the Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Manzikert three years previously. This call, while largely ignored, combined with the large numbers of pilgrimages to the Holy Land in the 11th century, focused a great deal of attention on the east. It was Pope Urban II who first disseminated to the general public the idea of a Crusade to capture the Holy Land with the famous words: "God wills it!"

The East in the late eleventh century

Western Europe's immediate neighbour to the southeast was the Byzantine Empire, who were fellow Christians but who had long followed a separate Orthodox rite. Under emperor Alexius I Comnenus, the empire was largely confined to Europe and the western coast of Anatolia, and faced enemies in the Normans in the west and the Seljuks in the east. Further east, Anatolia, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt were all under Muslim control, but were politically and, to some extent, culturally fragmented at the time of the First Crusade, which certainly contributed to the Crusade's success. Anatolia and Syria were controlled by the Sunni Seljuks, formerly in one large empire ("Great Seljuk") but by this point divided into many smaller states. Alp Arslan had defeated the Byzantine Empire at Manzikert in 1071 and incorporated much of Anatolia into Great Seljuk, but this empire was split apart by civil war after the death of Malik Shah I in 1092. In the Sultanate of R m in Anatolia, Malik Shah was succeeded by Kilij Arslan I and in Syria by his brother Tutush I, who died in 1095. Tutush's sons Radwan and Duqaq inherited Aleppo and Damascus respectively, further dividing Syria amongst emirs antagonistic towards each other, as well as towards Kerbogha, the atabeg of Mosul. These states were on the whole more concerned with consolidating their own territories and gaining control of their neighbours, than with cooperating against the crusaders.

Elsewhere in nominal Seljuk territory were the Ortoqids in northeastern Syria and northern Mesopotamia. They controlled Jerusalem until 1098. In eastern Anatolia and northern Syria was a state founded by Danishmend, a Seljuk mercenary the crusaders did not have significant contact with either group until after the Crusade. The Hashshashin were also becoming important in Syrian affairs.

Egypt and much of Palestine were controlled by the Arab Shi'ite Fatimids, whose empire was significantly smaller since the arrival of the Seljuks Alexius I had advised the crusaders to work with the Fatimids against their common Seljuk enemies. The Fatimids, at this time ruled by caliph al-Musta'li (although all actual power was held by the vizier al-Afdal Shahanshah), had lost Jerusalem to the Seljuks in 1076, but recaptured it from the Ortoqids in 1098 while the crusaders were on the march. The Fatimids did not, at first, consider the crusaders a threat, assuming they had been sent by the Byzantines and that they would be content with recapturing Syria, leaving Palestine alone they did not send an army against the crusaders until they were already at Jerusalem.


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The First Crusade - History of the First Crusade - Information about the First Crusade - First Crusade Facts - First Crusade Info - Middle Ages era - Middle Ages Life - Middle Ages Times - Life - First Crusade - First Crusade History - Information about First Crusade - Medieval era - First Crusade Facts - First Crusade Info - Infidels - Saracens - Moslems - Infidels - Reasons - Cause - Leader - Wars - Success - Timeline - 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th - Summary - History - Outline - Dates - Key events - Key people - Leaders of the First - Life - Cause - Causes - Reasons - Holy Crusades - Islam religion saladin war - Infidels - Saracens - Moslems - Infidels - Reasons - Cause - Leader - Wars - Success - Timeline - Summary - History - Outline - Dates - Key events - Key people - Leaders of the First crusade - 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th - Written By Linda Alchin


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