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Vladari Rima - Cezar i Pompej

Vladari Rima - Cezar i Pompej


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Zašto se ime Pompeja Magnusa ne hvali toliko koliko i Cezara kao rimskog vladara, s obzirom na to da je Magnus uopće vodio Rim?


Pompej nikada nije postigao vrhovnu moć koju je postigao Cezar (ukratko, prije nego što je ubijen). Iako je s vremena na vrijeme (na primjer kad se borio protiv gusara ili kada je bio konzul) sine collegio u kasnim 50 -im godinama prije Krista) imao super imperij, on je uvijek bio ili oklijevajući ili nije bio u stanju sam sebi nadzirati izvor ove moći. Stoga je uvijek bio ili član dogovora o podjeli vlasti ili prvak konzervativne/reakcionarne stranke. Dakle, ne može se stvarno računati kao vladar.

Rekavši to, moram reći da se neki učenjaci zalažu za stav koji ste vi predložili - da se Pompej može smatrati prvim princeps. Budući da nisam profesionalac, trenutno nemam spremnu referencu za to, ali neko guglanje dovelo me do potvrde ove izjave (str. 240 tamo):

Pompej Veliki, koji su neki smatrali prvim princepsom, imao je neusporediv utjecaj u Rimu, što je bilo u sukobu s republikanskim sustavom koji je ograničio takvu konsolidaciju utjecaja (Beard i Crawford 85).

EDIT: Našao sam! Sam veliki Syme napisao je nezaboravan prijedlog da bi Pompey pobijedio, časni ljudi bi ga ubili podno vlastitog kipa.


Biografija Julija Cezara

Gaj Julije Cezar, odgojen u poznatoj patricijskoj obitelji, bio je odgovoran za pad Rimske republike. Ipak, smatra se velikim vođom i političarem koji je nakon kampanje protiv Pompeja postao konzul. Također je poznat po osvajanju Galije i veličanstveno napisanim dnevnicima koji opisuju njegove ratne napore. Svi su rimski vladari nakon njega uzeli titulu "Cezar", vjerojatno se nadajući da će dio njegove slave postati i njihov.

Mladost Julija Cezara

Povijest Julija Cezara počinje 12. srpnja 102. ili 100. godine prije Krista, kada je rođen u obitelji koja je bila dio dinastije Julije, za koju se kaže da ju je pronašao Eneja. Cezarov otac je radio kao pretor i umro je kada je Cezar u dobi od 16 godina ostao siroče za njega i njegove dvije sestre. Tako je budućeg osvajača odgojila njegova majka - Aurelia. Sa 17 godina oženio se Cornelijom, unukom Corneliusa Cinne, koja je bila vođa radikalne stranke. Ali njegova sreća nije dugo trajala. 82. godine prije Krista, nakon što je Lucije Kornelije Sula vodio uspješnu kontrarevoluciju, Sula je naredio Cezaru da se razvede od Kornelije. Cezar je odbio izvršiti ovu naredbu i bit će protjeran, a sva njegova riznica oduzeta i izgubio je titulu "flamens Dialis" - svećenika Jupitera. Cezarovi prijatelji i obitelj molili su ga i zahvaljujući tome proglašen je nevinim. Obeshrabren, Cezar je otišao na istok i pridružio se vojsci. Pokazao se kao vrhunski vojnik i borio se u mnogim bitkama pa je čak dobio i lovorov vijenac "korona vita" za hrabrost.

Početak Cezarove političke karijere

79. godine prije Krista, kada je Sulla umro, Cezar se vratio u Rim kako bi započeo svoju političku karijeru na konvencionalan način, djelujući kao odvjetnik tužitelja- naravno, u njegovom slučaju, protiv istaknutih Sullanovih kontrarevolucionara. No ova radnja nije rezultirala nikakvim pozitivnim učinkom - Cezar se nije proslavio niti je imao veće šanse da bude izabran za ured, pa je na Rodos krenuo 78. pr. Gusari su ga oteli tijekom putovanja i pustili nakon 40 dana nakon što je otkupnina plaćena. Vratio se u Milet, gdje je brzo podigao pomorsku snagu i započeo rat protiv vladara stolica - pobijedio je i dao mu razapeti otmičare. Vratio se u Rim 68. prije Krista na sprovod svoje kćeri Julije, koju je koristio iz političkih razloga. To je naišlo na protivljenje njegove žene, ali Cezar na to nije obratio pozornost. Žena mu je umrla iste godine. Nakon toga, Cezar je putovao po Carstvu pokušavajući započeti revoluciju. Nakon što su mu planovi propali, vratio se u Rim i oženio Pompeju, daleku Pompejevu rodbinu. Bio je to politički brak koji je Ceasaru omogućio da postane Pompejev bliži suradnik. U isto vrijeme Cezar je uspostavio sporazum s Pompejevim neprijateljem - Markom Licinijem Krasom. 65. godine prije Krista Cezar je postao jedan od edila kurule. U to je vrijeme uzimao mnoge kredite i organizirao olimpijske igre, zahvaljujući kojima je postao poznat. Dvije godine kasnije postao je glavni svećenik, ali su ovi izbori bili vrlo kontroverzni. Cezar je također bio dio Katilinine zavjere koja je imala za cilj državni udar. Ova je zavjera također propala, zbog Ciceronovih postupaka, ali Cezar je od tada poznat kao zavjerenik.

Prvi trijumvirat

Nakon Ciceronove otmice Cezar je postao pretor. Nažalost, često su ga kritizirali i odlučili otmicu, ali je izabran za guvernera Španjolske. No kad je pokušao napustiti Rim, zaustavili su ga vjerovnici i samo zahvaljujući jamstvu Marka Licinija Crassa mogao je otići. Tijekom godine provedene u Španjolskoj vodio je vojnu ekspediciju izvan sjeverozapadne granice svoje pokrajine, gdje je opljačkao dovoljno da plati svojim vojnicima i još uvijek ima dosta bogatstva za sebe. Htio je iskoristiti zlato za dobivanje ureda, ali mu senat nije dopustio da započne vlastitu predizbornu kampanju. Tako je Cezar iskoristio novac za plaćanje dugova i 60. godine prije Krista sklopio sporazum s Pompejem i Markom Licinijem Krasom. Poznati bogataš i zapovjednik te kandidat za konzularni ured osnovali su trijumvirat kako bi se osiguralo da se u Rimskom Carstvu ne dogodi ništa što bi im moglo naškoditi. Zahvaljujući ovom sporazumu Cezar je postao konzul 59. pr. Uveo je mnoge reforme koje su oduševile njegove partnere. U isto vrijeme Cezar je postao namjesnik Galije.

Osvajanje Galije

58. godine prije Krista Cezar je započeo osvajanje Galije. Njegova glavna svrha bila je što je moguće bogatiji. Da bi uspostavio siguran položaj na frontu morao se riješiti Nijemaca, koji su također htjeli osvojiti Galiju, a nakon toga je napao Britaniju. Cezaru je trebalo 7 godina da osvoji cijelu Galiju, a samo zbog njegovog izvrsnog strateškog talenta kampanja je bila tako kratka. Ne samo da je Cezar dobio mnogo blaga, već i odanost svojih vojnika, koji su očekivali da će ih odvesti u druge uspješne bitke. Nakon ove kampanje Cezar je odlučio ostati u Galiji sa svojom vojskom dok ne bude izabran za novog konzula, što je izludilo senatore. Njegovi politički protivnici htjeli su da se vrati u Rim i procesuira za stvari koje je učinio dok je bio konzul. Cezar je donio odluku koja je rezultirala padom rimske republike. Poveo je svoje vojske preko rijeke Rubikon i rekao poznato "Alea iacta est" i započeo svoj pohod prema Rimu u siječnju 49. pr.

Pad Rimske republike

Cezarov postupak rezultirao je građanskim ratom. Kako bi se opravdao, rekao je da želi braniti tribune, koji su nedavno izbačeni iz Rima. Pompej je morao napustiti Rim sa senatorima kako bi pobjegao iz Ceasarove vojske. Napustio ga je jedan od najbližih Cezarovih suradnika, Labienus, no Cezar mu je oprostio. Cezarova vojska tijekom marša prema Rimu nije naišla na nikakav otpor. Zapravo, Pompejeva se vojska raspršila ili pridružila Cezaru. Kao rezultat ovog rata, Cezar je postao osvajač Italije. No to mu nije bilo dovoljno, krenuo je u Španjolsku, gdje je bio Pompej. To je rezultiralo mirom između zapovjednika legije i Cezara, a rat sa Španjolskom završio je bez ikakvog krvoprolića. U prosincu 49. prije Krista Cezar se vratio u Rim, ali samo na 11 dana. To je bilo potrebno vrijeme da se izabere za novog konzula. Ubrzo nakon što je poveo svoje vojske na istok i vodio niz bitaka u Grčkoj. Pompej je pobjegao u Egipat, gdje ga je ubio Ptolomej, koji je želio imati Cezara na svojoj strani.

Cezar i Kleopatra

U isto vrijeme u Egiptu je bio građanski rat između Kleopatre i njenog brata. Znajući da Cezar ima ogromnu vojsku, Kleopatra ga je htjela na svojoj strani. No kad joj se pridružio, nisu bili toliko uspješni koliko su očekivali - završili su u Aleksandrijskoj palači koja je bila okružena ludim lokalnim stanovništvom. Olakšanje je došlo 47. pr. Ubrzo nakon što je Cezar napustio Egipat, Kleopatra je rodila Cezarova sina, Cesariona.

Cezarovi ratovi

Cezarov cilj bio je osvojiti cijeli svijet. Nastavio je sa svojim ratovima i odnio pobjedu nad uzurpatorom u kraljevstvu Piemont. Nakon ove pobjede rekao je još jednu poznatu frazu "veni, vidi, vici" - došao sam, vidio sam, pobijedio sam. Godine 46. prije Krista Cezar je osvojio sjevernu Afriku, a sljedeće godine Španjolsku, gdje se borio protiv Pompejevih sinova. Između bitaka Cezar se vratio u Rim, ali je imao problema s utvrđivanjem temelja svoje vladavine.

Zavjera protiv Cezara

Od 59. godine prije Krista Cezar je pet puta biran za konzula, a tri puta za diktatora. Konačno, 44. godine prije Krista postao je vječni diktator. To je trebao biti doživotni naslov i to je zapravo bilo. Dana 15. ožujka 44. godine prije Krista ubijen je. Primio je 23 udarca bodežom, a samo je jedan bio smrtan. Najvažniji zavjerenici bili su Gaj Kasije Longin i Marko Junije Brut. "Et tu, Brute" ("I ti, Brute") bio je Cezarov izraz posebne tjeskobe što ga je uboo čovjek kojemu je oprostio, vjerovao mu i volio ga. Bili su to Cezarovi najbliži suradnici, ali on ih je podcijenio. Zahvaljujući Cezaru prikupili su bogatstvo i visoke položaje, što nisu mogli podnijeti. Zato su ga i ubili. Formalno, Ceasarion nije bio Cezarov sin, pa je prije smrti Cezar za svog nasljednika izabrao Gaja Oktavija, unuka svoje sestre. Prvog siječnja 42. godine prije Krista Cezar je službeno proglašen bogom po imenu Divus Iulius (Božanski Julius).

Uzurpator reformatora?

Kako ponoviti Cezarov život? On je definitivno bio uzurpator. Do svog položaja došao je zahvaljujući svojoj vojsci i to je bio glavni temelj njegove vladavine. Imao je neograničenu moć, što mu je bio cilj cijeli život. No, razmišljajući o Cezaru, ne vidimo samo uzurpatora nego i velikog tvorca i reformatora. Učinio je sve što je mogao kako bi osigurao red i mir u Rimu, koji se počeo raspadati nakon mnogo godina duge anarhije. Cezarov najbolji opis dao je Ciceron, jedan od njegovih političkih neprijatelja, riječi: "To su atributi: mirna i ljubazna priroda uživa u velikim umovima koje dobro sluša i pravedno traži i ne mari za one naj karijernije, pametan je i napredan -gledam. Divim se njegovom dostojanstvu i pravdi i inteligenciji ". Kao zapovjednik i političar riješio se mržnje prema neprijateljima. Neki su dobili visoke položaje i bogatstvo. Caesar je također bio pisac - pisao je dnevnike, zanimala ga je gramatika i skupljao je umjetnine. Njegova najbolja djela su Dnevnici iz Galijskog rata i Dnevnici iz građanskog rata. Obje su napisane izvrsnim i lijepim latinskim jezikom. Oni su bili primjeri kako zapisati svoje misli nakon mnogo stoljeća.


Julije Cezar

Gaj Julije Cezar bio je veliki rimski vođa na kraju Rimske republike. Julije Cezar rođen je tri dana prije srpanjskih ida, 13. srpnja u c. 100. pr. Obitelj njegova oca bila je iz patricijskog roda Julija, koji je svoju lozu vodio do prvog rimskog kralja Romula i božice Venere. Njegovi su roditelji bili Gaj Cezar i Aurelija, kći Lucija Aurelija Kote. Cezar je bio u braku s Mariusom, koji je podržavao stanovništvo, i suprotstavio se Sulli, koji je podržavao optimite.

U 44. godine prije Krista zavjerenici su tvrdili da se boje da je Cezar namjeravao postati kralj ubijenog Cezara na martovskim idima.

  1. Julije Cezar bio je general, državnik, zakonodavac, govornik i povjesničar.
  2. Nikada nije izgubio rat.
  3. Cezar je popravio kalendar.
  4. Smatra se da je stvorio prvu vijest, Acta Diurna, koji je objavljen na forumu kako bi svi kojima je bilo stalo da ga pročitaju znali što namjeravaju Skupština i Senat.
  5. Potaknuo je trajni zakon protiv iznude.

Imajte na umu da iako riječ Cezar označava vladara rimskog cara, u slučaju prvog od cezara, to je bilo samo njegovo ime. Julije Cezar nije bio car.


Vladari Rima

Osim ako nije drugačije naznačeno, ove se knjige prodaju na Amazon.com. Vaša kupnja putem ovih veza rezultirat će provizijom za vlasnika stranice Royalty.nu.

Rimski carevi i njihove obitelji

Rimski carevi David Potter. Počevši s Augustovim dolaskom, ovo je raskošno ilustrirano istraživanje Rimskog Carstva kroz živote njegovih careva.

Caesarsove žene: Seks, moć i politika u Rimskom Carstvu, Annelise Freisenbruch. Priča o pet stoljeća moćnih Rimljanki, od ozloglašene Livije i skandalozne Julije do Galle Placidije, koju su zarobili Goti i udali za jednu od njihovi kraljevi.

Džepni rječnik rimskih careva Paula Robertsa. Predstavlja 27 važnih careva, uključujući Augusta, Trajana, Septima Severa, Nerona i Kaligulu. Ilustrirano novčićima, nakitom, bistama i antičkim spomenicima.

Životi Cezara uredio Anthony Barrett. Priča priče o 12 najutjecajnijih rimskih vladara, uključujući zloglasne vođe poput Nerona i Kaligule, te manje poznate poput Dioklecijana i Vespazijana. S ilustracijama, vremenskom linijom rimske povijesti i kartom dinastija.

Deset cezara: rimski carevi od Augusta do Konstantina, Barry Strauss. Ispituje naslijeđe Rima kroz živote Augusta, Tiberija, Nerona, Vespazijana, Trajana, Hadrijana, Marka Aurelija, Septimija Severa, Dioklecijana i Konstantina.

Julio-Klaudijevski carevi

Cezarovi sinovi: Prva dinastija carskog Rima, Philip Matyszak. Osvrće se na dugu povijest julijanskih i klaudijevskih obitelji u Rimu. U središtu izvještaja su životi šest ljudi - Julija Cezara, Augusta, Tiberija, Kaligule, Klaudija i Nerona - koji su promijenili Rim iz demokracije u osobni posjed.

Dinastija: Uspon i pad Cezarove kuće Tom Holland. Užasna povijest prvih pet rimskih careva: Augusta, Tiberija, Kaligule, Klaudija i Nerona. Ovo je nastavak Hollandove ranije knjige Rubicon: Posljednje godine Rimske republike.

Dvanaest cezara, Matthew Dennison. Biografije rimskih careva Julija Cezara, Augusta, Tiberija, Kaligule, Klaudija, Nerona, Galbe, Otona, Vitelija, Vespazijana, Tita i Domicijana.

Aspekti rimske povijesti, 31. pr. Kr. - 117. poslije Krista, Richard Alston. Vodič kroz ranu rimsku povijest s poglavljima o svakom caru, koji istražuje uspjehe i neuspjehe njihove vladavine.

Konstrukcija autokracije: Aristokrati i carevi u Julio-Klaudijevom Rimu, Matthew B. Roller. Kako se carski režim uspio uspostaviti i kako su rimske elite imale smisla za to.

Vladareva kuća: osporavajuća moć i privatnost u Julio-Klaudijevom Rimu, Harriet Fertik. Kako su carevo kućanstvo i prostor koji je nazvao domom oblikovali rimske koncepcije vladavine jednog čovjeka.

Carski život i smrt

Potpuni rimski car: Carski život na dvoru i u kampanji Michaela Sommera. Kako su carevi provodili svoj svakodnevni život, vodili carstvo i upravljali svojim ženama, dvorjanima i službenicima. Uključuje biografije svih careva. Ilustrirano.

Pretorijanac: Uspon i pad carske tjelesne straže Rima, Guy de la B & eacutedoy & egravere. Osnovana od strane Augusta oko 27. godine prije Krista, elitna pretorijanska garda postala je moćni politički igrač. Žestoko odani nekim carevima, srušili su one koji im nisu bili po volji.

Jahanje za Cezara: Konjska straža rimskog cara, Michael P. Speidel. Slijedi carevu konjsku stražu s njihova okupljanja kako bi spasio Cezara u Noviodunumu 52. godine prije Krista. do svog posljednjeg stajališta uz Maksencija na Milvijskom mostu.

Ubij Cezara! Ubojstvo Rose Mary Sheldon u ranom rimskom carstvu. Tri četvrtine rimskih vođa ubijeno je, a najveća prijetnja dolazila je od najbližih carevih.

Carevi ne umiru u krevetu Fik Meijer, prevod S.J. Leinbach. Ovaj živahni opći uvod o rimskim carevima usredotočuje se na njihovu neobičnu smrt i ono što nam posljednji dani govore o njihovim životima.

Carevi i božanstvo

Nebeske počasti Ittaija Gradela govori o štovanju rimskog cara, od Cezara do Konstantina.

Divinizacija Cezara i Augusta: prethodnici, posljedice, implikacije Michaela Koortbojiana. Upućuje na probleme vezane uz božanstvo u složenom novom carskom sustavu.

Rimski carski mauzolej u kasnoj antici Marka J. Johnsona. Ispituje simboliku i funkciju kasnije rimske mauzoleje koja je služila kao hramovi i svetišta božanstvenim carevima.

Knjige antičkog povjesničara Livija

Rana povijest Rima: Knjige I-V o povijesti Rima od osnutka Livija, prijevod Aubrey De Selincourt. Povjesničar Livy umro je 17. godine.

Rim i Italija od Livija, preveo Aubrey De Selincourt. Sadrži sveske od 6 do 10 Livyjeve povijesti Rima koji obuhvaća Samnite ratove.

(Napomena: Knjige 11 do 20 Livijeve povijesti Rima više ne postoje.)

Livyjev rat s Hanibalom, prijevod Aubrey De Selincourt. Livijev izvještaj o Drugom punskom ratu, koji sadrži sveske 21-30 njegove povijesti Rima.

Rim i Mediteran od Livija, preveo Henry Bettenson. Uključuje knjige od 31 do 45 Livyjeve povijesti.

(Knjige 46 do 142 Livijeve povijesti Rima više ne postoje.)

Ostali antički zapisi rimske povijesti

Ljetopis carskog Rima Kornelija Tacita, preveo Michael Grant. Drevni rimski izvještaj o vladavini Tiberija, Klaudija i Nerona. (Odjeljak o Kaliguli više ne postoji.)

Dvanaest Cezara od Svetonija, preveo Robert Graves. Fascinantan, lako čitljiv, vrlo zabavan uvod u živote prvih 12 rimskih careva. Rođen 60. godine, Sutonije je služio kao tajnik cara Hadrijana.

Kako biti loš imperator: Drevni vodič do zaista užasnih vođa, Suetonius, preveo i uredio Josiah Osgood. Donosi nove prijevode Sutonijevih šokantnih biografija Julija Cezara, Tiberija, Kaligule i Nerona.

Rimska povijest Velleiusa Paterculusa, uredili J. C. Yardley i Anthony A. Barrett. Prati rimsku povijest od Romula i utemeljenja Rima do vladavine cara Tiberija. Ovaj novi prijevod uključuje bilješke, kartu i rječnik.

Kasnije Rimsko Carstvo Ammianus Marcellinus. Pisac, koji je živio u 4. stoljeću poslije Krista, napisao je povijest Rimskog carstva od 31 knjige od cara Nerve do smrti istočnog cara Valensa. Sačuvano je samo posljednjih 18 knjiga, od 353. do 378. godine.

Kasnije Rimsko Carstvo Ammianus Marcellinus, preveo Walter Hamilton. Skraćena verzija Ammianusove povijesti kasnijeg Rima.

Povijest Rimskog Carstva

Oluja prije oluje: početak kraja Rimske republike, Mike Duncan. Kronike 133.-80. godine prije Krista, vrijeme krvavih bitaka, političkih mahinacija i ljudskih drama.

Podrijetlo carstva: Rim od republike do Hadrijana, David Potter. Povijest ranog Rimskog Carstva od 264. godine prije Krista, kada je rimska vojska prešla na Siciliju, do Hadrijanove smrti 138. godine.

Rječnik Rimskog Carstva Matthewa E. Bunsona. Preko 1900 unosa koji pokrivaju više od 500 godina rimske povijesti, od Julija Cezara i Galskih ratova do pada Romula Augusta, posljednjeg rimskog cara. Iz časopisa Oxford University Press.

Cjeloviti idiotski vodič kroz Rimsko Carstvo, Eric Eric Nelson, dr. Sc. Pregled rimske povijesti i kulture od 800. godine prije Krista do 15. stoljeća poslije Krista.

Oksfordska ilustrirana povijest rimskog svijeta koju su uredili John Boardman, Jasper Griffin i Oswyn Murray.

Rimljani: Uvod Antonija Kamma. Opći, sažeti uvod u sve aspekte rimske kulture. Uključuje fotografije i karte.

Kronologija Rimskog Carstva uredio Timothy Venning. Kronološka referenca za cijelu rimsku državu i njezine susjede. Događaji svake godine detaljno su obuhvaćeni, uključujući izabrane konzule, velike bitke, politička i društvena zbivanja.

Rimski svijet, 44. prije Krista-180. g. Martina Goodmana. Ispituje oslanjanje rimskih careva na ogromnu vojnu ustanovu. Uključuje dugačak odjeljak o značajnim vjerskim promjenama u ovom razdoblju.

Stari Rim: Vojna i politička povijest Christopher S. Mackay. Od postanka grada u talijanskom željeznom dobu do polaganja posljednjeg cara 476. godine.

Povijesni atlas pingvina starog Rima od Chrisa Scarrea. Usklađujući jasnu grafiku s informativnim tekstom, ovaj atlas daje lijep pregled rimske povijesti iz osmog stoljeća prije Krista. do uspona kršćanske teokratije tisućljeće kasnije. (Pregledajte i kopirajte Amazon.com)

Gibonov pad i pad

Gibbonova knjiga Pad i pad Rimskog Carstva, Edward Gibbon, uredio David Womersley. Skraćena verzija Gibonnove dugačke povijesti posljednjih dana Rimskog Carstva. Za skraćenu verziju, pogledajte dolje.

Pad i pad Rimskog Carstva - svezak 1, 2 i 3 Edwarda Gibbona. Napisano u 18. stoljeću, Gibbonovo se djelo smatra remek -djelom.

Pad i pad Rimskog Carstva - svezak 6 Edwarda Gibbona. Završni svezak serije.

Ostale knjige Kraj carstva

Patriciji i carevi: Posljednji vladari Zapadnog Rimskog Carstva, Ian Hughes. Sažeti životopisi onih koji su imali moć, od atentata na Aecija 454. do smrti Julija Neposa 480. godine.

Krv Cezara: Kako je ubojstvo Germanika dovelo do pada Rima, Stephen Dando-Collins. Sugerira da je ubojstvo Germanika - unuka Marka Antonija, posvojenog sina Tiberija, oca Kaligule i djeda Nerona - uzrokovalo kolaps Rimskog carstva četiri stoljeća kasnije.

Tragedija carstva: od Konstantina do uništenja rimske Italije od Michaela Kulikowskog. Politička povijest burnih dva stoljeća koja su dovela do propasti Rimskog Carstva.

Smrtna Republika: Kako je Rim pao u tiraniju, Edward J. Watts. Zašto se Rimska Republika urušila - i kako je mogla nastaviti napredovati.

Kaligula

Kaligula: Zlouporaba moći Anthonyja A. Barretta. Ispituje je li Caligula doista bio izopačeni despot.

Caligula: Ludi car Rima, Stephen Dando-Collins. Zapisuje intrige palače koje su dovele do toga da je Caligula postao car, te opisuju strahote njegove manične vladavine.

Kaligula Sam Wilkinson. Ova biografija ispituje događaje Kaliguline vladavine kako bi istražila je li njegova zloglasnost u potpunosti zaslužena.

Kaligula: Biografija Aloysa Winterlinga. Postavlja carevu priču u kontekst političkog sustava kako bi objasnio njegovu notornu brutalnost.

Caligula: Neočekivani general Lee Fratantuono. Ova vojna povijest nudi novu ocjenu Kaligule kao iznenađujuće sposobnog vojnog stratega.

Caligulin Nemi Ships urednika Charlesa Rivera. Povijest tajanstvenih luksuznih brodova rimskog cara, koji su pronađeni - i gotovo potpuno uništeni - u 20. stoljeću.

Klaudija

Klaudija Barbare Levick. Ponovno ocjenjuje vladavinu rimskog cara Klaudija kako bi otkrio inteligentnog političara koji je nemilosrdno odlučan osigurati svoju poziciju vladara.

Klaudije Cezar: Slika i moć u ranom rimskom carstvu, Josiah Osgood. Ilustrirana studija o burnoj vladavini cara Klaudija (41-54. N. E.).

Klaudija u beletristici

Ja, Klaudije: Iz autobiografije Tiberija Klaudija, rođen 10. godine prije Krista, ubio ga i obogotvorio 54. godine poslije Krista Robert Graves. Sjajno čitanje, ova izmišljena autobiografija smještena u doba slave i dekadencije Rimskog Carstva. Najbolji je sam Klaudije, mucavac koji je dopustio svima da misle da je idiot (kako se ne bi otrovao), ali koji se u naraciji otkriva kao iskvaren i simpatičan promatrač. (Ovaj pregled i kopirajte Amazon.com.)

Klaudija Boga i njegovu ženu Mesalinu od Roberta Gravesa. Ovaj nastavak Ja, Klaudije govori o 13-godišnjoj Klaudijevoj vladavini kao rimskom caru.

Godina četiri cara

AD69: Carevi, vojske i anarhija, Nic Fields. Nakon smrti rimskog cara Nerona, generali carstva upali su u krvavu borbu za moć da odluče tko će nositi carsku ljubičastu boju.

69. AD: Godina četiri cara M. Gwyn Morgan. Između Neronova samoubojstva u lipnju 68. i trijumfa Vespazijana u prosincu 69., tri su druga cara držala vlast u Rimu: stara, stisnuta konzervativna Galba Otho, nekoć Neronova blagodatna družica i besposleni, ekstravagantni Vitelije.

Kriza rimskog nasljeđa AD 96-99 i vladavina Nerve Johna D. Graingera. Istražuje kako je i zašto ubijen zloglasni car Domicijan, vladavinu njegova nasljednika Nerve i Nervinog vlastitog nasljednika Trajana koji je postao cijenjeni car protivno svemu.

Tacitusove povijesti, prijevod Kenneth Wellesley. Opisuje ubilačko i četverogodišnje razdoblje četiri cara, "69. godine naše ere", kada je Rimsko Carstvo razoreno građanskim ratom. Izdanje Penguin Classics.

Marko Aurelije

Marka Aurelija od Anthonyja R. Birleyja. Znanstvena studija o caru koji je bio čovjek i samo tijekom njegove duge vladavine, koja je često bila isprekidana ratovima.

Marcus Aurelius: Život Franka McLynna. Biografija rimskog cara koji je također bio filozof, na temelju svih dostupnih izvornih izvora.

Zaljubljeni Marko Aurelije Marka Aurelija, uvod i prijevod Amy Richlin. Zbirka strastvenih ljubavnih pisama između rimskog govornika Marka Kornelija Fronta i budućeg cara Marka Aurelija.

Njegova filozofija

Carev priručnik: Novi prijevod meditacija Marka Aurelija, preveli C. Scot Hicks i David V. Hicks. Filozofska razmišljanja rimskog cara iz 2. stoljeća (izvorno napisano na grčkom). Marko Aurelije bio je otac cara Commodusa.

Suputnik Marka Aurelija uredio Marcel van Ackeren Ova zbirka eseja istražuje carevu biografiju, pozadinu i ulogu vođe i zakonodavca.

Unutarnja citadela: Meditacije Marka Aurelija od Pierrea Hadota. Studija filozofa-cara, stoicizma i rimske kulture u drugom stoljeću.

Marcus Aurelius: Vodič za zbunjene William O. Stephens. Sažeti uvod u život i pisanje rimskog cara Marka Aurelija Antonina.

Kako razmišljati poput rimskog cara: Stoička filozofija Marka Aurelija Donalda Robertsona. Načela stoicizma poučena kroz priču o njegovom najpoznatijem zagovorniku.

Hadrijan

Hadrian: Nemirni car, Anthony R. Birley. Proučava Hadrijanov privatni život - uključujući nesretan brak i odanu homoseksualnu privrženost - i njegova javna djela. (Ovaj pregled i kopirajte Amazon.com.)

Hadrijana i trijumf Rima, Anthony Everitt. Biografija hrabrog, oštroumnog rimskog cara koji je bio uspješan lovac, pjesnik i student filozofije.

Hadrian: Empire & amp Conflict Thorsten Opper. Nova procjena osobnosti, vladavine i vojne uloge rimskog cara, ilustrirana ključnim umjetničkim djelima i predmetima.

Hadrijanov zid Adriana Goldsworthyja. Povijesno i arheološko istraživanje koje probija činjenice iz legende postavljajući zid na širu scenu rimske Britanije.

Slijedeći Hadrijana: Putovanje iz drugog stoljeća kroz Rimsko Carstvo, Elizabeth Speller. Ova biografija prikazuje cara kao graditelja i okorjelog putnika, vodeći čitatelje na veliku turneju po Rimskom carstvu na njegovom najvećem putu, od neplodnih granica Britanije do urbanog sjaja samog Rima.

Hadrian i gradovi Rimskog Carstva, Mary Taliaferro Boatwright. Sveobuhvatno istraživanje živog urbanog života koji je postojao pod Hadrijanovom vlašću.

Beletristika

Uspomene na Hadrijana Marguerite Yourcenar, prevela Grace Frick. Roman koji ponovno prikazuje Hadrijanovo mukotrpno dječaštvo, njegove trijumfe i preokrete, i na kraju, kao car, njegovo postupno preuređivanje ratom razorenog svijeta.

Car, Georg Ebers. Roman o caru Hadrijanu, koji je napisao egiptolog iz 19. stoljeća.

Gospa vječnog grada od Kate Quinn. Elegantna, tajnovita Sabina mora čuvati mir između dva smrtonosna neprijatelja: svog supruga Hadrijana, rimskog briljantnog i zlokobnog cara, i izudaranog ratnika Vixa, svoje prve ljubavi.

Elagabalus

Zločini Elagabala: Život i naslijeđe rimskog dekadentnog dječaka cara Martijna Icksa. Mladi car Elagabalus učinio je sebe bogom, izigravao podvale, bio je predmet slatkih glasina, a ubili su ga njegovi stražari u dobi od 18 godina. Ova biografija razlikuje stvarnost njegova života od mita.

Car Elagabal: Činjenica ili fikcija? autor Leonardo de Arrizabalaga y Prado. Rimski car iz trećeg stoljeća koji je pogrešno nazvao Elagabala Heliogabala postao je mit nakon njegove smrti. Ova knjiga identificira poznate činjenice o njegovoj vladavini.

Teodozije I.

Teodosije i granice carstva Marka Hebblewhitea. Ova biografija rimskog cara Teodozija I. (379.-395. Po Kr.) Prati njegov uspon na vlast i burnu vladavinu.

381 n.e.: Robert Easton, heretici, pogani i zora monoteističke države. Teodozije je 381. godine odredio da svi podanici moraju vjerovati u Trojstvo, čime je okončana raznolikost vjerovanja u carstvu.

Galla Placidia

Galla Placidia: Posljednja rimska carica Hagith Sivan. Biografija Galle Placidije (oko 390-450), krvoločne princeze koja je postala nevjesta barbara, a kasnije i lukavog namjesnika zapadnog rimskog carstva.

Rimska kršćanska carica: Pravila Galle Placidije u sumrak Carstva Joyce E. Salisbury. Kći rimskog cara Teodozija I., Galla Placidia uzeta je za taoce nakon pada Rima pod Gote.

Drugi carevi

Vespazijan od Barbare Levick. Ova biografija neharizmatičnog rimskog cara dovodi u pitanje valjanost njegove dobre reputacije i općepriznatih postignuća.

Car Commodus: Bog i gladijator John S. McHugh. Povjesničari su ga ismijavali od svog vremena, Commodus je sinonim za razvrat i megalomaniju. Ova knjiga postavlja njegovu vladavinu u povijesni kontekst, pokazujući da je naslijedio carstvo razoreno kugom i ratom.

Caracalla: Vojna biografija Ilkke Syv & aumlnne. Kriv za mnoga ubojstva i masakre (uključujući vlastitog brata, bivšu suprugu i kćer), Caracalla je ipak bio popularan u vojsci.

Car Aleksandar Sever: Rimsko doba ustanka, 222.-235. Poslije Krista, John S. McHugh. Aleksandar Sever došao je na prijestolje brutalnim ubojstvom svog rođaka Elagabala, a i sam je ubijen. Godine su bile ispunjene pobunama i dvorskim spletkama. Ipak, drevni izvori predstavljaju njegovu vladavinu kao zlatno doba pravde i tolerancije.

Maximinus Thrax: Od običnog vojnika do rimskog cara, Paul N. Pearson. Više od sedam stopa visok, Maximinus je postao car u vojnom udaru.

Teodozije II.: Promišljanje Rimskog Carstva u kasnoj antici, uredio Christopher Kelly. Deset eseja o Teodoziju II. (408-450), najduže vladajućem rimskom caru. Iako je odbačen kao osrednji i nedjelotvoran, njegovo istočno carstvo zadržalo je svoj integritet dok je Zapad razbijeno barbarskim invazijama.

Galerija i Dioklecijanove volje Bill Leadbetter. Proučava imperijalnu strategiju rimskog cara Dioklecijana, ratove, vjerska gledišta i abdikaciju te neuspjehe i uspjehe svog nasljednika Galerija u kontekstu Konstantinovog nemilosrdnog dolaska na vlast.

Trajan: Optimus Princeps, Julian Bennett. Biografija rimskog cara.

Septimius Severus: The African Emperor, edited by Anthony Birley, is a biography of the emperor who ruled from 193 to 211. He was succeeded by his son Caracalla.

Philip the Arab: A Study in Prejudice by Yasmine Zahran. Originally from Syria, Roman emperor Philip I ruled from AD 244 to 249. He is remembered for being sympathetic to the Christian faith and bringing peace with the Sassanid Empire.

Empresses

Representing Agrippina: Constructions of Female Power in the Early Roman Empire by Judith Ginsburg. Agrippina the Younger, mother of the notorious emperor Nero, was one of the most powerful women in the history of the Roman empire. This book takes a fresh look at literary and material representations of Agrippina.

Julia Domna, Syrian Empress by Dr B. Levick. Julia Domna, who died in 217, was the Syrian-born wife of Roman emperor Septimius Severus, and mother of Emperor Caracalla. This book examines key questions about the powerful empress.

Other Topics

Coining Images of Power by Erika Manders. Patterns in the representation of Roman emperors on imperial coinage, A.D 193-284.

Contested Monarchy: Integrating the Roman Empire in the Fourth Century AD edited by Johannes Wienand. Reappraises the transformation of the Roman monarchy between the Principate and Late Antiquity, focusing on the century from Diocletian to Theodosius I (284-395).

Familia Caesaris: A Social Study of the Emperor's Freedmen and Slaves by P. R. C. Weaver. Shows how the emperor's slaves and freedman differed from others of their class.

Rome and the Friendly King: The Character of Client Kingship by David C. Braund. How a client king's power related to Roman authority and to his subjects.

Emperors and Usurpers in the Later Roman Empire: Civil War, Panegyric, and the Construction of Legitimacy by Adrastos Omissi. How successive imperial dynasties attempted to legitimate themselves and communicate with their subjects.

Emperors and Bishops in Late Roman Invective by Richard Flower. A study of texts written by three bishops who attacked Roman emperor Constantius II (337-61) for his tyrannical behaviour and heretical religious beliefs.

Roman Buildings

Houses, Villas, and Palaces in the Roman World by Alexander Gordon MacKay. Roman domestic architecture from the time of the Etruscans to the late Roman Empire. Ilustrirano.

A Monument to Dynasty and Death by Nathan T. Elkins. The story of Rome's Colosseum and the emperors who built it.

The Emperor and Rome: Space, Representation, and Ritual edited by Björn C. Ewald and Carlos F. Noreña. The impact of imperial building programs, representations of the emperor in the city, and rituals linking emperor and people.

Military & Law

The Emperor of Law: The Emergence of Roman Imperial Adjudication by Kaius Tuori. How the emperor of Rome came to assume the mantle of a judge, from Augustus to the days leading up to the Severan dynasty.

The Emperor and the Army in the Later Roman Empire, AD 235-395 by Mark Hebblewhite. Each emperor employed a range of strategies to convince the army that the empire could only prosper under his rule.

Beletristika

Colleen McCullough's "Masters of Rome" series of novels: Entertaining novels emphasizing personal lives and politics of real historical figures. The books in the series are The First Man in Rome (about Caesar's uncle by marriage, Gaius Marius) The Grass Crown (about Sulla) Fortune's Favorites (about Pompey, Sulla, and Caesar) Caesar's Women (about Aurelia, Servilia, and Julia) Caesar: A Novel (about Julius Caesar) The October Horse (about Caesar, Cleopatra and the fall of the Roman republic) and Antony and Cleopatra: A Novel. McCullough is also the author of The Thorn Birds and other bestsellers.

Caligula by Simon Turney. Was Caligula really a monster? Let his sister Livilla tell you how her quiet, caring brother became the most powerful man on earth and Rome was changed forever.

Commodus by Simon Turney. On the brink of disaster, Roman emperor Commodus tries to hold the empire together, but only one woman can hold him together.

The Course of Honour by Lindsey Davis. In ancient Rome, future emperor Vespasian falls in love with a slave in the household of the imperial family.

Master & God: A Novel of the Roman Empire by Lindsey Davis. Gaius Vinius is a reluctant member of Emperor Domitian's personal guard. Flavia Lucilla is a hairdresser in the imperial court. Together they watch Domitian unravel into madness.

The Emperors by Frank Manley. Poems about Roman emperors.

Children's Books

Movies and Documentaries

These DVDs are formatted for North American audiences.

Caligula: Reign of Madness. Documentary from A&E's "Biography" series. A compelling look at one of the most notorious rulers in history, whose name is synonymous with depravity and madness.

I, Claudius. Excellent, racy miniseries from BBC's "Masterpiece Theater" series.

Modern Marvels: Hadrian's Wall. Walk the 74-mile barrier that marked the edge of the Roman Empire with world-renowned scholars.

In Search of History: The Roman Emperors. Go deep into the private lives of the mighty emperors. Visit the remains of their opulent mansions and see stunning reconstructions of what these palaces looked like at their prime.

When Rome Ruled. Six-part National Geographic series. Episodes include The Real Caligula, Doomsday Pompeii, Killing Caesar, and Ancient Superpower.

Roman Vice. Luxury made the Roman world go round. This documentary uses recent archeological evidence to bring this tumultuous period to life. Explore Roman funeral practices, secret societies and mysterious cults, and the grand palaces of Nero and Tiberius.

Rome: The Complete Series. HBO television series starring Ciaran Hinds as Julius Caesar.


Historical and traditional accounts of the life of Pontius Pilate

According to the traditional account of his life, Pilate was a Roman equestrian (knight) of the Samnite clan of the Pontii (hence his name Pontius). He was appointed prefect of Judaea through the intervention of Sejanus, a favourite of the Roman emperor Tiberius. (That his title was prefect is confirmed by an inscription from Caesarea in ancient Palestine.)

Protected by Sejanus, Pilate incurred the enmity of Jews in Roman-occupied Palestine by insulting their religious sensibilities, as when he hung worship images of the emperor throughout Jerusalem and had coins bearing pagan religious symbols minted. After Sejanus’s fall (31 ce ), Pilate was exposed to sharper criticism from certain Jews, who may have capitalized on his vulnerability to obtain a legal death sentence on Jesus (John 19:12). The Samaritans reported Pilate to Vitellius, legate of Syria, after he attacked them on Mount Gerizim (36 ce ). He was then ordered back to Rome to stand trial for cruelty and oppression, particularly on the charge that he had executed men without proper trial. According to Eusebius of Caesarea’s Crkvena povijest, Pilate killed himself on orders from the emperor Caligula.


Julije Cezar

Admittedly Julius Caesar is better known to history as the penetrated rather than the penetrator. Sexually speaking, however, he was both. Known as the &ldquobald adulterer&rdquo Julius Caesar fit the Roman political stereotype perfectly by sleeping his way to power. As a young man he spent a considerable amount of time at the court of King Nicomedes of Bithynia, fuelling a series of rumors about an affair in which Caesar was the submissive party. His return to Bithynia just a few days after leaving to &ldquocollect a debt&rdquo only fanned the flames.

The Roman biographer Suetonius tells us that this was the only stain on Caesar&rsquos masculinity. But it was a stain that proved difficult to wash out and he would be reminded of it throughout his prematurely ended life. One colleague, Bibulus, addressed Caesar as &ldquothe queen of Bithynia.&rdquo During an assembly, a man named Octavius hailed his co-consul Pompey as &ldquoking&rdquo and Caesar as &ldquoqueen&rdquo. Even the great Cicero couldn&rsquot resist a poke, writing that it was on a Bithynian couch that Caesar—the son of Venus—lost his virginity.

He was just as badly behaved in the provinces, his veni, vidi, vici mantra applying just as much to his sexual conquests as to his military. While in Egypt he had a fling with another historical A-lister, Cleopatra, who forced their introduction by having herself smuggled into his palace wrapped in a carpet. She clearly made an impression. Within nine months she gave birth to their son Caesarian an unfortunate child who wouldn&rsquot survive the purges of Caesar&rsquos successor Octavian. Caesar&rsquos behavior in Gaul didn&rsquot go unnoticed by his men either. During his military triumph celebrating his success there they chanted:

&ldquoMen of Rome, look out for your wives,

We&rsquore bringing the bald adulterer home.

In Gaul you fucked your way through a fortune

Which you borrowed here in Rome.&rdquo

With Caesar returning, there was good reason for men to lock up their wives (and, indeed, daughters). Caesar had slept his way through the rank and file of aristocratic Roman women, even seducing the wives of fellow consuls and political allies. But these weren&rsquot the only exploits his soldiers sang about on this triumphal occasion. They couldn&rsquot resist making reference to his submission to a certain Bithynian king (boys will be boys) and in the course of their banter also boomed out: &ldquoCaesar might have conquered the Gauls but Nicomedes conquered him!&rdquo

Homosexual tendencies weren&rsquot frowned upon in Roman culture per se. Granted, they might earn you the derision of your macho-militaristic cohort. But, as long as sexual favors were given for the purpose of advancing your own political career, they could be overlooked. At least it showed some degree of interest in the proper, political values an upper class Roman should have. This doesn&rsquot exonerate Caesar in his colleagues&rsquo eyes. But, when Gaius Scribonius Curio, an orator and outspoken opponent of Caesar, called him &ldquoa man to every woman and a woman to every man&rdquo, it at least took something of a sting out of the tail.


How Did Julius Caesar Change Rome?

Julius Caesar changed Rome in a number of significant ways, from conquering more lands and defeating invading armies in order to expand the Roman empire to quelling uprisings and relieving debt. He helped to turn Rome into a cultured and enlightened hub.

Julius Caesar is one of the most well-known and iconic rulers of ancient Rome. He was hugely influential in all aspects of the Roman Empire, including politics, the everyday life of citizens, war and economics. When Caesar first came to power, one of the biggest threats facing Rome was the huge mountain of debt. This caused poverty and civil war, with lenders clamouring for their money, and sent property and real estate value plummeting. There was also a distinct lack of coinage, as people hoarded currency. Caesar intervened, relieving the financial crisis and ending the civil unrest by providing free rent for a year, giving citizens the option of a new life and a fresh start in one of the foreign colonies, limiting how much currency could be kept per citizen and cancelling all interest payments due since the outbreak of the civil war. His creative and decisive action ended the civil war and relieved much of the debt and poverty at the heart of the Empire while managing to appease both lenders and borrowers.

He also sought to make Rome a cultural haven of enlightenment and beauty, attracting intellectuals, doctors and scientists from all over the Empire to the city of Rome. After his murder, his influence continued, as his will decreed that his property and estates were made public and that his amassed fortune was distributed to the citizens of Rome.


Where Roman Shadows End @ eng.expert.ru

Like its founder, the early Christian church prized spiritual purity over physical cleanliness, which facilitated sins of the flesh. Thus, a Christian ascetic who crawled with vermin and reeked of body odor was venerated as a paragon of virtue.

Medieval Christians proved their holiness by not washing. A monk came upon a hermit in the desert and rejoiced that he smelt the good odour of that brother from a mile away.

Cleanliness improved during the Middle Ages particularly after the Crusaders imported the Turkish bath. Islamic culture had preserved the Roman traditions of cleaning the body first, then soaking and socializing.

Deprived of sophisticated Roman plumbing, most medieval and renaissance people appear to have bathed less often, but with the same social enjoyment.

Public bath houses were popular and well run, and expectant mothers even used them for baby showers, or festive lying- in baths, with their female friends. Paris and London had many of these jolly communal stews a term later applied to houses of prostitution.

Because so much sex went on in the public baths of the middle ages, the term stew or stewhouse, which originally referred to the moist warmth of the bathhouse, gradually came to mean a house of prostitution.
The church chimed in that the baths encouraged concupiscence, and the stews were closed. From the mid-16th century well into the 19th century in much of Europe, a person could go from cradle to grave without a good wash.

In England, Elizabeth I declared that she bathed once a month whether I need it or not. In Spain during the Inquisition, Ashen burg says, Jew and Muslim alike could be condemned by the frightful words was known to bathe. Nor was sanitation prized in France, where feces left in the halls of Versailles were carted away once a week.

When John Wesley famously re marked, in 1791, that cleanliness is, indeed, next to godliness, he wasn t talking about the body, but about clothes.

In the long centuries of Christian Europe, when miserable conditions of life and religious repression conspired to minimize the expression of sexual longing, desire was driven underground to rise only momentarily during celebrations like Carnaval. Yet by the late nineteenth century, increasing privacy, prosperity, and good health again permitted the underlying biological urge for total body sex to express itself. Our section on the history of the bikini tells this story from a sixties and Brazilian perspective. The wise look to the past as a guide to the future which brings us to Pompeii.

Pompeii had public baths as early as the 4th Century BC, whereas Rome itself did not have them until the time of Augustus (late 1st Century BC). They assumed a character like the Greek gymnasium but incorporated advances which we can still appreciate today. The community of Pompeii was finishing one the grandest bathhouse ever built when Mount Vesuvius exploded in 79 AD, giving us a remarkable view of a different way of living life.

The resort city of Pompeii has yielded an amazingly large collection of erotic votive objects and frescoes. Many were removed and kept until their 21st century unveiling at the Naples Archeological Museum. They had been previously opened to public viewing for a brief period during the 1960s. [više]

The city of Pompeii was the luxury destination for the Roman elite and many members of the upper classes lived almost full-time. Pompeii was a lively place, and evidence abounds of literally the smallest details of everyday life. In examining the street Latin graffiti at Pompeii, we can gather that well-known gladiators and actors frequented the city, and drinking and sex were commonplace and accepted as outlets of entertainment in the ancient cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.

While the Romans adopted the idealization of beauty like the Greeks, their genius was melding ideas, money, and slave labor into greater infrastructure than had ever been seen before. Their increasingly complex structures included the baths. The Romans built so many of them, the baths became an experimental laboratory to test out new concepts. The baths were available to all as community center and a daily ritual that defined what it meant to be Roman.

The locals and visitors frequented a magnificent 5,000-seat theatre and a 20,000-capacity amphitheatre while enjoying at least 81 takeaway food emporiums featuring hot food and fresh bread. The spiritual life of the elite was important too, as the surviving temples dedicated to Isis, Venus, Jupiter and Apollo show us.

Beneath the lava ruins rests a freeze-frame of high style Roman living. Twenty-five thousand people or more died, buried under what was a high tower of pumice pebbles that fell for twelve hours, and killed in an instant by a hundred-mile-an-hour surge of pyroplastic flow -- a superheated mixture of poisonous gas, lava foam, and rocks. When archaeologists began the large-scale uncovering of the city a century ago, they found that there were cavities in the rock, left over from the victims. The plaster casts of the victims that have made Pompeii Italy's #1 visitor attraction.

The Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans are the three ancient cultures with the most important Carnaval lineage, and they all retain their glorious presence in the preserved record of Pompeii at the beginning of the last great age. Isis is the Egyptian deity most responsible for the truce between the Romans and Catholics at the Council of Nicea in 325 AD. O ne of the most important fine art cycles in the history of art is at the Villa of Mystery. Here it is likely that young women were initiated into the mysteries of life, death and rebirth under the watchful eyes of Dionysis and his consort Ariadne.

Pompeii was a rich and cosmopolitan Roman city of trade originally dominated by the Greek traders who also ruled Egypt under the Ptolemys. There are depictions of women as goddesses, seductresses, saints, sinners, and muses, which often have the female appearing nude.

Inside their villas, Pompeians chose many different ways to express themselves. The interior walls of Pompeii homes were enriched by warm and brilliantly colored decorations often with mythological, heroic and fantastic subjects. Some Pompeians had a great love for depicting the mythological stories of the Greeks in these paintings. The rich colors and great skills of all the work show that a support of the arts was a revered aesthetic among the citizens.

The large number of well-preserved frescoes throw a great light on everyday life and have been a major advance in art history of the ancient world, with the innovation of the Pompeian Styles (First/Second /Third Style).

In general, a Roman public bath was like a country club. For a small sum, it was a place to meet friends, go to the gym, play a few games, have a good meal, and spend a bit of time in a succession of cold, tepid, warm or hot baths. Lines on the road from the city s port led not only to brothels, but directed visitors to the heavily used bathhouses. Their great popularity in Pompeii likely contributed to making them an everyday life in the City of Rome and wherever Romans built their network of far-flung cities over the great empire.

Roman history bears witness to the fact that women's bodies were not their own, but lying at the intersection of public interest as they did, were constitutionally entrusted to males to regulate and administer for the good of the state. Women had no political rights. They were not allowed to vote, directly address the Senate, nor mill about in the forum.

In the earlier times of the republic there was a difference of hours for the two sexes. The therm were monopolized alternately by the women in the morning and then the men after they finished their workday in the early afternoon till dinner. Mixed bathing was generally frowned upon, although the fact that various emperors repeatedly forbade it seems to indicate that the prohibitions did not always work. Women who were concerned about their respectability would not frequent the baths when the men were there after 2 in the afternoon, but then the baths with its many small rooms and visitors on holiday would be an excellent place for prostitutes to ply their trade.

Of particular note for the ancient seaside trading community dominated by the Greeks for many centuries was the water system with a central natatorium or swimming pool, and an aqueduct that provided water for more than 25 street fountains, at least four public baths, and a large number of private houses (domus) and businesses.

Water was heated by furnaces in cavities beneath the marble floor. This rose through terracotta layering in the walls. The actual water would be supplied from the aqueduct constructed in the time of Augustus found in the city. The water-wheel in the Strabian Baths indicates that before this, water channeled through a well or a cistern.

Thanks to under-floor heating, and air ducts built into the walls, the whole room would have been full of steam when in use. Grooves in the ceiling allowed condensation to be channelled to the walls, rather than drip onto bathers. Cold water was piped into designated basins enabling bathers to cool off when they wanted.

The oldest bathhouse in Pompeii was the Strabian Baths, but there were several others - the Central, Suburban, Sarno, Amphitheatre i Forum Kupke. This was in a resort city of 15,000-20,000 people. The smaller nearby town of Herculaneum also had two large bathing places. Baths were for people of every social class, but not too egalatarian. The inscription in the huge Villa of Julia Felix which made her baths public following the rebuilding from the quake in 62 AD reads ‘elegant baths for respectable people.’

It was very spacious, and contained all sorts of apartments, side rooms, round and square basins, small ovens, galleries, porticoes, etc., without counting a space for bodily exercises ( pal stra) where the young Pompeians went through their gymnastics. It houses a gymnasium, has walls painted of garden imagery, has several changing rooms and latrines for guests. This was a complete water-cure establishment.

Body care was continued in the "Grande Palestra" a huge rectangular area designed for gymnastic exercises. It measured over 100 metres along each side. A large pool was situated at its centre.
"How have you managed to preserve yourself so long and so well?"
asked Augustus of Pollio.
"With wine inside, and oil outside,"
responded the old man.
Woman with Flask: marble statue of a woman wearing a peplos and holding a glass perfume flask. Ostia, c. 30 CE. Rome, Vatican Museum.

Slave attendants addressed all your needs one of them cuts your nails, another plucks out your stray hair, and a third still seeks to press your body and rasp the skin with his brush, a fourth prepares the most fearful frictions yet to ensue, while others deluge you with oils and essences, and grease you with perfumed unguents. They were perfumed with myrrh, spikenard, and cinnamon there was the Egyptian unguent for the feet and legs, the Ph nician for the cheeks and the breast, and the Sisymbrian for the two arms the essence of marjoram for the eyebrows and the hair, and that of wild thyme for the nape of the neck and the knees.

These unguents were very dear, but they kept up youth and health.

The square basin (alveus or baptisterium) which served for the warm baths was of marble. It was ascended by three steps and descended on the inside by an interior bench upon which ten bathers could sit together.

This frigidarium or natatio is a circular room, which strikes you at the outset by its excellent state of preservation. In the middle of it is hollowed out a spacious round basin of white marble, four yards and a half in diameter by about four feet in depth an circular series of steps on the interior enabled the Pompeians to bathe in a sitting posture. Four niches, prepared at the places where the angles would be if the apartment were square, contained benches where the bathers rested. The walls were painted yellow and adorned with green branches. The frieze and pediment were red and decorated with white bas-reliefs. The vault, which was blue and open overhead, was in the shape of a truncated cone. It was clear, brilliant, and gay, like the antique life itself.

Do you prefer a warm bath? Retrace your steps and, from the apodyteros, where you left your clothing, pass into the tepidarium.

On quitting the stove, or warm bath, the Pompeians wet their heads in that large wash-basin, where tepid water which must, at that moment, have seemed cold, leaped from a bronze pipe still visible. Others still more courageous plunged into the icy water of the frigidarium, and came out of it, they said, stronger and more supple in their limbs.

The Forum baths held open-air sports area (palaestra) for exercise, and the game called harpastum which was popular throughout Rome may have been played at rectangular courts found at the Central and Strabian Baths.

Augustus lived a modest life, with few of the luxuries that his rank would have allowed him to have . Augustus also introduced laws to improve morality to regulate marriage and family life and to control promiscuity.

Livia, was the third wife of Augustus for over fifty years, from 38 BC until his death in AD 14. They remained married despite the fact that she bore him no child. Together they promoted the feminine ideal of the earliest years of Rome, although this was apparently more honored in the breach than observance even by her husband, despite his success in being the patriarch of domestic virtue.

The use of Egypt's immense land rents to finance the Empire's operations resulted from Augustus' conquest of Egypt and the shift to a Roman form of government. As it was effectively considered Augustus' private property rather than a province of the Empire, it became part of each succeeding emperor's patrimonium. The highly productive agricultural land of Egypt yielded enormous revenues that were available to Augustus and his successors to pay for public works and military expeditions, as well as bread and circuses for the population of Rome.

In AD 9, Augustus made adultery a criminal offence, although it is said this was more to intimidate wives than husbands. He first instituted the still encouraged practice of the Catholic church of many offspring by granting privileges to couples with three or more children. The Augustan era poets Virgil and Horace praised Augustus as a defender of Rome, an upholder of moral justice. Virgil's The Aeneid is considered a great epic classic in many ways, not only beating the drum for Roman virtue, but thoughtfully and artfully blending the complex relations at the heart of the Roman Empire into a belief system which served the stability of the realm immeasurably.

Emperor Augustus is also known for his famous last words: "Did you like the performance?", referring to the play-acting and regal authority that he had put on as emperor.

When Christianity banished the pagan gods over 1500 years ago, ending forever their lust-filled adventures, a sexual chill gripped Western Europe.

Even today, the current Pope tells all who will listen that having sex only for procreation and without protection is necessary to avoid the damnation of hell. The record shows that church leaders have few nice things to say about sex, declaring most manifestations of it sinful despite the fact that sexual desire is hard-wired into the brain.

In the late 13th century, the French bathhouses in Paris employed criers to announce when the water was hot.

"A crier patrolled the streets of thirteenth-century Paris to summon people to the heated steam-baths and bath-houses. These establishments, already numbering twenty-six in 1292 [Riolan, Curieuses Recherches, str. 219],

Napoleon and Josephine were fastidious for their time in that they both took a long, hot, daily bath. But Napoleon wrote Josephine from a campaign, I will return to Paris tomorrow evening. Don t wash. Bathing had become rarer with time as 17th-century aristocratic Frenchman, thought cleanliness meant changing his shirt once a day, using perfume to obliterate both his own aroma and everyone else s.

Traditionally a predominantly Roman Catholic country, with anticlerical leanings, France has been a very secular country since the 1970s. However, public holidays are still largely traditional Catholic holidays and knowledge of facts about the history of Catholicism (for instance, the attribute of saints) is considered normal for an educated person. The French generally consider that since the 1905 law of separation of Church and State, they have struck an excellent balance between the rights of religious people and the neutrality of public institutions with respect to religious matters.

Much has been said about the sex lives of the French. The fact the late president, Fran ois Mitterrand, had a love child was an open secret. And the extramarital affairs of his successor, Jacques Chirac, were so well known that even his wife joked about them publicly.

Current French President, 53 year old Nicolas Sarkozy, has raised a few eyebrows since his 2007 election, managing to go through a divorce, courtship and marriage to a model/ pop singer 41 year-old Carla Bruni - all within the first 100 days of his presidency. Carla Bruni is a fascinating beauty who knows her way around a media frenzy. In April 2008 a nude photo of Ms. Bruni, was sold at auction for 91,000 euros. The photographer had persuaded the seller to donate the money from the sale to charity. The charity, a Children s Hospital Association in Cambodia headed by Swiss pediatrician and musician Beat Richner, refused the money.

Accepting money obtained from exploitation of the female body would be perceived as an insult. In Cambodia use of nudity is not understood in the way it is in the West . At the same time, for Cambodians and their government, Madame Bruni is now seen as the First Lady of France. Our reputation would be stained by what they would perceive as disrespect should we accept money of this nature.

Exploitation generally means to take unfair advantage, and perhaps nothing has created more controversy more regularly than exposing the female body, except perhaps exposing the sexual passions the feminine form stirs. However, the ideal of progress requires we deal with it. By celebrating beauty as a high artistic ideal the French and Brazilian cultures have become beacons for a new tomorrow where exploitation of superior power and the planetary suicide of war can be avoided.

Roman women obeyed these restriction with little fuss. Yet, at the end of the successful Second Punic War in 201 B.C., male Romans and women in towns beyond Rome again donned their rich clothing and rode about in carriages. Women in Rome, however, continued to be denied these luxuries because of the Oppian Law. With the end of the wars, upper class women chafted at these continuing restrictions and now wished to keep their inherited money for their own use.

In 195 B.C., some members of the Tribunal proposed eliminating the Oppian Law. Women throughout Rome kept an eye on these proceedings. When it seemed that the majority of Tribunal was about to veto the proposed repeal, they poured into the streets in protest. It was the first time anything by women on a scale such as this was seen in Rome. As a result of the women's protest, the tribunes withdrew their veto and approved the repeal.

For the entire duration of the Roman Empire, Naples and Pompeii was celebrated as a rich and elegant cultural centre, where the Roman emperors and aristocracy came to spend the summer months in their sumptuous villas along the Bay of Naples coast and as far as Sorrento on one side of the bay.

The Sybarites were a luxury-loving people who are credited with inventing the steam bath.in the 8th century B.C.,

The city of Naples was founded by Greek immigrants, who ruled over the Gulf of Naples. Then the area was dominated by the Etruscans (525-474). After their defeat, the city again was subjected to the rule of the Greeks (474-425). The cultural mixing began early as the Greeks would send only men out as colonizers.

The struggle for supremacy in the territory of Campania was resolved by another civilization, that of Samnites who came down from the mountains of the Sannio regions. The archaeological excavations have revealed a number of buildings, of Sannitic type, as well as various sculptural and pictorial works referable to the same period.

For more than 3 centuries Pompei remained under their influence, until the end of the III century when the Roman conquered Campania region. Pompei at first was declared "socia" of Rome and it maintained its own institutions and language, then in the year 80 BC. became a Roman colony with the name of "Colonia Veneria Cornelia Pompeii". From then Pompeii was a city with Roman language, customs, architecture, political and administrative life.

In 2002 another important discovery at the mouth of the Sarno River revealed that the port also was populated and that people lived in palafittes, within a system of channels that suggested a likeness to Venice to some scientists. These studies are just beginning to produce results.

Luciana Iacobelli, a lecturer in Pompeian antiquities at Bicocca University in Milan, said the graffiti also surprisingly reveals names of Roman women of various social classes. This suggests it wasn't only women doing the servicing.
"A recent study suggests that also men worked as prostitutes in the Lupanare. Their clients were both women and men," Iacobelli told Naples daily newspaper, "Il Mattino."
Unearthed in 1862, the Lupanare underwent several restorations. In 2006 the restoration lasted one year, mainly focused on the frescoes, which had begun to fade.

  • Caldarium - closest to the furnace. This room had a large tub or small pool with very hot water and a waist-high fountain (labrum) with cool water to splash on the face and neck.Hot air came through air ducts behind he walls and onto a marble floor held up by brick pillars.
  • Frigidarium -Cold bath, rather like a smaller version of a swimming pool.
  • Tepidarium - Warm bathing room, occasionally linked to a sweating room.
  • laconicum -dry heat like a sauna
  • apodyterium dressing room
  • palaestra - The large central courtyard was the exercise ground it was surrounded by a shady portico which led into the bathing rooms.
  • Vestibule - Entrance Hall to the bathhouses.

The Mount Vesuvius has been sleeping since 1944 under the watchful eyes of volcanologists, who regularly measure its temperature. Their observatory lies 608m high.

The region's volcanic band includes Stromboli, a remote island to the south, and Sicily's Mt. Etna, which demonstrated a significant period of activity in 2007.

Between 1933 and 1944 Mount Vesuvius buried several towns underneath more than 250 million cubic metres of lava. Even the cable car, well known through the folk song Funicul , funicul , fell victim to the lava .

The Finnish use of sauna is well documented back to the beginning of their history.

"The first examples of saunas were simple pits dug in the earth, with heated stones to generate the dry, hot atmosphere. Hot stones remain the hallmark of the sauna, radiating warmth into a small surrounding room, which today is typically built of wood. Dousing the stones with water creates a vapor called loyly by the Finns. Body brushes, called vihta ili vahta, and birch branches, are used to stimulate the skin and a healthy sweat." (von Furstenberg, p. 93)


List of Roman Emperors

  • Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus
  • Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus
  • Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
  • Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
  • Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
  • Servius Sulpicius Galba
  • Marcus Salvius Otho
  • Aulus Vitellius Germanicus
  • Titus Flavius Vespasianus
  • Titus Flavius Vespasianus
  • Titus Flavius Domitianus
  • Marcus Cocceius Nerva
  • Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus
  • Publius Aelius Hadrianus
  • Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus (Antoninus Pius)
  • Lucius Aurelius Verus
  • Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus
  • Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus
  • Publius Helvius Pertinax
  • Marko Didij Sever Julijan
  • Lucius Septimius Severus
  • Caracalla
  • Publius Septimius Geta
  • Marcus Opellius Macrinus
  • Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus
  • Elagabalus
  • Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander
  • Gaius Iulius Verus Maximinus (Maximinus I)
  • Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (Gordian I)
  • Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (Gordian II)
  • Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus
  • Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus
  • Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius (Gordian III)
  • Marcus Julius Philippus (Philip the Arab)
  • Gaius Messius Quintus Decius
  • Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus
  • Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus
  • Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus
  • Publius Licinius Valerianus
  • Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus
  • Marcus Aurelius Claudius
  • Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus
  • Lucius Domitius Aurelianus
  • Marcus Claudius Tacitus
  • Marcus Annius Florianus
  • Marcus Aurelius Probus
  • Marcus Aurelius Carus
  • Marcus Aurelius Numerius Numerianus
  • Marcus Aurelius Carinus
  • Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus
  • Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius
  • Flavius Valerius Constantius (Constantius Chlorus)
  • Galerius Maximianus
  • Flavius Valerius Severus
  • Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus (Constantine I or Emperor Constantine)
  • Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius
  • Gaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus (Maximinus II)
  • Valerius Licinianus Licinius
  • Flavius Claudius Constantinus (Constantine II)
  • Flavius Iulius Constantius (Constantius II)
  • Flavius Julius Constans
  • Flavius Claudius Iulianus (Julian the Apostate)
  • Flavius Iovianus (Jovian)
  • Flavius Valentinianus
  • Flavius Julius Valens
  • Flavius Gratianus
  • Flavius Valentinianus (Valentinian II)
  • Theodosius I
  • Flavius Arcadius
  • Flavius Honorius
  • Flavius Theodosius (Theodosius II)
  • Flavius Constantius (Constantius III)
  • Joannes
  • Flavius Placidius Valentinianus (Valentinian III)
  • Flavius Marcianus
  • Flavius Petronius Maximus
  • Eparchius Avitus
  • Flavius Iulius Valerius Maiorianus
  • Flavius Libius Severus Serpentius
  • Procopius Anthemius
  • Anicius Olybrius
  • Glycerius
  • Julius Nepos
  • Romulus Augustus
  • Flavius Valerius Leo (Leo I the Thracian)
  • Flavius Leo Junior (Leo II)
  • Flavius Zeno
  • Flavius Basiliscus
  • Flavius Anastasius
  • Flavius Iustinus (Justin I)
  • Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus (Justinian I)
  • Flavius Iustinus (Junior) Augustus (Justin II)

Even though Romulus Augustus is considered to have been the last Roman emperor, he was actually an usurper, and is not included in the list. The decline of the Roman empire occurred due to increasingly strong enemies and treachery within the empire. However, no one can deny them the various achievements that marked the era, like their art, literature and architecture.


14 Century CE

1303 CE – Andronicus II takes into his service Grand Company of Catalans

1328 CE – Death of Andronicus II. Accession of Andronicus III

1341 CE – Andronicus II dies, succeeded by John V

1347 CE – John Cantacuzenus joint emperor

1354 CE – Cantacuzenus abdicates. John V sole emperor. Turks occupy Gallipoli

1361 CE – Turks capture Adrianople

1391 CE – Accession of Manuel II

1425 CE – Manuel II dies. Accession of John VI

1148 CE – John VI dies. Accession of Constantine XI

1451 CE – Accession of Mohammed the Conqueror in the east

1453 CE – Fall of Constantinople to Mohammed the Conqueror. Death of Constantine XI.


Gledaj video: Serijal Imperator. Polje maceva 8 dio. Conn Iggulden (Srpanj 2022).


Komentari:

  1. Gok

    Mislim da griješite. Mogu to dokazati. Napiši mi u PM.

  2. Corrin

    Brilliant idea and it is duly

  3. Jaye

    Po mom mišljenju niste u pravu. Uvjeren sam.

  4. Quintin

    Žao mi je, ali po mom mišljenju, griješite. Pokušajmo razgovarati o tome.

  5. Cullin

    Savršen odgovor

  6. Amycus

    Smatram da niste u pravu. uvjeren sam. Mogu braniti poziciju.Pišite mi u PM, razgovarat ćemo.



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