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Dvorac Edinburgh

Dvorac Edinburgh

Dvorac Edinburgh, koji se uzdiže na vrhu Castle Rocka, stoljećima je služio Škotskoj, u jednom ili drugom trenutku djelujući kao utvrda, kraljevska rezidencija, sjedište vlade, oružarnica i zatvor. Scena bezbrojnih opsada, kraljevskih rođenja i smrti, ubilačkih spletki i vojnih prikaza, dvorac Edinburgh odavno je simbol škotske povijesti i nacionalnog ponosa. Danas je dvorac otvoren za javnost koja može vidjeti znamenitosti poput Kamena Sconea, škotskih kraljevskih regalija poznatih kao Honors, Nacionalnog ratnog muzeja, Nacionalnog ratnog spomenika i tako poznatih divovskih srednjovjekovnih topova kao što je Mons Megs. Najpopularnija turistička atrakcija u Škotskoj, dvorac, zajedno s gradom Edinburgom, UNESCO je uvrstio na popis svjetske baštine.

Rana povijest

Smješten na vulkanskom stjenovitom izdanku s strmim liticama s tri strane, dvorac Edinburgh dominira obzorjem glavnog grada Škotske. Zauzeće mjesta proteže se još u brončano doba, a arheološka istraživanja otkrila su da je vrh litice umjetno poravnat c. 900 pne. U 1. i 2. stoljeću prije Krista, tijekom željeznog doba, na tom je mjestu bila utvrda na vrhu brda tipična za to razdoblje. Ova je utvrda vjerojatno bila glavni grad plemena Votadini. Utvrda, uglavnom sastavljena od drveta i zemljanih radova, imala je ulaz zaštićen s dva ogromna jarka. Zgrade unutar utvrde također su bile izrađene od drveta, a mnoge su imale kamene podove i ognjišta. Na mjestu postoje i dokazi o sustavu odvodnje kamena. O trgovini između Votadinija i Rimljana u južnoj i središnjoj Britaniji svjedoče nalazi uvoznog nakita.

Utvrda je bila poznata kao Din Eidyn, ime koje je kasnije anglicizirano u Edinburgh.

Dvorac se prvi put pojavljuje u književnosti početkom 7. stoljeća prije Krista zbirkom pjesničkih stihova poznatih kao Gododdin. U to vrijeme to je bilo mjesto utvrde koju je sagradilo istoimeno pleme, koje je tada kontroliralo dijelove južne Škotske i sjeverne Engleske. Utvrda je bila poznata kao Din Eidyn, ime koje je kasnije anglicizirano u Edinburgh nakon što su Angli osvojili Gododdin i zauzeli ga. Nastavljajući se kao tvrđava u ranom srednjem vijeku, nažalost, nisu ostali dijelovi dvorca ili utvrda prije 11. stoljeća prije Krista, a postoji samo nekoliko relikvija koje pripadaju ljudima koji su tu nekad živjeli.

Srednjovjekovni dvorac

Sveta Margareta Škotska (oko 1046-1093) bila je, kao druga žena Malcolma III (r. 1058-1093), kraljica Škotske od 1070. do svoje smrti u studenom 1093. Njezina vladavina i doprinos širenju Rimljana Katoličanstvo u njezinom kraljevstvu obilježeno je u normanskoj kapeli izgrađenoj u dvorcu Edinburgh, danas najstarijem izvornom dijelu tvrđave. Privatnu kapelu najvjerojatnije je oko 1130. godine sagradio Margaretin sin David I Škotski (r. 1124-1153). David je započeo gradnju mnogih dvoraca u Škotskoj, među kojima je bio i dvorac Edinburgh gdje je vjerojatno sagradio dvorac u normanskom stilu.

Unatoč svom zastrašujućem izgledu na moćnoj stijeni i relativnoj samodostatnosti u vodi, zahvaljujući Fore Fore, dvorac se pokazao kao razočaranje kada su u pitanju opsade. Nakon zauzimanja Williama I. Škotskog (r. 1165-1214), Englezi su preuzeli kontrolu nad dvorcem između 1174. i 1186. Dvorac je vraćen, ali je 1296. Edward I. od Engleske (r. 1272-1307) uspio dobiti pristup nakon samo trodnevne opsade. Thomas Randolph, grof od Moraya vratio je kontrolu nad dvorcem od tamošnjeg engleskog garnizona 1314. godine tijekom borbe za uspostavu Brucea kao kraljevske kuće Škotske.

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'Davidov toranj' nekad je bio visok 30 metara i na mjestu kraljevskih odaja otprilike jedno stoljeće nakon što je završen sredinom 1370-ih godina prije Krista.

Robert Bruce (r. 1306-1329), bez sumnje nije bio impresioniran zapisom tvrđava, zatim je srušio dvorac do temelja 1314. godine, uglavnom kao sigurno sredstvo kako bi osigurao da ga Englezi nikada nisu iskoristili ako su ikada zarobili opet stijena. Engleske snage doista su zauzele kaštel 1335. godine i počele su obnavljati dvorac. Međutim, mala škotska sila predvođena Sir Williamom Douglasom prerušila se u trgovce i povratila dvorac Škotskoj 1341. godine.

Novi kraljevski dvorac postao je veliki projekt sina i nasljednika Roberta Brucea, Davida II Škotskog (r. 1329-1371). David je dodao ogroman novi toranj, inspiriran možda sličnim novim dodatkom dvorcu Windsor u Engleskoj. 'Davidov toranj', kako je postalo poznato, nekad je bio visok 30 metara (100 stopa) i bio je mjesto kraljevskih odaja otprilike jedno stoljeće nakon što je završen sredinom 1370-ih godina prije Krista. Jakov I. Škotski (r. 1406-1437) pred kraj svoje vladavine dodao je još jedan toranj odmah iza Davidovog tornja, koji je sadržavao veliku dvoranu namijenjenu banketima. U konačnici, ova ‘Velika odaja’ zamijenila je kraljevske odaje u Davidovoj kuli. Bila je to ili Velika odaja tornja Jakova I. ili Velika dvorana Davidovog tornja koja je ugostila jednu od najzloglasnijih epizoda 1440., takozvanu 'crnu večeru'. Do ovog obroka došlo je kad je pratnja mladog Jakova II Škotskog (r. 1437-1460. N. E.) Ugostila dva mlada nasljednika moćnog klana Douglas. Dječaci iz Douglasa pozvani su na večeru dovoljno srdačno, ali su im te večeri predstavljeni bikova glava na pladnju. To je bio znak za odvođenje i pogubljenje dječaka.

Nije ostalo mnogo od ovih srednjovjekovnih dodataka dvorcu, a većina današnjih zgrada datira iz vremena vladavine Jakova IV Škotskog (r. 1488-1513). Davidov toranj, na primjer, srušio se tijekom opsade, a njegove ruševine sada su potpuno prekrivene baterijom Polumjeseca. Krunski trg (prije poznat kao Velika parada i koji se nalazio u blizini nekadašnjeg mjesta Davidove kule) stvorio je Jakov III Škotski (r. 1460-1488) i još uvijek opstaje kao dvorište koje je postalo simbolično srce kraljevske obitelji domaće odaje u dvorcu po uzoru na suvremene kraljevske rezidencije kontinentalne Europe. Velika srednjovjekovna utvrda napokon je započela svoju transformaciju u palaču.

Rano moderni dvorac

Jakov IV koristio je dvorac kao kraljevsku rezidenciju, ali njegova uloga tvrđave nije bila potpuno zaboravljena, kralj ga je iskoristio kao spremište topničkih komada kraljevstva. Kralj James je dvorcu dodao i novu Veliku dvoranu (dovršena oko 1510.), koja je tada ugostila škotski parlament. Velika dvorana kroz stoljeća je preživjela kariranu povijest, a najviši su se nalazi koristili za državne domjenke, dok su niski bili njezina upotreba kao vojne vojarne, a zatim i bolnice u 19. stoljeću. Strop koji se danas vidi u hodniku kasnosrednjovjekovni je izvor, analiza je pokazala da su hrastove grede izvorno potjecale iz šuma u Norveškoj c. 1510. Kraljevska palača na Trgu krune sada je bila potpuna i bila je mjesto prvog i posljednjeg kraljevskog rođenja dvorca, budućeg Jakova VI Škotskog (zvanog James I od Engleske, r. 1603.-1625.) 19. lipnja 1566. godine. .

Dvorac se ponovno nije uspio održati tijekom četverodnevne opsade 1573. godine, kada je engleska vojska s topovima bombardirala pristaše svrgnute Marije, kraljice Škotske (r. 1542-1567) u brzo podnošenje. Nakon opsade, obrana dvorca na istočnoj strani dodana je masivna polukružna baterija, baterija polumjeseca. Baterija se mogla pohvaliti skupinom brončanih topova poznatih kao 'Sedam sestara'. Ovaj dodatak tipizirao je primarnu ulogu dvorca kao tvrđave, monarsi sada radije borave umjesto u udobnijoj palači Holyroodhouse, također u glavnom gradu. Dvorac Edinburgh koristio se kao rezidencija nekih državnih dužnosnika, a postao je dom nacionalnih arhiva, arsenal i povremeni zatvor.

Obnovljeni dvorac doista je sada bio veći izazov za napadače, što pokazuju duge opsade 1640. godine tijekom Ratova za savez i 1650. Oliver Cromwell (1599.-1658.). Tijekom ostatka 17. i točno kroz 18. stoljeće dvorac je postao vojna vojarna - kapelica svete Margarete čak se koristila za skladištenje topničkog streljiva - i logor za ratne zarobljenike, poput Jakovitske pobune (1745. -1746.) i Napoleonovih ratova (1803.-1815.), između ostalih sukoba. Tijekom godina zatvorenici su postajali sve međunarodniji i kretali su se od gusara s Kariba do Amerikanaca zarobljenih tijekom Rata za neovisnost (1775-1783). 1842. sagrađen je Vojni zatvor za neposlušne vojnike iz vlastite vojarne dvorca; maštovite kazne uključivale su nošenje topovskih kugli iz jednog dijela zatvorskog kompleksa u drugi. Tu je bila i vojna bolnica.

U prvim desetljećima 19. stoljeća dvorac je profitirao od velikog novog mimohoda, poznatog kao Esplanade, koji je reformirao paradni teren 1753. godine i pokrio nekadašnje mjesto javnih pogubljenja poznato kao Castle Hill. Ovaj otvoreni prostor svakog je kolovoza ugošćuje svjetski poznatu vojnu tetovažu Royal Edinburgh. Do daljnjeg preuređenja došlo je, osobito na vratima i Velikoj vijećnici u posljednjoj četvrtini 19. stoljeća, kao dio novog procesa jačanja nacionalnog ponosa Škotske, trend koji je dodatno dokazan u izgradnji Škotskog nacionalnog ratnog spomenika na stijeni u 1927., dovoljno prikladno mjesto s obzirom na to da je sam dvorac bio podvrgnut bombardiranju Zeppelina tijekom Prvog svjetskog rata (1914-1918).

Dvorac danas

Dvorac Edinburgh danas je, s više od milijun posjetitelja godišnje, najpopularnije škotsko turističko odredište. Osim što je impresivan spomenik sam po sebi sa svakim kamenom natopljenim u povijesti, dvorac je i dom Nacionalnog ratnog muzeja i tri muzeja pukovnije. Kao dio grada Edinburga, dvorac je UNESCO proglasio Svjetskom kulturnom baštinom, čast dodijeljena 1995. godine.

Glavna vrata dvorca nalaze se na istočnoj strani, jedinoj pristupačnoj strani stjenovite visoravni, a izgrađena su 1888. godine kako bi zamijenila mnogo stariju strukturu. Datira iz 1570 -ih (nakon gore navedene opsade iz 1573.), drugi set vrata kroz koja se prolazi uključuje lučni otvor i nekoć je bio pojačan s tri dodatna para drvenih vrata. Vrh ove građevine, Argyle Tower, dograđen je 1887. Dodatna unutarnja vrata su Foogova vrata koja datiraju iz drugog dijela 17. stoljeća prije Krista. Odmah nakon vrata Portcullis je let od 70 kamenih stepenica, stepenice Lang, koje vode do srca dvorca. Manje umorna ruta je popločana cesta ravno ispred, izgrađena u 17. stoljeću kako bi se omogućilo uvlačenje moćnih topova u dvorac.

Guvernerova kuća zgrada je iz 1742. u gruzijskom stilu i službena rezidencija guvernera koji djeluje kao zapovjednik vojske u Škotskoj. Nova vojarna, dovršena 1799., funkcionira kao vojna vojarna i ugošćuje Muzej pukovnije Kraljevske škotske dragunske garde. U blizini Drill Hall nalazi se Muzej kraljevskih Škota i Kraljevska pukovnija Škotske. Konačno, jedan od zanimljivijih kutaka dvorca je groblje pasa. Ovo je stvoreno 1840-ih i rezervirano za vjerne četveronožne pratioce vojnika u vojarnama i pukovnijske maskote poput Dobblera (umro 1893), koji je pratio gorštake Argyll i Sutherland do njegovih južnoafričkih zemalja, Šri Lanke i Kine tijekom svojih devet godina aktivne službe.

Ovaj najveći škotski dvorac sadrži mnoge povijesno važne objekte, a među njima je glavni kamen Scone. Također poznat kao kamen sudbine, blok pješčenjaka povezivan je s krunisanjem srednjovjekovnih škotskih kraljeva u opatiji Scone na otoku Scone u Perthshireu. Legenda kaže da će škotski kraljevi vladati samo tamo gdje se kamen nalazi. Kamen je konačno uklonjen škotskom narodu iz Škotske od strane engleskog Edwarda I 1296. godine 1296. godine.

Uz Stone of Scone u krunskoj prostoriji dvorca nalaze se predmeti škotskih kraljevskih regalija zajednički poznatih pod imenom Honors. Ovi predmeti datiraju iz 16. stoljeća i sastoje se od krune, žezla i državnog mača. Prvi put su zajedno upotrijebljeni pri krunidbi Marije, kraljice Škotske 1543. u dvorcu Stirling. Premješteni na različita mjesta, a zatim zaključani u škrinju u zapečaćenoj prostoriji u dvorcu tijekom mučne povijesti Škotske s Engleskom, krunske dragulje ponovno je otkrio veliki romanopisac i povjesničar Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) 1818. Veličanstvene regalije nitko nije vidio više od stoljeća, ali je ubrzo stavljen na javni prikaz u krunskoj sobi gdje se i danas nalaze. S godinama je dodano još nakita za obogaćivanje kolekcije, a to uključuje Stewart Jewels s velikim rubinskim prstenom za koji je rekao da ga je nosio Karlo I. od Engleske (r. 1625.-1649.) Tijekom njegova krunidbe u Westminsterskoj opatiji.

Čuveni top Mons Meg sada se nalazi u dvorcu Edinburgh, topničkom djelu izgrađenom sredinom 15. stoljeća prije Krista, vjerojatno za Jakova II Škotskog. Masivni top teži šest tona i jednom je ispalio topovske kugle promjera 48 cm (19 inča) na udaljenosti od 3,2 km (2 milje). Odveden u londonski Tower 1754., Mons Meg je dobio čast pune vojne pratnje i vratio se u dvorac Edinburgh 1829. Još jedan top, poznatiji po svom zvuku u cijelom gradu nego po svom izgledu, je pištolj One O'clock , koji se ispaljuje svaki dan u 13 sati (osim nedjelje), tradicija koja je započela 1861. godine kao navigacijska pomoć brodovima u prolazu.


Legende i misterije koje okružuju dvorac Edinburgh

Jedne noći u kolovozu prije nekoliko stoljeća, vatrenocrveni, pjegavi i iscrpljeni momak u tartal-kiltu koji mu je dao otac, istrošenim otrcanim cipelama koje su najvjerojatnije pripadale njegovom pradjedu, a gajda je bila vezana oko tankog tijelo je poslano niz tajni tunel da vidi kuda vodi.

Čitava mreža podzemnih tunela otkrivena je ispod Kraljevske milje, nizbrdice koja povezuje dvorac Edinburgh i palaču Holyrood u gradu Edinburghu, ranije poznatom kao Dunedin, ili Atena na sjeveru kako su ga neki zvali zbog sličnosti s gradom bogova u Grčkoj.

Dječak je trebao ući u tunel blizu vrha Kraljevske milje, svirajući melodiju dok je hodao duboko pod zemljom. Mislilo se da će izaći s druge strane — gdje god to bilo. Njegov napredak bilježili bi ljudi na terenu, potpomognuti zvukom njegove glazbe. Bar je to bio plan.

Pogled na Edinburgh, Škotska, viđen s Calton Hilla – 13. srpnja 2017. Na slici se dvorac Edinburgh može vidjeti na vrhu brda u kojem se nalazi Stari grad škotske prijestolnice.

No onda je, na pola puta Mile, glazba odjednom prestala. Prozvali su dječakovo ime, ali nitko se nije javio. Pročešljali su tunel & odlazeći koliko su se usudili & tražili su ga. Nigdje ga nije bilo. Nije mu bilo ni traga ni mršavog tijela i gajdi na kojima je svirao. Dječak je otišao, a nitko nije znao zašto.

Prošle su stotine godina i svakog kolovoza u gradu se održava Edinburgh Military Tattoo event. Na samom kraju, nakon svih tradicionalnih kilt parada škotske pukovnije i svih pjesama koje su svirale stotine bubnjara, a još više gajdaši, jedan svirač, koji stoji sam i istaknut visoko na bedemima dvorca Edinburgh, svira turobnu melodiju njegove cijevi.

Vojna tetovaža u Edinburghu 2011. Fotografija: LA (Phot) Sally Stimson/MOD

Bilo je čudnih izvještaja o melodiji koja se čula u odajama dvorca, a koja se čini da dolazi niotkuda. Neki ljudi kažu da su to čuli dok su hodali Kraljevskom miljom. Lokalna legenda kaže da je ovo uplakana pjesma izgubljene duše čiji duh, vječno lutajući tunelima ispod grada, nastavlja svirati svoje gajde tražeći izlaz.

Stoga možda usamljeni svirač svake godine svira žalosnu melodiju u spomen na izgubljenog dječaka. Ili, ako ne on, onda sigurno svi oni koji su izgubili živote unutar ili ispred zidina pokušavajući obraniti ili preuzeti najveće uporište Škotske.

Dvorac je postao prepoznatljiv simbol Edinburga i Škotske. Fotografija: Andrea Vail CC by 2.0

Rijetko postoji mjesto na planeti koje se može mjeriti s dugotrajnom i živopisnom poviješću Edinburškog dvorca — koje, smješteno na vrhu ostataka drevnog ugašenog vulkana, upravlja gradskim obzorjem prepunim priča i legendi iz davnih dana. .

Velika dvorana, dvorac Edinburgh Vraćen je bivšoj slavi, iako je u svojoj povijesti više puta korišten kao vojarna. Fotografija: Mike Pennington CC BY-SA 2.0

Dvorac se nalazi na vrhu Castle Rocka, vulkanskog čepa koji je nastao prije 350 milijuna godina i služio je kao rano ljudsko naselje u brončanom dobu. Iskopavanja provedena devedesetih godina prošlog stoljeća pokazala su dokaze o nastanjivanju arheologa koji datiraju da alati iz brončanog doba koje su otkrili datiraju već 850. godine prije Krista.

Arheološki dokazi ukazuju na to da je mjesto na kojem su ti ljudi živjeli bilo poznato kao "Aluana" ili "kameno mjesto", a zbog svog prirodnog utvrđenja, Castle Rock je naselje i vojna baza još od — tvrdnje koja ga čini najdužim naseljeno područje u zemlji.

Dvorac je izgrađen na vulkanskoj stijeni, kako se ovdje vidi s područja Zapadne luke Fotografija Kim Traynor CC BY-SA 3.0

To je mjesto toliko staro da je do trenutka kada se dvorac prvi put službeno spominje u povijesnoj literaturi njegovo ime i osnivanje već bili obavijeni mitom i legendama.

Prva je vezana za poznate arturijanske legende, točnije za stranice srednjovjekovne velške epske pjesme Y Gododdin. Prema ovom vrijednom djelu literature iz 7. stoljeća poslije Krista, tvrđava pod imenom "Dvorac djevojaka" služila je kao utočište "Devet djevojaka", od kojih je jedna bila moćna čarobnica Morgan le Fay, kralj Arturov odani zaštitnik.

Telefoto snimak dvorca Edinburgh na prekrasnom plavom nebu, Škotska, Velika Britanija.

Još jedan dokument, ali ovaj put ne velškog nego škotskog podrijetla, Orygynale Cronykil iz Škotske koju je napisao Andrew iz Wyntouna, sugerira da je u ranijim vremenima Ebraucus, kralj Britanaca, podigao utvrdu pod nazivom "Djevojački dvorac".

8 najstarijih dvoraca iz cijelog svijeta

Međutim, dvorac Edinburgh, impozantno zdanje koje poznajemo danas, potječe iz 12. stoljeća kada je David I, sin svete Margarete Škotske, prvi podigao (barem službeno) dvorac na Castle Rocku u ljubavnom sjećanju na svoju majku.

Priča kaže da se 1070. godine poslije Krista škotski kralj Malcolm III oženio engleskom princezom koja je zbog svoje poštenosti i velikodušne naravi postala poznata kao Sveta Margareta Škotska, stekavši reputaciju "Škotskog bisera".

Malcolm i Margaret kako su prikazani u oružanom listu iz 16. stoljeća.

Njen muž je poginuo u bitci, a ona, tužna i slomljena srca, umrla je nekoliko dana nakon što je čula vijest. Njezin sin David I izgradio je veliki dvorac na Castle Rocku i čudesnu kapelu u njezinu čast.

Napetosti su rasle između Engleske i Škotske do kraja 12. stoljeća i čini se kao da su se monarhi i plemići gotovo uvijek usredotočili na Edinburgh i gradski dvorac. On koji ga je držao kontrolirao je grad Edinburgh, a time i Škotsku.

Tako je s vremenom stekao pravo da ga se naziva "braniteljem nacije", pa je iz istog razloga više puta bio pod opsadom. Prva značajna bitka bila je krajem 13. stoljeća kada je Edward Longshanks (Edward I. od Engleske) pokušao zauzeti dvorac i zauzeti škotsko prijestolje. Ipak je to bio tek početak.

Detalj sa suvremenog crteža Edinburškog dvorca pod opsadom 1573., koji prikazuje okružen napadnim baterijama.

Tijekom svoje opsežne povijesti dvorac Edinburgh bio je napadnut, opkoljen i napadnut 23 puta, više nego bilo koje mjesto u Britaniji ili bilo koji drugi dvorac na svijetu. Polovica tih bitaka odigrala se u kratkom razdoblju od 50 godina kada je dvorac išao naprijed-natrag između škotskih i engleskih ruku tijekom Ratova za neovisnost (1296-1341), tijekom kojih je dvorac Edinburgh bio gotovo potpuno uništen.

Margaret ’s Kapela dvorca Edinburgh u Edinburghu, Škotska.

Kad je Robert Bruce opsjedao 1314., uništio je svaku zgradu osim jedne: Margaretinu kapelu, koja i danas stoji netaknuta i najstarija je sačuvana zgrada u Škotskoj.

Prikaz dvorca s kraja 16. stoljeća s Braun & amp Hogenberg ’s ‘Civitates Orbis Terrarum ’ s Davidovim tornjem u središtu.

Popravke dvorca izvodio je Škotski David II u 14. stoljeću. Ali Edinburgh, dvorac i škotski narod nisu smjeli ostati na miru.

Engleska je pokušala ponovno zauzeti "branitelja nacije" i samu naciju u više navrata, opsjedajući dvorac nakon opsade jednog od njih protiv Marije, kraljice Škotske 1573. godine, koja je trajala pune dvije godine.

Dvorac Edinburgh, kako je možda izgledao prije opsade Langa 1571-73, s Davidovim tornjem i blokom palače, u sredini i lijevo.

1650. Oliver Cromwell uspio je u pokušajima da zauzme dvorac, ubivši Charlesa I., posljednjeg škotskog monarha koji je sjeo na prijestolje u Edinburghu.

Od tada je dvorac izgubio status. Umjesto da bude branitelj nacije, pretvoren je u zatvor u kojem su se nalazile tisuće vojnih i političkih zatvorenika iz Sedmogodišnjeg rata, Američke revolucije i Napoleonovih ratova. Možda su čuli tajanstvenu melodiju gajde u zamrakama tamnica zbog koje su se zapitali gube li polako, ali sigurno razum.

Sjajna prijestolnica Škotske danas je drugi po posjećenosti grad u Velikoj Britaniji (prvi je to London, naravno), a milijuni ljudi iz cijelog svijeta putuju tamo kako bi vidjeli njegova brojna mjesta svjetske baštine, prekrasne glazbene festivale, povijesne rekonstrukcije i sve vrsta osebujnih mjesta koja pričaju o duhovima, čudovištima ili legendarnim narodnim herojima.

Dvorac Edinburgh slovi kao najtraženiji i najposjećeniji grad u gradu. Uz takvu povijest i toliko legendi vezanih uz nju, ne čudi.

Ono što vrijedi, melodija gajde uvijek se može čuti na ulicama u Edinburghu. Dolazi li od davno izgubljenog dječaka negdje duboko ispod ulica, ili odmah iza ugla? Jedini način da to saznate je da sami provjerite. Jer ako netko traži čaroliju, grad i njegov veliki dvorac čarobni su i legendarni koliko je mjesto moguće dobiti.

Martin Chalakoski je slobodni pisac privučen poviješću i fasciniran neobičnostima. Surađivao je s Napuštenim prostorima i stalno doprinosi The Vintage News.


10 nevjerojatnih činjenica o dvorcu Edinburgh

1. Dvorac se nalazi na vrhu vulkana.

Posljednja vulkanska eksplozija dogodila se prije gotovo 350 milijuna godina! Postoji mnogo arheoloških dokaza koji su dokazali da je tamo postojao i život prije eksplozija.

Posljednja eksplozija dovela je do stvaranja Castle Rocka. Arhitekti su izgradili dvorac još u 12. stoljeću. Mislim, koliko su bili optimistični u izgradnji utvrde na vrhu vulkana i nadali se da nikada neće eruptirati? Šalu na stranu, to je zapanjujuće stanje u umjetničkom stvaralaštvu i simbol je rivalstva Engleske i Škotske.

O suparništvu i zauzimanju dvorca Edinburgh razgovarat ćemo kasnije.

2. Dvorac je najugroženije mjesto u cijeloj Škotskoj.

Ovaj dvorac je vjerojatno vidio nebrojene neprijateljske snage i zaplijenjen je gotovo 23 puta! Ovo je jedno od najtežih utvrda u cijeloj Europi.

Neki od najznačajnijih sukoba u škotskoj povijesti dvorca su sljedeći –

  • Opsada Longshanksa 1296: Edward I napustio je dvorac u ruševinama i opljačkao grad, otpremivši sve dragulje i blago u London
  • Lang Siege- U ovom zauzimanju utvrda se suprotstavila vladinim snagama, braneći se. To je trajalo gotovo dvije godine, od 1571. do 1573. Konačno, garnizon je nastavio podupirati Mariju kraljicu Škota.
  • Jakobitski ustanak 1745. godine: Bonny Prince Charlie učinio je mnogo pokušaja, ali nije uspio zauzeti dvorac.

Ovo su bili neki od zloglasnih slučajeva koji su se dogodili u dvorcu Edinburgh.

3. Dvorac ima najstariju zgradu u Škotskoj.

Kapela sv. Margarete, koja se nalazi na istom mjestu, jedna je od najstarijih zgrada koje još uvijek čvrsto stoje u Škotskoj.

Dvorac je građen tijekom dugog razdoblja, a mnoge njegove zgrade brutalno su opljačkane tijekom različitih ratova ili kada je utvrda zauzeta.

Kapela sv. Margarete izgrađena je još u 12. stoljeću. Margaret je bila supružnik Malcolma III., Koji je bio poznat po svojoj svetosti i čistoći i umro je od slomljenog srca samo tri dana nakon prerane Malcolmove smrti na bojnom polju.

Ovo je bila jedna od rijetkih građevina koja je ostala nepromijenjena kada je Robert Bruce zauzeo i opljačkao kraljevsku palaču davne 1314. godine.

4. Misterij škotskih krunskih dragulja.

Krunski dragulji poznati su i kao “Honours of Scotland ”. Kruna, žezlo i državni mač čine Škotske časti. Sve se to u stara vremena koristilo za krunidbu novih prinčeva i kraljeva.

Bilo je puno drugih britanskih regalija, ali ovaj je par jedini pobjegao iz ruku Olivera Cromwella. On je iskorijenio ostale.

Kasnije nakon Unije 1707., Engleska i Škotska ujedinjene su pod istom krunom. Škotske časti su nakon toga čuvane u sefu, dobro skrivenom u dvorcu Edinburgh.

Ta je činjenica potpuno izbrisana iz svijesti ljudi. Gotovo stoljeće kasnije, u 18. stoljeću, Sir Walter Scott otkrio je počasti. I opet su vraćeni na svjetlo dana da ih obični ljudi vide.

Tijekom svjetskog rata, to je ponovno prikriveno, jer je postojala bojazan da bi to blago moglo doći u ruke Nijemaca. Sada postoji aranžman za javnu izložbu ovih krunskih dragulja Škotske.

5. Dvorac ima zlokobnu prisutnost.

Rečeno je da se duh Usamljene lupe još uvijek zadržava oko nekoliko stotina prolaza Edinburškog dvorca. Mladić je upućen u povjerljive hodnike koji su se nalazili ispod dvorca Edinburgh. Dobili su upute da svira svoje svirale.

To bi pomoglo stručnjacima da označe i utvrde gdje su vodili podzemni prolazi. Pajdaš se udaljio od svog kursa i zalutao od prolaza.

Više se nitko nije čuo s njim. Čak i do danas postoji neki začuđujući osjećaj kad se siđe u tamnice, a noću se može slušati jezive, sablasne melodije lule.

Postoje i potresnije priče o dvorcu Edinburgh, ali do njih ćemo doći kasnije.

6. Stari pištolj dvorca Edinburgh

Tijekom vladavine škotskih monarha nije bilo iPhonea ili Rolex satova.

Kad su brodovi prešli Firth Of Forth, navigatori i mornari su se neko vrijeme veselili dvorcu Edinburgh. Dužnost dvorca je bila otkriti vrijeme pucanjem na pištolj od 18 kilograma.

Navigatori su namjestili svoje kronometre i nastavili put. Ova stara priča o ženama#8217 sada je tradicija koju i dalje slijede ljudi iz dvorca.

7. Dvorac je djelovao kao rezidencija slona.

78. gorštaci vratili su se u dvorac Edinburgh iz Šri Lanke. Sa sobom su doveli i slona.

Budući da je bila jedna od glavnih pješačkih vojarni, slon je živio sa suborcima. Slon je bio vatreni ljubitelj piva i običavao je posjetiti kantinu dvorca radi kriglice. Više njegovih znakova možete pronaći u Nacionalnom ratnom muzeju Škotske.

8. KGB je promijenio Dvorac.

Škotski kralj Jame IV bio je pomalo paranoičan u pogledu ljudi koji su mu išli iza leđa. Vladao je tijekom 16. stoljeća i naredio da se izbuše rupe u zidu kako bi prisluškivali njegove kurtizane. To su se zvale ‘laird ’s lugs, ’ što znači kraljevske uši.

Kasnije, kada je sovjetski predsjednik Mihail Gorbačov posjetio Edinburgh, KGB je naredio da se sve rupe zacementiraju i opeku. Čovjek nikada nije prestar za špijunažu.

9. Nebrojeni ratni zarobljenici.

Osim što je držao 21 Pirata s Kariba, dvorac u Edinburghu zatvorio je i nekoliko Amerikanaca tijekom Rata za neovisnost. Prkosan isklesanje američke zastave u tamnicama utvrde Edinburgh ostaje kao dokaz činjenice.

10. Pseće groblje!

Pseći pratitelji škotskih bataljuna drže rezervirano i jedinstveno mjesto u tvrđavi. Maskota 42. gorštaka Black Watch-a, Jess i Dobbler, koji su pratili Argyll i Sutherland Highlanders u njihovim pothvatima diljem Kine, Šri Lanke i Južne Afrike- drže nezaboravna mjesta.

Njihova odanost i suosjećanje vrijedni su pažnje i ovdje su dobili veliko poštovanje pokopavši ih pored vojnika koji su dali svoje živote u bitkama u Škotskoj.

Ulaz na groblje se poštuje, ali je vidljiv iz gornje baterije Argyll.

Iako su činjenice očaravajuće, povijest Edinburga zasigurno će vas zadubiti u misli do kraja dana!


Povijest dvorca Edinburgh: 900 godina štiti glavni grad Škotske

Procjenjuje se da je u Škotskoj nekada bilo oko 3.000 dvoraca, ali jedan stoji uzvišeno nad ostatkom: povijest dvorca Edinburgh obilježena je nasiljem, političkim i vjerskim spletkama te usponom i padom monarha.

Ipak, danas je Edinburgova kultna tvrđava najplaćenija turistička atrakcija u zemlji. Unutra možete vidjeti neke od najcjenjenijih posjeda zemlje, uključujući Škotske počasti ili Škotske krunske dragulje.

Podrijetlo dvorca Edinburgh

Sjedeći na vrhu ugašenog vulkana, dvorac Edinburgh nudi izvrsnu vidikovcu diljem grada. Bilo je to prirodno mjesto za zgradu koja je kombinirala obranu, kontrolu i čast.

Najstariji postojeći dio dvorca - koji je ujedno i najstarija građevina u Edinburghu - je kapela sv. Margarete, koja datira iz 12. stoljeća.

Kapelicu je sagradio kralj David I. u spomen na svoju majku, kraljicu Margaretu (kasnije sv. Margaretu).

S vremenom je kralj David II dodao Davidovu kulu koja je bila stambenog i obrambenog dizajna. Velika dvorana djelo je kralja Jakova IV. Njegova ključna značajka je drveni krov s gredama naslonjenim na kamenje s ugraviranim simbolima Škotske i njezinih monarha. Danas njegovi zidovi blistaju impresivnim prikazom mačeva, štitova, oklopa i oružja.

Napadi na dvorac Edinburgh

Kao vojno uporište i najprestižnija građevina u glavnom gradu Škotske, dvorac Edinburgh je više puta zarobljen i ponovo zarobljen. Zapravo, opkoljen je više nego bilo koje drugo mjesto u Britaniji, s 23 zabilježena pokušaja 'zauzimanja dvorca'. Taking the castle wasn’t just a tactical coup for Scotland’s enemies but a blow to the morale of the Scots. Violent tensions, often between England and Scotland, are now consigned to the history books but conflicts were brutal and unforgiving.

Captured in 1296 by England’s King Edward I, the Scots reclaimed it with a night attack in 1314. The English successfully attacked again in 1335 before, in 1341, Scots disguised as merchants took it back. Cromwell’s forces occupied the castle in 1650. At one point it was even handed over to the English as a ransom payment. It was captured twice by Covenanters in the 17th century, fighting against King Charles I’s imposition of Episcopacy. Bloody battles ensued with the Jacobites in the 18th century.

The ascent of King James VI

As a thriving tourist attraction today, the Royal Palace within Edinburgh Castle is a big draw as it was the home of Scotland’s kings and queens. A highlight is a small room where events unfolded that changed British history. In 1566 the birth chamber saw the arrival of a little boy, son of Mary, Queen of Scots, who was made King James VI of Scotland just a year later.

Mary, Queen of Scots’ strained relations with England led her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I, to sign her death warrant. When Queen Elizabeth I died without issue, the bloodlines led back to Mary’s son James. In 1603 the crowns of England and Scotland were united and James VI of Scotland also became King James I of England and Ireland.

In 1617 King James I returned to Edinburgh Castle to celebrate his Golden Jubilee. His birth chamber was redecorated for the occasion: it’s still possible to see the gilded decoration.

Scotland’s Crown Jewels

Scotland’s Crown Jewels, or the Honours of Scotland, are on display in the Crown Room. These include a sceptre presented to King James IV by Pope Alexander VI in 1494 a sword, gifted in 1507 by Pope Julius II and the crown, which was first worn for the coronation of Mary of Guise in 1540.

As potent symbols of the Scottish monarchy, protecting the jewels was paramount. In the 1650s, the Honours were whisked to Dunnottar Castle, in the northeast of Scotland, then onto the small village of Kinneff, to evade Cromwell’s Parliamentarian Army.

After the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, they were locked away and not seen again until 1818. During WWII the Honours of Scotland were tucked away below a medieval latrine closet in case of Nazi invasion.

Another key attraction is the Stone of Destiny. Present at the coronation of Scottish monarchs for centuries, the stone – while unassuming to look at – is powerfully symbolic. In 1296, King Edward I of England removed the stone from Scone Palace in Perthshire and had it built into his own throne at Westminster Abbey.

On Christmas Day in 1950, four Scottish students managed to steal the stone. Its disappearance caused uproar and its location was a mystery until it was found, draped in The Saltire, outside Arbroath Abbey in 1951. This was no random drop off point but the site where the Declaration of Arbroath – in which Scotland’s nobles swore their independence from England – was written in 1320. The stone was returned to London until, in 1996, it was given back to Scotland. It will only leave the country again for a coronation at Westminster Abbey.

Edinburgh’s military links

Edinburgh Castle’s colourful military past has created other poignant sites on the sprawling complex, which adds a brutal reality to the tales of invasion, duplicity and heroics. The National War Museum of Scotland first opened in 1933 and covers 400 years of conflict. The Prisons of War exhibition tells of the inmates who languished in the castle, from pirates captured off Argyll to a five-year-old drummer boy from the Battle of Trafalgar.

The Royal Scots Dragoon Guards still have a small military garrison at the castle, but it’s the National War Memorial that often stops people in their tracks. It opened in 1927, when the architect Sir Robert Lorimer and 200 Scottish artists and craftsmen first created a Hall of Honour and Shrine, which features delicate stained glass and sculptures dedicated to Scotland’s lost generations and the names of the fallen on the Rolls of Honour.

The One O’ Clock Gun

One of the greatest appeals of Edinburgh Castle is that it’s still part of the city’s daily life. The firing of the One O’Clock Gun, which once allowed ships in the Firth of Forth to set their maritime clocks, still marks time in ‘Auld Reekie’. The Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo and summer concerts are also huge draws.

And the biggest party of the year is, of course, Hogmanay, where new year celebrations see fireworks light up the skies, musicians performing and revellers partying as the nation – and the whole world – celebrate with the people of Edinburgh and its mighty castle.


Edinburgh Castle, The Story of A Magnificent and Historic Castle


Prior to joining the United Kingdom, Scotland is a kingdom of its own under the name Kingdom of Scotland. As an empire, of course, Scotland also has a castle as the residence of the royal family as well as the bastion. The castle is Edinburgh Castle, the most important building in the history of Scotland at the same time most iconic landmarks and buildings in the city of Edinburgh and even Scotland.

Dvorac Edinburgh stands majestically on the Castle Rock hill which has a height of 130 meters above sea level. This hill formed from the remains of a volcano that has erupted estimated at 340 million years ago.

Until the end of the prehistoric era, has not found evidence to suggest that this hill was inhabited. But then the area around the hill grown rapidly and become a civilization. In the year 683, the city was founded by British troops and later named as Edinburgh. Since then, Scotland have started to be colonized by the British forces with Castle Rock serve as one of the centers and military headquarters.

Edinburgh Castle is known was built in the 12th century by King David I. He was the youngest son of the ruler of Scotland before, that King Malcolm III with the daughter of the British empire which later became known as the Queen Margaret. The castle was built by using rocks from the volcano so it looks magnificent and sturdy .

One of the first buildings constructed in the complex of the castle is St Margaret’s Capel, built in memory of his mother. King David uses the castle as a center of military power as well as administrative center in Scotland. The desire of Scotland to escape from the British cause frequent conflicts between them, and the center of the conflict is of course always leads to mastery of Edinburgh Castle.

Which party has control of Edinburgh Castle is believed to have mastered the entire area of Scotland. A Scottish independence war which first occurred in 1926 when England led by King Edward I who invades Scotland and then mastered Edinburgh Castle. This raises the reaction and resistance of the people of Scotland, led by one of the greatest hero William Wallace.

Edinburgh Castle Image. Image Via: edinburghcastle.gov.uk

Edinburgh Castle on The Castle Rock Hill

Scotland’s independence war struggle continued until many years with continued by Robert the Bruce, one of the greatest kings of Scotland. During the war took place, either Scotland or England alternately occupied the Edinburgh Castle.

When Scotland re-mastered by the British, the two royal marriages are not uncommon. One is that King James IV of Scotland, married Margaret Tudor, the eldest daughter of Henry VII of England. The marriage would produce offspring Scottish king who has a British royal lineage.

So when the power vacuum in England after Queen Elizabeth I died without a male heir, James VI of Scotland who is the great-grandson of King James IV became the only offspring who is entitled to be king. Appointment of King James VI of Scotland became king of England marked the merging of the two kingdoms, and he was known as King James I of England.

Edinburgh Castle Scotland UK

Edinburgh Castle Scotland Photography. Image Via: dreamhouseapartments.com

Since then, Edinburgh Castle is no longer used as the residence of the king of Scotland. Last King of Scotland descent who masters English and Edinburgh Castle was King Charles I. After the reign of Charles I, Edinburgh Castle widely used by the British empire as a place to imprison prisoners of war, be it from the Seven Years War, the American Revolution until the Napoleonic Wars.

But the defection of events prisoners of this jail in 1811 makes this castle is no longer safe for use as a prison. Since then, Edinburgh Castle then functioned as a national monument and opened to the public. Renovations and improvements subsequently made to the castle in order to be more attractive for the visitors to come.

Edinburgh Castle is now known as one of the most attractive tourist destinations in the city of Edinburgh. The castle is in the form of a complex consisting of magnificent buildings in it. The building that will be first seen when entering the main gate is the Half Moon Battery, which is a ring-shaped high wall built on the ruins of David’s Tower.

This fortress was first used as one of the main defenses of the castle, complete with weapons and special chambers for storing ammunition. The room is now used as a gallery to display the artifacts and implements of war that remain. The main building and the most protected of course, is a building that is home to the royal family, the Royal Palace.

In place is then born great kings of Scotland, including the King James VI. The exterior of the building is decorated by the clock tower and became one of the most iconic among other buildings in the castle. The interior of the building is decorated with decorations and paintings which make it the most beautiful building.

One of the most interesting rooms is the Crown Room, a place to store and display objects that are symbols like the royal crown, robes, swords or armor king. Another magnificent room of the castle is the Great Hall, the most spacious room which is used as a place to hold ceremonies, including the appointment of a king or a formal banquet.

This building was built during the reign of King James IV in the 16th century, with a Renaissance-style interior design. In the era after the leadership of King Charles I, the hall is a barracks or shelter for the troops. A collection of various types of weapons and armor as well as the many amenities featured in this room.

One of the interesting attractions of Edinburgh Castle, is the One O’Clock Gun, the event shelling is done every day to indicate that the time has shown at 1 pm. Shelling was first performed in 1861 as a time marker signal for ships that are in the area, Firth of Forth, the water flows towards the sea to the north.

Although it is now shipping a marker signal that time is not necessary, but the shelling has become one of the attractions of interest to visitors. At first the shelling was held in the castle Half Moon Battery by using a 64-pounder cannon, now these attractions is done by using the 105 mm cannon on the ramparts overlooking the north, the Mill’s Mount Battery.

Edinburgh Castle Photo. Image Via: dailyrecord.co.uk

Edinburgh Castle Aerial View

In addition to these attractions, visitors will also be able to see a collection of guns and weapons owned by the castle, one of which is Mons Meg, one of the world’s most famous weapons. Edinburgh Castle still has a few pieces of other buildings were also magnificent and interesting, such as St. Margaret’s Capel which is the oldest building in the complex of the castle, dungeon, Scottish National War Memorial, and the National War Museum and Regimental Museum.

There are many historical, heroic stories, buildings and objects of interest that can be seen in the castle. During this visit the castle, visitors will be accompanied by an audio guide that will accompany the trip to explore the most magnificent buildings in Scotland. Visiting Edinburgh city would not be complete without visiting Edinburgh Castle.


A Turbulent Past

As conflicts continued between England and Scotland towards the end of the 12th century, Edinburgh and its castle became the focus of the invaders. It became obvious that whoever held the stronghold in their grasp, controlled the city of Edinburgh and consequently Scotland. The castle then earned the title of “the defender of the nation”.

When Robert the Bruce laid siege to Edinburgh Castle in 1314, he almost destroyed every building within the castle except for Margaret’s Chapel, which is now considered to be the oldest surviving building in Scotland.

England continuously tried to siege the castle and take hold of it one of those sieges was against Mary, Queen of Scots in 1573, which lasted for two full years. In 1650, the infamous Oliver Cromwell succeeded in his attempts to capture the castle, killing Charles I, the last monarch to rule Scotland from Edinburgh.

Afterwards, Edinburgh Castle was turned into a prison where thousands of military and political prisoners were held over the years from the Seven Years War, the American Revolution, and the Napoleonic Wars.

Nowadays, millions of people from all over the world travel to Scotland to visit its numerous world heritage sites, entertaining music festivals, historical re-enactments and get to know its mysterious tales and legends.

Edinburgh Castle is known as the most haunted castle in the city, so it’s no surprise it has so many visitors year round.

Edinburgh Castle Opening Times:

Last Entry one hour before closing time.

Ticket Prices:

Gate Prices:

Online Prices

A child ticket is for ages between 5 – 15. Concessions include the unemployed and over 60s.

Have you ever visited Edinburgh Castle? Comment below your experience and your favourite part of the Scottish Gem.


Edinburgh Castle to transform into ‘Castle of Light’

History is set to come to life at Edinburgh Castle this winter, as the iconic landmark is illuminated with tales from Scotland’s past.

The mesmerising 90-minute journey of light, sound and wonder, entitled Castle of Light, will treat guests to an evening of dazzling animations, never seen before at the castle in its 900 year history. Running over six weeks throughout the festive season, from Thursday 14 November to Sunday 22 December, the castle will be transformed using state-of-the-art projections and enchanting storytelling.

9-year-old Erin Kempton took to the castle to enjoy a sneak preview of what’s in store as Castle of Light was officially launched, with early bird tickets on sale from 9.30am tomorrow morning (Tuesday 3 September).

The countdown is now on to the event which will be the biggest light experience to hit the city centre, bringing together a consortium of the finest digital and visual talent in Scotland to create a truly immersive experience which will captivate locals and visitors alike every Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday.

Gillian Macdonald, Head of Business Development at Historic Environment Scotland (HES), which operates Edinburgh Castle, said: “Castle of Light invites visitors to watch the history of this iconic landmark come to life as it illuminates the very walls that saw it unfold.

“Using state-of-the-art projections to create a truly wonderful, immersive lighting adventure, this is sure to be a magical experience for all the family and we can’t wait for everyone to enjoy it."

Double Take Projections, NL Productions, Andy McGregor Design and War Productions Ltd are working together, in partnership with HES, to create an innovative illuminated walking tour, with timed entries between 5.30pm and 8.30pm.

Among them, the group have provided projection lightshows around the globe from The Enchanted Forest in Pitlochry to Sydney Opera House via the Forth Bridges and Blackpool Tower. The creation of this world class event, hosted in their home city, within such an iconic building, will be a truly unique experience.

Andy McGregor, Creative Director of Castle of Light, said:

“I grew up by the Meadows in the shadow of this rock but I'm now seeing the Castle with fresh eyes. As a team, we will be drawing on the history, geology, mythology and the sheer drama of the site to conjure a spectacle that we hope will excite, entertain and enlighten audiences of all ages and backgrounds. To a certain extent, it is like being given a set of (very big) keys to a (a very big) toy shop – but with rather more responsibility! - and we are thrilled to be involved in such an exciting project for this national treasure.”

Tickets for the Capital’s first light spectacular, set within the historic walls of Edinburgh Castle, go on sale tomorrow, Tuesday 3 September, from 9.30am with special early bird rates available for September. Tickets will also be available for an ‘Access’ night taking place on Monday 2 December for people with additional support needs.

Standard tickets cost £20 (concessions, family tickets and discounts for Historic Scotland members available). Ž

About Castle of Light

Dates: Castle of Light will run every Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday from Thursday 14 November to Sunday 22 December, excluding Thursday 28 November. In addition to these dates, a special ‘access’ night will be held on Monday 2 December, for guests with additional support needs.

Time: Timed entry from 5.30pm to 8.30pm. Event closes at 10pm. HES suggest that you allow around 90 minutes to fully experience the show.

Early bird rates (for September only)
Adult (16-59yrs) £18 Concessions (60yrs+) £14.40 Child (5-5yrs - must be accompanied by an adult) £10.80.

Standard
Adult (16-59yrs) £20 Concessions (60yrs+) £16 Child (5-5yrs - must be accompanied by an adult) £12.

Castle of Light Consortium Partners

War Productions Limited
War Productions Limited have been trading since 1989 and has a strong focus towards the artistic use of digital video. Beginning as a lighting company, WarPro’s creative bent shifted towards the use of live projection in the very early days of the technology as production company for Orbital, Aphex Twin, Shamen and more. WarPro have specialized more and more in the creative use of projection for an ever growing commercial and artistic client base

Double Take Productions
Double Take Projections Ltd is an innovative Scottish design consultancy specialising in creating immersive visual experiences using a technique called Projection Mapping. They are a bespoke company, creating unique one-off spectacles, and able to radically alter the character of an environment or object by projecting from different angles onto a variety of surfaces.
Double Take have years of experience of producing and designing some of Scotland’s biggest Light shows. Double Take are a one stop shop for projection activity, designing content, designing social content and marketing material.

NL Productions
NL Productions is a creative event production company based in Leith with more than forty years’ experience in the industry.
Over the years, NLP has built up a large number of professional relationships across a wide variety of industries based on trust, reliability and a high standard of communication and project management.

Andy McGregor
Andy McGregor has over 25 years’ experience as a multimedia artist, designer and creative director. He was a founder member of the art / dance music & performance group Fini Tribe and pursued this alongside a degree at Glasgow School of Art. In the late 80’s he began working in digital media and enrolled in the post graduate electronic imaging course in Dundee. He has consistently worked at the boundaries of design, art, technology and performance. He has produced work for high profile organisations such as The National Galleries of Scotland, Historic Scotland, Glasgow Life, Venice Theatre Biennale, Edinburgh International Science Festival, Harper Collins Publishing UK, The Queen’s Gallery at Holyrood House and Drambuie Distillers.

About Historic Environment Scotland (HES)

  • We are the lead public body charged with caring for, protecting and promoting the historic environment. We will lead on delivering Scotland’s first strategy for the historic environment, Our Place in Time.
  • Historic Scotland, Scran, Canmore, The National Collection of Aerial Photography (NCAP), The Engine Shed, Stirling Castle and Edinburgh Castle are sub-brands of HES.
  • View our press pack and keep up to date by registering for media release email alerts. If you wish to unsubscribe, please contact us.

Follow Historic Environment Scotland

For press information, please contact:

Heather Marston / Lisa Fox Bennett
3x1 Group
Tel: 0131 225 7700
[email protected] / [email protected]


Ghosts of Edinburgh Castle Scotland's haunted fortress on the hill

Visitors near and far stand in awe of this ancient fortress atop Castle Rock, a towering land formation created from a volcanic plug. The craggy peak has been inhabited since the Bronze Age (900 BC), while records indicate Edinburgh Castle has been in existence since 600 AD. In the epic Welsh poem Y Gododdin, a work that dates back to anywhere between the 7 th and early 11 th centuries, are references to Din Eidiyn, the stronghold of Edinburgh.

The ancient citadel has since seen its share of sieges, attacks, military occupations, and royal residents. With its history of upheaval, it’s no wonder Edinburgh Castle has been regarded as the most haunted location in Scotland.

Tortured souls from centuries ago reportedly still linger in the castle’s many halls, chambers, and dungeons. Those who wander these passages today report strange sensations such as a sudden drop in temperature and feelings of being watched. Some experience unexplained sounds, a ghostly touch across the face and burning on the arm, or a tugging on one’s clothing. Photographs snapped at the site reveal patches of fog, sometimes colored green.

Such supernatural encounters led a team of nine paranormal researchers to investigate the Scottish castle in 2001. Along with 200 carefully chosen participants—none of whom had prior knowledge of its haunted lore—the team delved into every nook and cranny and reported on what they saw. The verdict? More than half encountered paranormal activity in areas already known to be haunted.

What spirits could be behind this otherworldly activity? For that, we must take a trip through Edinburgh Castle’s haunting past.

The castle’s dungeon has a high degree of paranormal activity. Countless prisoners have been locked up in its cells, suffering torture, malnourishment, and death. More than 500 French prisoners were held here during the Seven Years War and later American colonial captives from the American Revolutionary War.

Many have been lost to time, but one inmate’s tale lives on. A prisoner desperate to escape buried himself in a dung barrow. He made it past the guards, only to meet his death as the barrow’s contents were dumped down the steep, rocky slope of Castle Rock. He makes himself known by trying to push you off the battlements and emanating a strong scent of dung.

The tragic end of one royal captive lives on as well. During the 16th century, Lady Janet Douglas or Lady Glamis was wrongfully accused of witchcraft and burned at the stake as her 16-year-old son watched in horror. She was happily married to the 6th Lord of Glamis until his death in 1528. Alas, King James V considered the Glamis family a threat to his power. Once her husband passed, King James accused Lady Glamis of poisoning him. He tortured and forced false confessions out of her servants and family, seized Glamis Castle (once Queen Elizabeth’s childhood home) and sent her to the castle dungeons to await her execution. She was nearly blind from the subterranean darkness by the time guards brought her to the stake. Hollow knocking can be heard late at night, which some say are the sounds of workers constructing the platform where Lady Glamis was burned alive.

Another hotbed of activity is the Royal Mile, a busy succession of streets that lead through the Old Town to Edinburgh Castle. Below the Royal Mile are underground caverns, unearthed by townsfolk several hundred years ago. A piper playing bagpipes was instructed to explore the tunnels that stretched from High Street to Holyrood House, a place of Scottish royal residence for the likes of Mary, Queen of Scots. He played a tune as he moved deeper into the caves so that others could mark his progress from above.

Then, at about the half-way point, the music abruptly stopped. A rescue party went in to look for the piper, but they found not a trace. If you listen closely while in Edinburgh Castle, you may hear his lonely bagpipes playing from the street above or within the fortress walls.

In addition to these haunting tales, are a bevy of lesser-known spectral figures wandering the castle grounds. Legends tell of a headless drummer from the 17 th century who taps upon his snare. The ghostly outline of a man in a leather apron has been seen walking through a doorway in one of the castle’s haunted vaults. Even canines can’t rest easy here. Just beyond the castle entrance, visitors have seen a black hound with a misty glow around it. The dog is believed to be buried in the pet cemetery by the Army Garrison.

The paranormal tales surrounding Edinburgh Castle go on and on. The deeper one wanders down its stone corridors, the more ghosts you’re bound to meet.


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Edinburgh Castle is a historic fortress that dominates the skyline of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland from its position on Castle Rock. Human settlers have lived here from as far back and the Bronze and Iron Age. For more fascinating facts and information about Edinburgh Castle, see the fact file below or download the comprehensive worksheet pack which can be utilized within the classroom or home environment.

  • Edinburgh Castle is built on the Castle Rock, which is a large, inactive volcano that is believed to have risen around 350 million years ago.
  • The summit of the castle rock is 130 meters (430 ft) above sea level and has rocky cliffs on the south, west, and north, rearing up to 80 meters (260 ft) from the surrounding landscape. This means the castle can only be reached from the east, where the ridge is less sloped, and the defensive advantage may have played an important part in the decision to build Edinburgh Castle there.
  • Archaeologists are unsure when Castle Rock was first used by humans and there are no records of Roman interest in the site up to the end of the first century AD (100 AD).
  • The first possible mention of Castle Rock may have been in a map, called Ptolemy’s map, in the 2nd century AD. This map shows a settlement called “Alauna” which means “rock place” and could be the earliest know name of Castle Rock.
  • An archaeological dig in 1990 revealed that people on the Bronze Age or Iron Age that followed were the first people to live there, and built a fort on Castle Rock in 2nd century AD, mid-way through the Iron Age.
  • In the early Middle Ages, Edinburgh Castle is next mentioned in 600 AD in a poem which describes a band of warriors who spent a year feasting in their fortress before fighting to the death in the battle with the Angles at Catreath in Yorkshire.
  • The first mention of a castle in Edinburgh was an account that Queen Margaret (also known as Saint Margaret of Scotland) was living at Edinburgh Castle when she heard that her husband, King Malcolm III, had died in November 1093.
  • The account also says that Queen Margaret herself died a few days later because she was overcome with grief from the loss of her husband and King Malcolm’s brother Donald Bane laid siege to the castle.
    • It was during the reigns of King Malcolm III and his sons that Edinburgh Castle became one of the most significant royal centers in Scotland. Malcolm’s son King Edgar died there in 1107.
    • King David I, Malcolm’s youngest son, reigned from 1124–1153 and spent much of his time at Edinburgh Castle where he developed Edinburgh as the center of royal power in Scotland.
    • Edinburgh Castle is thought to have been built using timber, although two stone buildings were documented as early as the 12th century. One of these buildings, St. Margaret’s Chapel, remains at the summit of the rock to this day.
    • During the Wars of Scottish Independence, starting in 1296, King Edward I of England launched an invasion of Scotland and Edinburgh Castle came under English control.
    • Edward I of England died in 1307 and on March 4th, 1314, a surprise night attack by Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray recaptured the castle for Scotland and the King of Scots, Robert the Bruce, ordered Edinburgh Castle defenses be destroyed to prevent the English re-occupying it.
    • Ownership of Edinburgh Castle changed between England and Scotland throughout the Wars of Scottish Independence in the 13th and 14 centuries.
    • In the 14th century, King David II began to rebuild Edinburgh Castle, and David’s Tower was started in 1367. When David II died in 1371, King Robert II completed the tower in the 1370s.
    • During the 15th century, the castle was used increasingly as an arsenal and armaments factory. This means Edinburgh Castle was used to store and make ammunition and guns. The first gun was purchased for the castle in 1384 and the “great bombard” Mons Meg was delivered to Edinburgh in 1457. A bombard is a type of large cannon which fires cannonballs. Mons Meg was 6 feet 6 inches long and fired 20-inch cannonballs.
    • In the 18th century and early 19th century, the castle vaults of Edinburgh Castle were used as a prison for many conflicts. These include the Seven Years’ War (1756–1763), the American War of Independence (1775–1783), and the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815).
    • It was also during this time that several new buildings were built inside the castle. This included stores, powder magazines, the Governor’s House (1742), and the New Barracks (1796–1799).
    • The use of Edinburgh Castle came after a large prison break in 1811, after 49 prisoners of war escaped via a hole in the south wall.
    • However, the castle was used once more as a prison during World War I and World War II.
    • Edinburgh Castle is now under the care of Historic Scotland, part of the government, and is Scotland’s most-visited paid tourist attraction, with over 1.4 million visitors every year. In fact, over 70% of all visitors to Edinburgh also visit the castle.

    Edinburgh Castle Worksheets

    This bundle contains 11 ready-to-use Edinburgh Castle worksheets that are perfect for students who want to learn more about Edinburgh Castle which is a historic fortress that dominates the skyline of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland from its position on the Castle Rock. Human settlers have lived here from as far back and the Bronze and Iron Age.

    Download includes the following worksheets:

    • Edinburgh Castle Facts
    • Edinburgh Castle Word Search
    • Picture Crossword
    • Fact or Bluff
    • Edinburgh Castle Timeline
    • Who am I?
    • Parts of the Castle
    • Popuni praznine
    • Poster Making
    • Edinburgh Castle in History
    • Edinburgh Castle Acrostic

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    Edinburgh Castle History

    King James VI of Scotland (James 1 of England upon the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603) was born in the castle by Mary, Queen of Scots. The ancient Honours of Scotland – the Crown, the Sceptre and the Sword of State – are viewable in the Crown Room the ‘infamous’ Stone of Destiny has also been kept here at the castle.

    The Scottish National War Memorial, designed by Lorimer, built shortly after World War One is another highlight in the castle. Edinburgh Castle is also the home of the One O’Clock Gun. This is fired every day except Sunday at precisely 1pm, a wonderful city institution, a reminder to break for lunch.

    The Edinburgh Castle Esplanade hosts annually the world-famous Edinburgh Military Tattoo over a three-week period in August. The Scottish Army & various guests present music, marching and historical reenactments under floodlights.

    The oldest building at Edinburgh Castle is St Margaret’s Chapel (above), which survived various sieges due to its religious significance: it was probably requested by King David, following his mother’s (Queen Margaret, d.1093) death at this site. Members of Edinburgh Castle garrison still have the right to marry in the Chapel building.

    Edinburgh Castle sits on the volcanic rock – the ‘crag’ of glacial ‘crag and tail’ – with the tail being the Royal Mile tapering mound which falls down to Holyroodhouse. Fronting the Castle is a gently sloping rectilinear space called the Castle Esplanade. This is a good viewing point for the city.

    There is evidence of human habitation on the Castle Rock – 135m above sea level – as far back as the Bronze Age. The early fort was called Din Eidyn, and was occupied by the Votadini, a local Celtic tribe. The Votadini were also present at another settlement on another volcanic rock, Traprain Law, just east of Haddington.

    In 1174 to 1186 Edinburgh Castle was given to the English by King William the Lion with four other Scottish castles as security for his ransom. During the Wars of Independence (1296 – 1342) the Castle changed hands four times.
    Robert the Bruce won Edinburgh Castle back from the English in 1314. Edward III of England built a new castle in 1335 but held it only until 1341.

    Facilities
    Edinburgh Castle Restaurant – Mills Mount with self & table service
    open 7 days a week
    last ticket sold 45 mins before closing

    Vrijeme otvaranja
    check times: 0131 225 9846
    1st Apr to Oct 31st
    9.30am until 6pm, last admission 5.15pm
    1st Nov to Mar 31st
    9.30am until 5pm, last admission 4.15pm
    Christmas Day & Boxing Day
    Castle closed
    1st Jan
    11am until 5pm

    Cijene (current Nov 2005)
    Adult £9.80 Child £3.50 Concessions £7.50

    Mills Mount Cafe, Edinburgh Castle
    Mon-Sun. 9.15am – 5.15pm – contact: jane.mackenzie(at)sodexho.co.uk
    Edinburgh Castle building: please check with owners for details re access & charge

    Contact Edinburgh Castle +44 (0)131 225 9846

    View of the scottish capital looking east from Edinburgh Castle:

    photo © AW

    Military Tattoo

    The Edinburgh Tattoo is a major Scottish event which is popular all over the world. Tattoo webcam: www.outdoorexplorer.co.uk/tattoo

    There has been a proposal to relocate the Edinburgh Military Tattoo in the west part of Princes Street Gardens, below Edinburgh Castle.

    The structurally-expressive temporary stand – erected annually – on the Edinburgh Castle Esplanade is reportedly insufficient for current needs. The Military Tattoo takes place in front of the castle every Edinburgh Festival for three weeks.

    In the mid-eighties Morris and Steedman (Architects) were commissioned to produce detailed plans for a 10,000 seat Edinburgh Tattoo arena ‘below’ Edinburgh Castle, unveiled in 1989 to much controversy. Princes Street Gardens are protected but limited building work has been undertaken latterly as part of the RSA’s Playfair Project. Morris and Steedman’s Tattoo Arena was apparently influenced by the Acropolis parti in Athens.

    The Edinburgh Tattoo began in 1950 at Edinburgh Castle and sells around 200,000 tickets per annum and is watched by approximately one million people on TV. The Edinburgh Tattoo is highly iconic and rooted in Highland traditions, yet the structure is vividly modern, its cantilevering metal spaceframe contrasting with the worn stone context.

    Although it is temporary, for many visitors (ie for the Festival or typically every Summer) the Edinburgh Tattoo is always there and thus a fascinating modern intervention in the absolute heart of the City at the head of the Old Town’s royal axis and high above the city so massively visible: it shouts ‘the Festival has started’.

    Image above from the Castle Esplanade showing Earl Haig with, beyond, Ramsay Gardens on left, and the Hub on the right.

    Edinburgh Castle Contact e-mail: hs.explorer(at)scotland.gsi.gov.uk

    Edinburgh Castle Ticket Office

    Scottish Castles : Structures in Edinburgh & Lothian

    A poular shopping destination in the capital: Jenners department store

    Edinburgh Castle context : Outlook Tower – Camera Obscura

    No larger images of the castle:

    images © AW

    The lighting at Mills Mount Restaurant is by Jonathan Speirs (of Speirs and Major), designed in conjunction with Hugh Broughton Architects

    Comments / photos for the Edinburgh Castle Scotland – Historic Scottish Architecture page welcome


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