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PRIJEVOD KAMENA ROSETTA

iz Nil, Bilješke za putnike u Egiptu, autor E. A. Wallis Budge, 9. izdanje, London, Thos. Kuhar i sin, [1905], str. 199-211.

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PREVOD HIEROGLIFIČNOG TEKSTA UKAZA SVEĆENIKA MEMFISA, NAĐENOG NA KAMENU ROSETTA 1 I NA STELU DAMANH & UcircR. DEKRET JE PROGLAŠEN U 9. GODINI VLADANJA PTOLEMIJE V. EPIFANA.

1. Dvadeset četvrtog dana u mjesecu GORPIAIOS 2, koji odgovara dvadeset četvrtom danu četvrtog mjeseca sezone PERT 3 stanovnika TA-MERT-a (EGIPT), u dvadeset trećoj godini vladavina DIJETETA HORUS-RA, koji je uskrsnuo kao kralj na prijestolju svog oca, gospodara svetišta NEKHEBET 4 i UATCHET, 5 moćnika dvojake snage, stabilizatora dviju zemalja, uljepšivača od

2. Egipat, čije je srce savršeno (ili blagonaklono) prema bogovima, HORUS od zlata, koji čini savršenim život hamentet bića, gospodar tridesetogodišnjih festivala poput PTA Ḥ, suvereni princ poput R Ā, kralj juga i sjevera, Neterui-merui-a ̇tui-a ̇u ā-setep-en-Pta ḥ-usr-ka-R ā-ānkh-sekhem-A ̇men 6, Sin Sunca Ptolomej, uvijek živi,

ljubljeni Pta ḥ, bog koji se očituje.

3. sin od PTOLEMIJA i ARSINO & Euml, bogovi koji ljube Oca kad je PTOLEMY, sin PIRIDE, bio svećenik ALEKSANDRA, i bogova Spasitelja, i bogova koji ljube braću, i milosrdnih bogova,

4. i bogova koji ljube Oca, i Boga koji se očituje kad je DEMETRIA, kći Telemaha, bila nositelj

5. nagrada pobjede BERENICE, milosrdne božice i kada su ARSINO & Euml, kći CADMUS-a, bile nositeljice košara ARSINO & Euml, božice koja ljubi brata

6. kad je IRENE, kći PTOLEMIJE, bila svećenica ARSINO & Euml, božice koja je ljubila oca, na današnji dan nadstojnice hramova, božje sluge i oni koji su nad tajnim božjim stvarima, i oslobodioci [koji] odlaze na najsvetije mjesto da slože bogove u tadašnju odjeću,

7. i pisci svetih spisa, i mudraci Dvostruke kuće života, i drugi libationi [koji] su došli iz svetišta s juga i sjevera u MEMPHIS, na dan festivala,

S. Njegovo Veličanstvo, kralj juga i sjevera PTOLEMIJA, vječno živa, voljena od Pta ḥ, bog koji se očituje, gospodar ljepota, primio je suverenost od svog oca,

ušli u SE ḤETCH-CHOMBER, gdje se nisu htjeli sastaviti, u MAKHA-TAUI 1, i evo, izjavili su ovako: —

9. “Ukoliko je kralj kojeg bogovi vole, kralj juga i sjevera Neterui-merui-a ̇tui-a ̇ua-en-Pta ḥ-setep-en-usr-ka R ā ānkh-sekhem-A ̇men, sin Sunca Ptolomej, uvijek živi, ​​voljen Pta ḥ, Bogovi koji su se očitovali, gospodar ljepota, dali su stvari svih vrsta u vrlo velikim količinama zemljama Horusa i svima

10. “Oni koji u njima stanuju, i svakome tko ima bilo kakvo dostojanstvo, evo, on je sličan Bogu, budući da je Božji sin [i] darovana mu je od Božice, jer on je pandan Horusu, sinu Izide [i] sinu Ozirisovu, osvetniku svog oca Ozirisa &#gle, Njegovom Veličanstvu.

11. “posjedovao je božansko srce koje je bilo blagonaklono prema bogovima i dao je zlato u velikim količinama, i žito u velikim količinama u hramove, a dao je i mnogo raskošnih darova kako bi Ta-Mert [Egipat] uspio , i kako bi postigao stabilan napredak

12. “i dao je vojnicima koji su u njegovoj augustovskoj službi. . . . . . prema njihovom rangu

[odlomak se nastavlja] [i o porezima] neke od njih je odrezao, a neke je [olakšao], čime su vojnici i oni koji žive u zemlji postali uspješni

13. “pod njegove vladavine [a što se tiče iznosa koji su pripadali kraljevskoj kući] od egipatskog naroda, a isto tako i onih [koji su trebali dospjeti] od svakoga tko je bio na njegovoj augustovskoj službi, Njegovo veličanstvo ih je u cijelosti doznačilo , ma kako sjajni bili

14. “i oprostio je zatvorenicima koji su bili u zatvoru, te naredio da se svaki od njih oslobodi [kazne] koju je morao podnijeti. Njegovo je veličanstvo izdalo naredbu govoreći: —U pogledu stvari [koje se trebaju dati] bogovima, te novca i

15. “zrno koje se svake godine daje hramovima, i sve stvari [koje se trebaju dati] bogovima iz vinograda i iz žitnih polja noma, sve stvari koje su tada dospjele pod veličanstvom svoga svetog oca

16. “da li je dopustio da im ostane [u njihovim iznosima] onakvima kakvi su tada bili, a on je naredio: —Eto, riznica (?) Neće svećenicima unositi više doprinosa nego ona bio do prve godine vladavine Njegovog Veličanstva, njegov sveti otac i Njegovo Veličanstvo su oprostili

17. “Svećenicima koji služe u hramovima na tečajevima putovanje na koje su navikli rijekom u čamcima do grada ALEKSANDRIJE početkom svake godine, a Njegovo je veličanstvo zapovijedalo: — Gle, oni koji su lađari [po trgovini] neće biti zaplijenjeni [i

napravljen za službu u mornarici] i u pogledu platna od byssusa [koje se] izrađuju u hramovima za kraljevsku kuću,

18. “naredio je da se dvije trećine njih vrati [svećenicima] na sličan način, Njegovo Veličanstvo je [ponovno] utvrdilo sve stvari, čije je izvođenje bilo odbačeno, i vratio ih u svoje prijašnje stanje, a on je vodio najveću brigu da učini da se sve što treba učiniti u službi bogova učini na razumni način na koji je to učinjeno

19. “u prethodnim [danima] na sličan način, on je [sve stvari] izvršio na pravilan i pravilan način, a pobrinuo se i za provođenje pravde 1 ljudima, čak i poput Thotha, velikog, velikog [Boga] i on je, štoviše, naredio u odnosu na one trupe koje se vraćaju, i na druge ljude koji su tijekom

20. “sukobi u revoluciji koja se dogodila bili su loše raspoloženi [prema vladi], da će po povratku u svoje domove i zemlje imati moć ostati u posjedu svoje imovine, a on se jako pobrinuo da pošalje pješaštvo, konjica i brodovi za odbijanje onih koji su dolazili protiv

21. “Egipt na kopnu, kao i na moru, pa je posljedično potrošio vrlo veliku količinu novca i žita na njih kako bi zemlje Horusa i Egipta učinio uspješnima.

22. “A njegovo veličanstvo krenulo je protiv grad Shekam, koji se nalazi ispred (?) grada UISET -a, koji je bio u posjedu neprijatelja, bio je opskrbljen katapultima, a bio je spreman za rat oružjem svih vrsta

23. “ pobunjenici koji su bili u njemu —sad su počinili velika djela svetogrđa u zemlji Horus, te su ozlijedili one koji su živjeli u Egiptu —Njegovo veličanstvo napalo ih je čineći put [do njihovog grada],

24. “i podigao je humke (ili zidove) protiv njih, kopao je rovove i sve što bi ga navelo protiv njih što je napravio i učinio je da se blokiraju kanali koji su opskrbljivali grad vodom, što nitko od kraljeva koji su mu prethodili nikada prije nije mogao učiniti, te je potrošio veliku svotu novca na izvođenje radova

25. “i Njegovo Veličanstvo stacionirali su pješaštvo na ustima kanala kako bi ih promatrali i čuvali od izvanrednog porasta voda [od Nila], koja se dogodila osme godine [svoje vladavine], u prethodno spomenutim kanalima koji su zalijevali polja i bili neobično duboki

26. “na ovom mjestu i Njegovo Veličanstvo zauzeli su grad napadom u vrlo kratkom vremenu, te su isjekli pobunjenike koji su se u njemu nalazili, i među njima su napravili izuzetno veliko klanje, čak i slično onom što su THOTH 1 i HORUS, Izidin sin i [Ozirisov sin], među onima koji su se pobunili protiv njih

27. “Kad su se pobunili baš na ovom mjestu i gle, oni koji su poveli vojnike i bili na njihovom čelu, i koji su narušili granice [u vrijeme njegova oca, i koji su počinili svetogrđe u hramovima, kad je Njegovo Veličanstvo došlo u MEMFIS da se osveti ocu

28. “i svoj vlastiti suverenitet kaznio je, prema njihovim pustinjama, kad je došao tamo proslaviti] festival primanja suverenosti od svog oca i [osim ovoga], odbacio je [svoju tvrdnju da

29. “ stvari koje su bile posljedica Njegovog Veličanstva, a koje su se [tada] nalazile u hramovima, do osme godine [njegove vladavine, koja je iznosila nemali iznos] novca i žita, a Njegovo Veličanstvo je također postavilo na stranu [njegova tvrdnja] o krpama od byssusa koje je trebalo dati kraljevskoj kući i koje su se [tada] nalazile u hramovima,

30. “i također porez koji oni (tj. svećenici) trebali su doprinijeti podjeli tkanina na komade, što je bilo do danas, a također je doznačio u hramove žito koje se obično ubiralo kao porez na kukuruznu zemlju bogova, a isto tako mjera vina koja je bila trag kao porez na vinograde [bogova]

31. “i učinio je velike stvari za APIS i MNEVIS, i za svako svetište koje je sadržavalo svetu životinju, i potrošio je na njih više nego što su njegovi preci i njegovo srce ušli u [razmatranje svega] što je ispravno i primjereno za njih

32. “u svakom trenutku i dao je sve što je potrebno za balzamiranje njihovih tijela, raskošno i u veličanstvenom obilju, i preuzeo je troškove njihovog održavanja u njihovim hramovima, te troškove njihovih velikih festivala, i njihovih paljenica, žrtvi i uskrsnuća

33. “ [i poštovao je privilegije hramova i Egipta i održavao ih na prikladan način

način prema onome što je uobičajeno i ispravno i on je potrošio] i novac i žito na nemali iznos

34. “i [osigurao] je sve u velikom broju za kuću u kojoj živi ŽIVI APIS i Njegovo Veličanstvo ukrasili su ga savršenim i novim ukrasima najljepšeg lika uvijek i učinio je da ŽIVI APIS uzdigne [poput sunce], i osnovao je hramove, svetišta i kapele [njemu u čast] [i popravio je svetišta koja su trebala popravke, a po svim pitanjima koja se odnose na službu bogova

35. “On je pokazao duh dobrotvornog boga i za vrijeme svoje vladavine, nakon što je pažljivo ispitao, obnovio je hramove koji su bili u najvećoj časti, kako je bilo ispravno], a u zamjenu za te stvari bogovi i božice dali su mu pobjedu, i moć, i život, i snagu, i zdravlje, i svaku lijepu stvar svake vrste, i

36. “u pogledu njegovog uzvišenog čina, bit će uspostavljeno njemu i njegovoj djeci zauvijek, sa sretnim rezultatima (ili životom). ”

I ušlo je u srce (e) svećenika svećenika hramova juga i sjevera, i svakog hrama [da sve počasti koje

37. isplaćuju se] kralju juga i sjevera Ptolomej, uvijek živi, ​​ljubljeni Pta ḥ, [Bog koji se očituje, čija su djela lijepa, i ona koja su plaćena bogovima koji ljube Oca koji su ga rodili, i milosrdnim bogovima koji su rodili one koji su ga rodili, i bogovima braći koji su rodili začetnici njegovih začetnika,]

38. i bogovima Spasiteljem [bit će uvelike povećan] i kip kralja juga i sjevera, Ptolomej, vječno živ, voljen Pta ḥ, Bog koji se očituje, Gospodar ljepote, bit će postavljen [u svakom hramu, na najistaknutijem mjestu], i bit će

39, nazvan njegovim imenom "PTOLEMIJA, SPASITELJA EGIPTA, "čije je tumačenje (?)"PTOLEMIJA, POBJEDNI. "[I stajat će rame uz rame sa kipom Gospodara bogova (?), Koji mu daje oružje pobjede, a bit će oblikovan po uzoru na Egipćane i kip ove vrste bit će postavljeno u]

40. svi hramovi koji se zovu njegovim imenom. I klanjat će se tim kipovima svaki dan tri puta, a svaki obred i svečanost koje je prikladno obaviti prije njih bit će obavljeni, i sve što je propisano i prikladno za njihove DVOJKE, mora se obaviti, čak i ako je tako nastupao za bogove Noma tijekom festivala i na svaki sveti dan (?), na dan [njegova] krunidbe i na njegov imendan. I tu će isto biti [postavljeno] a

41. veličanstveni (?) Kip kralja juga i sjevera Ptolomej, uvijek živi ljubitelj Pta ḥ, Bog koji se očituje, čija su djela lijepa, sin Ptolomej, i Arsino & euml, bogovi koji ljube Oca, a sa kipom će biti veličanstveno svetište [napravljeno] od najfinijeg bakra i umetnuto pravim kamenjem svake vrste,

42. u svakom hramu koji se zove njegovim imenom i ovaj kip počivat će na najsvetijem mjestu [u hramovima] rame uz rame sa svetištima bogova Nomesa. A u dane velikih svetkovina, kada bog [hrama] izađe iz svog svetog prebivališta, prema njegovim danima, svetište Boga koji se očituje, gospodar ljepotica, isto će tako biti učinjen izaći [kao Sunce]

43. s njima. A kako bi se ovo novo svetište moglo lako razlikovati [i u današnje vrijeme, i u budućim vremenima, postavit će] ovo svetište [deset kraljevskih dvostrukih kruna, izrađenih od zlata i na [svakoj od dvostrukih kruna, staviti [zmiju koju je ispravno i prikladno napraviti za [dvostruku zlatnu krunu], umjesto dva Uraeija

44. koji su [postavljeni] na vrhove svetišta, a SEKHENTSKA KRUNA bit će u njihovoj sredini, jer je bila u SEKHENTSKOJ KRUNI u kojoj je Njegovo Veličanstvo blistalo u kući KA PTA Ḥ (tj., Memphis)

45. u vrijeme kada je kralj ušao u hram i obavio ceremonije koje je bilo u skladu s njegovim pravom za primanje uzvišenog čina [kralja]. A na gornjoj površini četvrtastog postolja koje je okruglo ove krune, a u njegovom srednjem dijelu [koji je odmah] ispod] dvostruka kruna [ugravirat će biljku papirusa i biljku s juga i postaviti ih tako da lešinar, na neb, , ispod kojega će se naći biljka juga, pričvrstit će se na desni gornji kut zlatnog svetišta i zmija, , pod, ispod

koji je , postavljeno na] biljka papirusa, [mora biti pričvršćena] s lijeve strane [u gornjem kutu] i

46. ​​tumačenje [ovih znakova je]: — "Gospodar svetišta NEKHEBET -a i Gospodar svetišta UATCHET -a, koji osvjetljava zemlju Bijele krune i zemlju Crvene krune." I utoliko što je zadnji dan četvrtog mjeseca sezone SHEMU 1 (tj., MESORE), koji je rođendan prekrasnog vječno živog boga, već je uspostavljen kao blagdan, a u zemljama HORUS-a se promatrao kao festivalski dan (tj., zemljište hrama) iz starih vremena i štoviše, sedamnaestog dana drugog mjeseca sezone SHAT 2 (tj. PAOPI),

47. pri čemu je [Njegovo Veličanstvo] obavljalo ceremonije kraljevskog pristupanja, kada je od oca dobio suverenitet, [također se promatra kao festivalski dan], i gle [ovih dana] su bili izvor svih [dobrih] stvari gdje su svi ljudi sudjelovali ovih dana, to jest, sedamnaestog i posljednjeg dana svakog mjeseca, držat će se kao svetkovine u hramovima

48. Egipta, u svakom od njih i u ove dane prinosit će se žrtve paljenice, mesne žrtve i sve što je ispravno i uobičajeno činiti na proslavama svetkovina, obavljat će se ovih dana svakog mjeseca , a na tim festivalima svaki će čovjek raditi (tj., ponudi) ono što je navikao činiti na [druge] praznike

49. tivali u hramovima. [I svećenici su također odredili] da stvari koje [donose u hramove] kao

prinos će se dati osobama koje [ministar u hramovima, svetkovine i procesije bit će uspostavljene u hramovima i u cijelom Egiptu, u čast] kralj juga i sjevera, Ptolomej, vječno živ, voljen Pta ḥ, bog koji se očituje, čija su djela lijepa, svake godine,

50. počevši od prvog dana prvog mjeseca sezone Shat (tj., Thoth) do petog dana [i ovih dana ljudi će nositi] vijence na glavi, te će činiti svečane oltare, nuditi hranu i piće i činiti sve što je u redu i ispravne za izvođenje. I svećenici svih hramova koji se zovu po njegovu imenu

51. imat će, uz sve ostale svećeničke titule koje mogu posjedovati, i naslov "Sluga božji koji se očituje, čija su djela lijepa" [i ovaj će naslov biti obilježen svim djelima i dokumentima koji su postavljeni u hramovima] i na prstenovima koje nose na rukama ugravirat će naslov "Libationer boga koji se očituje, čija su djela lijepa".

52. I gle, on će u rukama onih koji žive na selu i onih koji to žele uspostaviti kopiju svetišta boga koji se pokazuje, čija su djela lijepa, i postaviti ga gore u svojim kućama i bit će slobodni svakog mjeseca održavati svetkovine i radovati se [prije toga]

53. i svake godine i kako bi upoznali one koji su u Egiptu [zašto Egipćani odaju počast —kao što je najispravnije i najprimjerenije učiniti

bog koji sebe čini lijepim, čija su djela lijepa, odredili su svećenici] da će ovaj ODLOG [biti upisan] na steli od tvrdog kamena u pisanju riječi bogova i pisanju knjiga, te u pisanju HAUI-NEBUI (tj. Grka), i bit će postavljena u svetištima u hramovima koji se [zovu] njegovim imenom, prve, druge i treće [klase], u blizini kipa HORUS -a, kralja juga i sjevera Ptolomej, vječno živ, voljen Pta ḥ, bog koji se očituje, čija su djela lijepa.

Fusnote

199: 1 Riječi u zagradama dodaju se ili iz Stele od Damanh & ucircr ili u svrhu dobivanja smisla.

199: 2 Dio ožujka i travnja.

199: 4 Svetište božice supa Nekhebet nalazilo se u Gornjem Egiptu.

199: 5 Potpunije, Per-Uatchet je svetište zmijske božice bilo u Delti.

199: 6 Ime koje znači "Dva Boga koja ljube Oca, nasljednik, izabran iz Pta ḥ, snaga dvojnika R ā, živa moć A ̇ ljudi."


Rosetta St one-Dekodiranje demotskog teksta

Pretraživanje tema Opcije tema

Pukovnik

Pukovnik

"Kamen iz Rosette, Wallis Budge" vaš je odgovor.

Da, ali sad to ne mogu pročitati. Ne možete ni vi! Ne znamo da sadrži prijevod demotskog teksta s kamena iz Rosette! Pa ostavimo to po strani za daljnje obavijesti.

Ili ako ga imate, bio bih spreman pogledati?

Nadvojvoda

E sad, Petro. Budući da ste selektivno koristili službeno stajalište povjesničara itd., Poslužit ću se službenom točkom jezikoslovaca :)

Prije 2 godine lingvistička zajednica je iskonski makedonski jezik skovala kao indoeuropsku grčku granu. Dobila je ISO kod XMK. Što imate reći o tome?

Så nu tar jag fram (k) niven va!

Nadvojvoda

"Kamen iz Rosette, Wallis Budge" vaš je odgovor.

Da, ali sad to ne mogu pročitati. Ne možete ni vi! Ne znamo da sadrži prijevod demotskog teksta s kamena iz Rosette! Pa ostavimo to po strani za daljnje obavijesti.

Ili ako ga imate, bio bih spreman pogledati?

Siguran sam da će vam Akritas donijeti prikaz knjige. Zato nas pratite.

Så nu tar jag fram (k) niven va!

Nadvojvoda

Koine su postale "uobičajene" kao u "pripadaju svima"! Nije "jednostavno" za razliku od "elite"!

Još jedna stvar. Makedonci su pohađali kazalište kao što sam vam već rekao, a Bacche je napisan na grčkom. Najstariji europski papirus dolazi iz Makedonije, poznat kao Dervenski papirus. Autor pokušava pisati na tavanu, ali koristi mnogo dorskih riječi. Zvoni li to?

Također, trebam prevoditelja da bih razumio arkadokipriot iz određenih okruga na Cipru. Međutim, ako bi mi zapisali ono što mi govore, mogu to razumjeti 100%. Isto vrijedi i za Pontiance koji dolaze iz Uzbekistana. Ne razumijem dobro što govore. Čine li to Arkadokipriota i Pontijaca negrčkim jezikom?

Što se tiče "vlastitog jezika", vi se pozivate na "makedonisti". Dakle, pod time mislite da "Attikisti" (tavan) na primjer nije grčki?

Så nu tar jag fram (k) niven va!

Nadvojvoda

A ovo je iz britanskog muzeja Petro.


Så nu tar jag fram (k) niven va!

Nadvojvoda

Imam nekoliko stranica iz prethodno spomenute knjige. Ostalima ipak nemam pristup.

U svakom slučaju, podudara li se ovaj prijevod s druga dva pisma na kamenoj ili Tentovovoj verziji? Također, zašto vaša država ne želi podržati njegovo istraživanje i provjeriti prijevod prema vašoj nacionalnoj televiziji?

Uredio Flipper-24. studenog 2007. u 22:45

Så nu tar jag fram (k) niven va!

Pukovnik

[QUOTE = Lamela]
Imam nekoliko stranica iz prethodno spomenute knjige. Nemam pristup ostatku. U svakom slučaju, slaže li se ovaj prijevod s druga dva pisma na kamenoj ili Tentovs verziji? Također, zašto vaša država ne želi podržati njegovo istraživanje i provjeriti prijevod prema vašoj nacionalnoj televiziji?

Tekst kamena iz Rosette

U vladavini mladog koji je naslijedio svog oca na kraljevskom položaju, gospodara dijadema, najslavnijeg, koji je uspostavio Egipat i pobožan prema bogovima, trijumfirao nad svojim neprijateljima, koji je obnovio civilizirani život ljudi, gospodara tridesetogodišnjih festivala, čak i kao Ptah Veliki, kralj poput Ra, veliki kralj gornje i donje zemlje, potomak bogova Philopatores, onaj kojeg je Ptah odobrio, kojemu je Ra dao pobjedu, živu sliku Amona, sin Ra, PTOLEMIJE, ŽIVJELI VJEČNO, VOLJEN U PTAH, u devetoj godini, kada je Aetosov sin Aetos bio svećenik Aleksandra, i bogovi Soteres, i bogovi Adelphoi, i bogovi Euergetai, i bogovi Filopatores i Bog Epifan Euharistos Pira, kći Philinosa, Athlophoros iz Berenike Euergetis, Areia kći Diogena, Kanephoros of Arsinoe Philadelphos Irene, kći Ptolomeja, svećenica Arsinoe Philopator, četvrtog u mjesecu Xandikosu, prema Egipćanima 1. 8. Mekhir.

Ne odgovara ni ovo u potpunosti! Pitam se odakle vam ova knjiga? Koji je izvor možemo pogledati i vidjeti cijeli rad?

Je li ovo prijevod Demotika s velikim "D", ili demotskog značenja Koine?

Uredio Petro Invictus-24. studenog 2007. u 22:54

Pukovnik

Ipak, kaže tri pisma i svakodnevno pismo pismenih Egipćana (ili bi to mogli biti "vladari Egipta"). Makedonski vladari su u to vrijeme proglašeni faraonima i vladarima Egipta. Možda je, možda, Britanski muzej u to vrijeme podcijenio jezik "vladara Egipta". Je li moguće da su "vladari Egipta", koji nisu govorili egipatskim do Kleopatre, govorili drugim jezikom koristeći egipatsko pismo (što znači demotsko pismo). Jezik vladara bio je makedonski.

Pukovnik

Makedonski jezik s demotskim pismom kao materinji jezik Ptolomija.

To je stvarnost koja stoji iza srednjeg teksta kamena iz Rosette.

To je ono što je izjavio u svom osobnom dopisivanju s prepisivačima, a zatim dao na prijevod na koine s helenskim pismom, te egipatski ili koptski jezik sa svetim pismom (hijeroglif).

Uredio Petro Invictus-24. studenog 2007. u 23:05

Poglavica


Hegemom

Uredio akritas-24. studenog 2007. u 23:36

Kalif

"Činjenica da demotsko pismo nije u potpunosti prevedeno i nitko ga ne može pročitati, fonetski, riječ po wopd, dokazuje da se nije koristilo s koptskim, već s drugim jezikom vjerojatno vladara. pitanje je koji je bio jezik vladara?

Proveo sam neko vrijeme surfajući po ovom pitanju, sve što sam pronašao u suprotnosti je s vašom izjavom. Demotic je u potpunosti preveden.
Zapravo, volio bih vidjeti vaše izvore o mnogo toga. Igrate se brzo i opušteno sa temama koje su dobro istražene i dokumentirane, da vidimo neke od njih. "

Kažete da je Demotic u potpunosti preveden. Nije prema Demotičkom rječniku Sveučilišta u Chicagu. Demotik iz kamena Rosetta naveden je pod "problematični unosi".

Ne razumijem! To je suprotno od onoga što tvrdite Crvena glina. Pogledaj:

1. Ne možemo pronaći potpuni prijevod demotskog teksta s kamena iz Rosette.

2. Nitko ga ne može čitati fonetski!

3. Postoje indicije da se radilo o skripti koja se koristila za osobno dopisivanje.

4. Znamo da je to izvorni tekst na kamenu iz Rosette, pa se čini da je Ptolomej koristio ovu skriptu za objavljivanje dekreta, koji će kasnije biti preveden u hijeroglifski i grčki tekst.

5. Vidjeli smo da je demotsko pismo bilo u upotrebi u mnogim jezicima. Zašto ne makedonski, jezik tadašnjih vladara Egipta?

Što se ovdje krije?

[9. godina, Xandikos 4. dan], što je ekvivalentno egipatskom mjesecu, drugom mjesecu Peretu, 18. dan, kralja 'Mladi koji se pojavio kao kralj na mjestu svog Oca', Gospodara Uraeija ' Čija je moć velika, koji je uspostavio Egipat, učinivši ga prosperitetnim, čije je srce naklonjeno bogovima ', (Onaj) Koji je nad svojim neprijateljem' Koji je učinio da život ljudi napreduje, Gospodar godina jubilarnog poput Ptah-Tenena, kralja poput Pre ', [kralja gornjih okruga i] donjih okruga' Sina bogova koji ljube Oca, kojega je Ptah izabrao, kojem je Pre dao pobjedu, Živu sliku Amun ', Sin Pre' Ptolomeja, koji živi vječno, ljubljen Ptaha, očitovanog Boga čija je izvrsnost u redu ', sin Ptolomeja i Arsinoje, bogova koji ljube Oca, (i) svećenika Aleksandra i bogova Spasitelja i [Bogovi braće i sestara i] Dobrotvorni [bogovi] i bogovi koji ljube Oce i kralj Ptolomej, manifestni Bog čija je izvrsnost u redu, Aetos tako n Aetosa, dok je Pyrrha kći Philinosa bila dobitnica nagrade prije Berenice Dobrotvorne, dok je Areia kći Diogena bila [Košarica] [prije Arsi] noe Brata i dok je Eirene kći Ptolomeja bila svećenica Arsinoja Oca -ljubav: na današnji dan, dekret svećenika mr-sn i svećenika hm-ntr, i svećenika koji ulaze u svetište kako bi izvršili rituale odjeće za bogove, i prepisivače božanske knjige i pisce Kuće života, i drugi svećenici koji su došli iz egipatskih hramova [u Memfis] na festival prijema vladavine od strane kralja Ptolemeja, koji su živjeli zauvijek, ljubljeni od Ptaha, očitovanog Boga čija je izvrsnost u redu, od njegova oca , koji su se okupili u hramu Memfisa i koji su rekli:

Dok je kralj Ptolomej, koji živi zauvijek, Očitovani Bog čija je izvrsnost u redu, sin kralja Ptolomeja [i kraljice] Arsinoe, bogova koji ljube oca, neće učiniti mnoge usluge za egipatske hramove i za sve one koji su podložni njegovo kraljevanje, on je bog, sin boga i božice i bio je poput Horusa, sina Izide i Ozirisa, koji štiti svog oca Ozirisa, a njegovo srce je dobročinstvo u pogledu bogova, budući da je dao mnogo novca i mnogo žita u egipatske hramove, [koji je podnio velike troškove] kako bi stvorio mir u Egiptu i uspostavio hramove, te nagradio sve snage koje su pod njegovom vlašću te prihode i poreze koji su bili na snazi ​​u Egipat je neke smanjio ili (?) Ih se u potpunosti odrekao, kako bi vojska i svi drugi ljudi u njegovo vrijeme kao [kralja zaostalih] bili bogati, a to je bilo zbog kralja iz naroda koji je u Egipat i svi oni koji su podložni njegovu kraljevanju, i (koji ch) iznosio je veliki zbroj, odrekao se ljudi koji su bili u zatvoru i onih protiv kojih je dugo bilo optuživanja, pustio je naredio u vezi s obdarenjima bogova, te novcem i žitom koji se daju kao naknada za njihove [hramove] svake godine i udjele koji pripadaju bogovima iz vinograda, voćnjaka i svu ostalu imovinu koju su posjedovali pod njegovim ocem, pa im je nadalje naredio u vezi s svećenike da ne bi trebali plaćati porez na to da postanu svećenici iznad onoga što su plaćali do 1. godine pod njegovim ocem, pustio je ljude [koji drže] službe hramova s ​​putovanja koje su koristili za rezidenciju Aleksandra svake je godine naredio da se nijedan veslač ne smije impresionirati u službi, odrekao se dvotrećinskog udjela finog platna koje se nekad izrađivalo u hramovima za riznicu, dovodeći u [ispravno] stanje sve što ga je napustilo s (ispravno) stanje dugo vremena, i vodeći računa da se na ispravan način učini ono što se uobičajeno čini za bogove, isto tako uzrokujući da se ljudima učini pravda u skladu s onim što je Thoth Dvaput veliki učinio, osim toga, naredio je u pogledu onih koji će se vratiti od boraca i ostatka ljudi koji su zalutali (lit. bili na druge načine) u smetnji koja se dogodila u Egiptu da [ih] treba [vratiti] u njihove domove, te im vratiti njihov posjed i on se pobrinuo da pošalje (pješačke) vojnike, konjanike i brodove protiv onih koji su došli obalom i morem kako bi izvršili napad na Egipat, potrošio je veliku količinu novca i žita na te (neprijatelje), kako bi osigurao da hramovi i ljudi koji su bili u Egiptu budu sigurni otišao u tvrđavu Sk3n [koju su pobunjenici utvrdili svim vrstama poslova, u njoj je bilo mnogo opreme i sve vrste opreme, on je tu tvrđavu ogradio zidom i nasipom (?) uokolo (osvijetljeno izvana ) to je zbog pobunjenika koji su bili u njemu, koji su već nanijeli mnogo štete Egiptu, i napustio način zapovijedi kralja i zapovijedi [boga], prouzročio je kanale koji su opskrbljivali vodu tom utvrdom biti proklet, iako prethodni kraljevi nisu mogli učiniti isto, i much money was expended on them he assigned a force of footsoldiers and horsemen to the mouths of those canals, in order to watch over them and to protect them, because of the [rising] of the water, which was great in Year 8, while those canals supply water to much land and are very deep the King took that fortress by storm in a short time he overcame the rebels who were within it, and slaughtered them in accordance with what Pre and Horus son of Isis did to those who had rebelled against them in those places in the Beginning (as for) the rebels who had gathered armies and led them to disturb the nomes, harming the temples and abandoning the way of the King and his father, the gods let him overcome thein at Memphis during the festival of the Reception of the Rulership which he did from his father, and he had them slain on the wood he remitted the arrears that were due to the King from the temples up to Year 9, and amounted to a large total of money and grain likewise the value of the f ine linen that was due from the temples from what is made for the Treasury, and the verification fees(?) of what had been made up to that time moreover, he ordered concerning the artaba of wheat per aroura of land, which used to be collected from the fields of the endowment, and likewise for the wine per aroura of land from the vineyards of the gods' endowments: he renounced them he did many favours for Apis and Mnevis, and the other sacred animals that are honoured in Egypt, more than what those who were before him used to do, he being devoted to their affairs at all times, and giving what is required for their burials, although it is great and splendid, and providing what is dedicated(?) in their temples when festivals are celebrated and burnt offerings made before them, and the rest of the things which it is fitting to do the honours which are due to the temples and the other honours of Egypt he caused to be established in their (proper) condition in accordance with the law he gave much gold, silver, grain, and other items for the Place of Apis he had it adorned with new work as very fine work he had new temples, sanctuaries, and altars set up for the gods, and caused others to assume their (proper) condition, he having the heart of a beneficent god concerning the gods and enquiring after the honours of the temples, in order to renew them in his time as king in the manner that is fitting and the gods have given him in return for these things strength, victory, success(?), prosperity, health, and all the ( sic ) other favours, his kingship being established under him and his descendants forever:

With good fortune! It has seemed fitting to the priests of all the temples of Egypt, as to the honours which are due to King Ptolemy, living forever, the Manifest God whose excellence is fine, in the temples, and those which are due to the Father-loving Gods, who brought him into being, and those which are due to the Beneficent Gods, who brought into being those who brought him into being, and those which are due to the Brother-and-Sister Gods, who brought into being those who brought them into being, and those which are due to the Saviour Gods, the ancestors of his ancestors, to increase them and that a statue should be set up for King Ptolemy, living forever, the Manifest God whose excellence is fine - which should be called 'Ptolemy who has protected the Bright Land', the meaning of which is 'Ptolemy who has preserved Egypt' - together with a statue for the local god, giving him a scimitar of victory, in each temple, in the public part of the temple, they being made in the manner of Egyptian work and the priests should pay service to the statues in each temple three times a day, and they should lay down sacred objects before them and do for them the rest of the things that it is normal to do, in accordance with what is done for the other gods on the festivals, the processions, and the named (holi)days and there should be produced a cult image for King Ptolemy, the Manifest God whose excellence is fine, son of Ptolemy and Queen Arsinoe, the Father-loving Gods, together with the ( sic ) shrine in each temple, and it should be installed in the sanctuary with the other shrines and when the great festivals occur, on which the gods are taken in procession, the shrine of the Manifest God whose excellence is fine should be taken in procession with them and in order that the shrine may be recognized, now and in the rest of the times that are to come, ten royal diadems of gold should be added - there being one uraeus on them each, like what is normally done for the gold diadems - on top of the shrine, instead of the uraei that are upon the rest of the shrines and the double crown should be in the centre of the diadems, because it is the one with which the King was crowned in the temple of Memphis, when there was being done for him what is normally done at the Reception of the Rulership and there should be placed on the upper side of (the) square(?) which is outside the diadems, and opposite the gold diadem that is described above, a papyrus plant and a 'sedge' plant and a uraeus should be placed on a basket with a 'sedge' under it on the right of the side on top of the shrine, and a uraeus with a basket under it should be placed on a papyrus on the left, the meaning of which is 'The King who has illumined Upper and Lower Egypt' and whereas fourth month of Shemu, last day, on which is held the birthday of the King, has been established already as a procession festival in the temples, likewise second month of Peret, day 17, on which are performed for him the ceremonies of the Reception of the Rulership - the beginning of the good things that have happened to everyone: the birth of the King, living forever, and his reception of the rulership - let these days, the 17th and the last, become festivals each month in all the temples of Egypt and there should be performed burnt offerings, libations, and the rest of the things that are normally done on the other festivals, on both festivals each month and what is offered in sacrifice(?) should be distributed as a surplus(?) to the people who serve in the temple and a procession festival should be held in the temples and the whole of Egypt for King Ptolemy, living forever, the Manifest God whose excellence is fine, each year, from first month of Akhet, day 1, for five days, with garlands being worn, burnt offerings and libations being performed, and the rest of the things that it is fitting to do and the priests who are in each of the temples of Egypt should be called 'The Priests of the Manifest God whose excellence is fine' in addition to the other priestly titles, and they should write it on every document, and they should write the priesthood of the Manifest God whose excellence is fine on their rings and they should engrave it on them and it should be made possible for the private persons also who will (so) wish, to produce the likeness of the shrine of the Manifest God whose excellence is fine, which is (discussed) above, and to keep it in their homes and hold the festivals and the processions which are described above, each year, so that it may become known that the inhabitants of Egypt pay honour to the Manifest God whose excellence is fine in accordance with what is normally done and the decree should be written on a stela of hard stone, in sacred writing, document writing, and Greek writing, and it should be set up in the first-class temples, the second-class temples and the third-class temples, next to the statue of the King, living forever.


Why the Rosetta Stone Ended Up in the British Museum

The Rosetta Stone was regarded by the French as a trophy of war, but it never made it back to Paris. The French did not occupy Egypt for long, as they surrendered to the British and Ottoman forces in 1801. One of the objects seized from the French by the victorious British was the Rosetta Stone.

The artifact was transported back to England. Interestingly, the British left their mark on, or vandalized, (depending on one’s point of view) the Rosetta Stone. Two inscriptions in white can be seen on the broken edges of the stone, one on the left, and another on the right. The former reads ‘CAPTURED IN EGYPT BY THE BRITISH ARMY IN 1801’, and the latter proclaims, ‘PRESENTED BY KING GEORGE III’.

The left and right sides of the Rosetta Stone, containing the faint English inscriptions saying: (L) "Captured in Egypt by the British Army in 1801" (R) "Presented by King George III." (Captmondo/ CC BY SA 3.0 )

Subsequently, the Rosetta Stone arrived in the British Museum in London. The artifact has been exhibited there since then, except during the period of the First World War, when it was temporarily relocated to an off-site, underground spot for safekeeping. After some time, white chalk was used to color the inscriptions, in order to make them more legible.


Fragment of a much larger stela

The Rosetta Stone was not originally located at Rashid (ancient Rosetta) and is actually a fragment of a much larger stela that was originally displayed at a temple, possibly at the ancient Egyptian city of Sais.

"The original stone was considerably taller than it is today," Ray wrote in his book. "Its uppermost register would have been decorated with figures of the king and the gods of the temple where it stood. These are long gone," wrote Ray. "Of the hieroglyphic text which formed its second register, only a third is left." Fragments of the Demotic and Greek texts are also broken off and are gone. Parkinson estimates that when the Rosetta Stone was first created, it was about 59 inches (149 cm) in height.

The town of Rashid (ancient Rosetta) is located by the sea, and the Rosetta Stone would not have originally been placed there, wrote Parkinson. "The land on which that seaside town was built did not exist at the time of its carving, being the result of later sedimentation."

"The stela was probably erected at a more ancient site than Rashid, further inland," possibly the ancient city of Sais, which is fairly close by, wrote Parkinson. "The Rosetta Stone probably stood in the temple precincts of Sais for several centuries."

The temple that once held the stone may have been quarried centuries after the Rosetta Stone was created, and the stone may have been brought to Rashid as quarried rock.


Udarac

The Rosetta Stone was shown to Napoleon, who was very impressed. He arranged for printers to come from Paris and make copies of the inscriptions by inking the stone and laying paper upon it. The copies were sent to the best linguists in Europe. The Greek text was translated in 1802 by the Rev. Stephen Weston. Next, work began on the demotic text. In 1803, a Swedish diplomat named Johan Akerblad published his initial results, identifying the proper names in the text and a few other words.

The linguist whose work was most instrumental in understanding the hieroglyphic text was Jean-Francois Champollion (1790-1832). Champollion had been fascinated by ancient languages since childhood. He began working on the Rosetta Stone inscriptions in 1808 when he was 18 years old.

Champollion made three basic assumptions in his effort to decipher the hieroglyphs. He looked for hints in the script used by the early Egyptian Christians, or Copts, assuming that this represented the last remnants of the language of the pharaohs. Soon after he began working on the Rosetta Stone inscriptions, he identified correspondences between the Coptic alphabet and 15 signs of the demotic script.

Then, Champollion realized that although the hieroglyphs obviously included ideograms, symbols intended to represent objects or ideas, there were also phonograms, symbols representing sounds. In most written languages, ideograms were gradually discarded as phonetic symbols took hold, but the ancient Egyptians retained them both.

Finally, he recognized that the groups of hieroglyphs encircled by an oval loop, or cartouche, were phonetic symbols for the pharaohs' names. Champollion found the name Ptolmys in Greek and demotic, and so was able to decipher the cartouched hieroglyphic characters for the name as well. An obelisk found by Giovanni Belzoni and sent to England also bore both Greek and hieroglyphic texts. From this inscription Champollion was able to pick out the name Kliopadra, defining the sounds of a few more hieroglyphic signs. Champollion had realized that since the names of these Ptolemy rulers were Greek in origin, they would have no meaning in the Egyptian language. Therefore they would be represented only with phonetic symbols. A copy of an inscription from the temple of Ramses II at Abu Simbel afforded additional clues.

During the Late Period (712-332 B.C.) there were as many as 6,000 different hieroglyphs in existence, although no more than about 1,000 were in general use at any one time throughout most of ancient Egyptian history. As in Hebrew and Arabic, the phonograms corresponded only to consonants. Vowels were simply omitted. In English this would correspond to writing "brk" for "brook," "break," and "brick." In hieroglyphic text, a special ideogram called a determinative would be added to remove the ambiguity. In our example, a determinative for water would be added to "brk" to convey the meaning "brook."

Hieroglyphic text is also like other Middle Eastern languages in that it was generally written from right to left. Unlike them, there was also the alternative of going from left to right. The pictures of people and animals in the text always face toward the beginning of the line. If the inscription is written from top to bottom, as is also common, the signs face toward the beginning of the series of columns.

Champollion took 14 years to solve the puzzle of the hieroglyphs. In 1822, he wrote a letter to the French Royal Academy of Inscriptions, explaining his results. He defined an alphabet of 26 letters and syllabic signs, of which about half turned out to be correct. He also included an explanation of determinatives. In 1824 Champollion published his book Precis du Systeme Hieroglyphique, in which he expanded upon the information in the letter, as well as correcting some of his own mistakes and a few of the English physicist Thomas Young. Young had been working on the Rosetta Stone inscriptions and made substantial progress, independently coming to some of the same conclusions as Champollion. His work had been published in 1819, in a supplement to the fourth edition of the Enciklopedija Britannica.

Champollion died of a stroke in 1832 when he was only 41 his Egyptian Grammar i Egyptian Dictionary were published posthumously. In 1897, an exhaustive reference called the Berlin Woerterbuch was begun, including all the words in all the known Egyptian manuscripts and inscriptions.

Additional copies of the Ptolemy V text were later found in other locations, allowing Egyptologists to fill in sections of hieroglyphs that had been missing where the top of the Rosetta Stone was broken off. The stone itself had changed hands soon after its discovery, when Napoleon's forces were routed by the English. Today it is displayed in the British Museum.


Rosetta Stone

The Rosetta Stone, not to be confused with the language learning software, is a fragment of a granite-like rock with a text carved in three different languages. It was found by troops of Napoleon in 1799 in the wall of a fort in the city of Rosetta (Rashid in Arabic), Egypt, which is near Alexandria. It is about 45 inches high. 28.5 inches wide, and 11 inches thick, weighing in at about About ¾ of a ton (1676 pounds - our replica weighs 90-95 pounds). It is a broken piece of granodiorite stone that was originally part of a 5-6 ft. tall stela, or column, located in a temple elsewhere in the Nile Delta. The stone passed into British hands and was taken to England. It is now housed in the British Museum in London, where it is the most popular attraction in the museum.

The writing on the stone is a decree issued jointly by the Pharaoh, Ptolemy V Epiphanes (205-180 BC), and a council of Egyptian priests. The council took place on March 27, 196 BC, the day after the first anniversary of the 14-year-old Pharaoh's coronation. The text itself is referred to as the Decree of Memphis, and has been found in several other locations in Egypt. It cancelled debts and taxes, released prisoners, and granted increased donations to the temples.

The last sentence of the decree reads: "This decree shall be inscribed on a stela of hard stone in sacred (hieroglyphic) and native (Demotic) and Greek characters and set up in each of the first, second and third rank temples beside the image of the ever-living king." Accordingly, our copy of the Rosetta Stone is housed next to a (replica) coin showing the image of Pharaoh Ptolemy V Epiphanes and a genuine coin which was minted during his reign. More informartion can be found from the British Museum: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=117631&partId=1

Brigham Young University-Idaho is the first university in the world to obtain a full-size, 3D replica of the Rosetta Stone from The Freeman Institute. The replica was obtained to help students get a real view at what the stone is like. The replica is 40% resin and 60% granodiorite filler. It also contains a high density foam core to lessen the weight. It is one of the most important pieces to language and culture as it unveiled the Egyptian language and culture to the world.

Why is the Rosetta Stone important?

Before the discovery of the Rosetta Stone, scholars had not been able to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphics, so very little was understood about the Egyptian culture. The Rosetta Stone has the same text written in three styles/languages: 1) hieroglyphics ( vrh), which can be written in either direction, but in this case they read right to left 2) Demotic ( srednji), a cursive form of Egyptian written from right to left and 3) ancient Greek ( dno), written left to right. Egyptian pharaohs were actually Greek by this date, so Greek was their common tongue. Because scholars could read Greek in 1799, they were able to work out the meaning of the hieroglyphic characters. Thomas Young of England deciphered the demotic script, but young Jean-François Champollion of France, who worked in the library in Grenoble for a time, succeeded in working out the structure of the hieroglyphic characters. He started by finding and deciphering the characters for Ptolemy's name in the Greek and hieroglyphic versions, and published the translation of the full text in 1824. Decoding hieroglyphic symbols opened up the entire Egyptian culture to the modern world.


"More than half of the decree is lost from the hieroglyphic section, originally an estimated 29 lines. The Greek occupies 54 lines, with many errors in the inscription, and the demotic 32, with its last two lines inscribed in a fulsome style to fill the space. The sides taper slightly towards the top. The original shape of the stela is shown in a sign in line 14 of the hieroglyphic text. The stela almost certainly had a rounded top headed by a winged sun-disk, and probably a scene with figures in Egyptian style, similar to that showing the king and queen between two groups of gods on another stela with a copy of the Canopus Decree issued in 238 BC under Ptolemy II." (Parkinson, 26)

Michael Coe, noted scholar of Mayan hieroglyphics, called the Rosetta Stone "the most famous piece of rock in the world." (Parkinson, 19)

Who found the stone, and when?

It was found in July 1799 by scholars ("savants") sent to Egypt by Napoleon. They were tearing down a ruined wall in Fort Julien in the town of Rosetta when they came across a broken stone with writing in three languages. They looked for other pieces but did not find any. (Giblin, 25)

The stone could not have originally been placed in Rosetta, since that town did not even exist during Ptolemy's era. It was built later on sediment from the Nile River. It is probable that the stone was already broken when it was moved to the place where it was discovered. (Parkinson, 26)

The stone undoubtedly was housed in a temple elsewhere, perhaps in Sais, which is 40 miles upstream from Rosetta. (Ray, 3)

Who translated the hieroglyphics?

Working from the Greek text at the bottom of the stone, the British scholar Thomas Young (1773-1829) succeeded in deciphering the demotic text (in the middle of the stone) - a cursive form of Egyptian - in 1814. Young started work on the hieroglyphic text, but then moved on to other projects.

The Frenchman Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) took on the task of puzzling out the hieroglyphic symbols. Champollion had taught himself to read at age 5 and had mastered a dozen languages by the age of 16. He devoted himself to deciphering the hieroglyphic text of the Rosetta Stone, working on the project from 1822 to 1824. The challenge of hieroglyphics lie in the fact that it was unclear whether each symbol represented a letter, a sound, or a concept.

Once Champollion realized what he had done, he ran out of his apartment and over to the Grenoble library where his brother was working, he shouted "I've got it! I've got it!," and then promptly fainted. This was the key to deciphering the rest of the Egyptian alphabet and opened the door to understanding an entire civilization that had thrived for several millennia.

It is worth noting that the Rosetta Stone was found 6 years before Joseph Smith was born. Also, whereas it took Champollion two years to decipher the 14 lines of hieroglyphic text on the stone, it only took Joseph about 75 days to translate the 588 pages (in the 1 st edition Book of Mormon) of "reformed Egyptian" characters on the golden plates with the gift of God and the aid of the Urim and Thummim at about the same time period.

Why did BYU-Idaho acquire a replica copy?

The McKay Library has been actively collecting materials related to the history of writing for several years. The Rosetta Stone is as important to language and culture as the Mona Lisa painting is to the art world. When we learned that a company had just started making life-size replicas of the stone, we felt this would literally be a keystone to our History of Writing collection.

Pictures can give you a general impression of an object, but we felt it was important to have a full size copy to help students have a much more visual understanding of the context of the Rosetta Stone.

Who made this replica?

The Freeman Institute in Maryland. See www.rosettastonereplicas.com In the 1970's, the British Museum made a few molds of the full face of the authentic Rosetta Stone, and the Freeman Institute owns one of them. The Institute spent 4+ years developing a process to make an exact replica of the mold.

A 3D digital image of the Rosetta Stone was made using a laser scanner with an accuracy of 0.0005". A resin mimicking the original coloration of the granodiorite rock of the Rosetta Stone was developed. The replica consists of 40% resin and 60% granodiorite filler. It has a high density foam core to lessen the weight.

Where is the city of Rosetta located?

In the Nile delta, 8 miles from the Mediterranean and 35 miles northeast of Alexandria. It lies on the left bank of the Rosetta branch of the Nile River. The Arabic name of the town is Rashid, named after caliph Harun al-Rashid, who founded it in about 800 AD. (Encyclopedia Britannica)

Can you touch the original?

The original has been encased in glass since at least 1999. A replica has been placed in the King's Library for people to touch. (Ray, 4)

In 1847, the stone was covered with a glass frame to protect the surface. The glass cover was removed in the 1980s because the public complained, but the stone was enclosed in a glass case after its cleaning in 1999. (Parkinson, 25). The stone was also removed from its inclined metal supports and placed upright in 1999. (Parkinson, 27)

Why is it broken?

It was part of a column, or stela, that was originally about 6 feet tall. Based on other copies of this same text (the "Memphis Decree") and a similar decree, scholars have reconstructed what they think the original stela may have looked like:

The glyph that looks somewhat like a coffin, near the right side in the last line of hieroglyphics, is the glyph for "column" or "stela." It shows the shape of the original column that the Rosetta Stone came from.

What does "hieroglyphics" mean?

It comes from two Greek words meaning "sacred writing." It refers to a form of writing in which picture symbols represent ideas and sounds. (www.worldbookonline.com)

Are there any other copies of the text?

Several other copies of the Memphis Decree have been discovered.

In 1898, a limestone stela inscribed with a copy of just the hieroglyphic version of the Decree of Memphis was found at Nubayrah, or el-Nobaira near Damnhur in Lower Egypt. The stela is rounded at the top and is 4 ft. 2 in. high and 1 ft. 8 in. wide and is now in the Cairo Museum. It was carved 14 years after the Rosetta Stone, in 183 BC. (Budge, 103 Parkinson, 30)

A further version of the hieroglyphic version of the Memphis Decree was found in 1848, incised on the walls of the Birth House of the temple of Isis on the island of Philae. (Giblin, 73 Andrews, 13)

Several sandstone fragments containing the text were found in Elephantine and are now in the Louvre. A poorly preserved basalt stela containing the text from Nub Taha is now in Alexandria. (Parkinson, 30)

History of Ptolemy V

"In the summer of 204 BC Ptolemy IV died suddenly in his mid-thirties, and Ptolemy V came to the throne as a six-year-old child. In the courtly intrigues that followed, Ptolemy IV's death was concealed until the boy-king's mother Arsinoe had been killed. This weakened the government severely." Hostilities against Egypt continued until 200 or 198 BC. Rebels were eventually defeated and "they were punished as part of the coronation of the by now thirteen-year-old king, eight years into his reign." The coronation was held in the traditional capitol of Memphis. "A decree was issued to record the priests' granting of a royal cult to the king in return for his favours to them, including exemption from taxes, and is known after its place of issue as the Memphis Decree." (Parkinson, 29)

Bibliografija:

&bull Carol Andrews, The Rosetta Stone, London: British Museum Press, 1981.

&bull E.A. Wallis Budge, The Rosetta Stone, New York: Dover, 1989.

&bull James Cross Giblin, The Riddle of the Rosetta Stone, Key to Ancient Egypt, New York: Harper Trophy, 1990.

&bull Richard Parkinson, Cracking Codes: The Rosetta Stone and Decipherment, Berkeley: UC Press, 1999.

&bull John Ray, The Rosetta Stone and the Rebirth of Ancient Egypt, Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 2007.


The Rosetta stone

Rosetta (today called Rashid), the place where the same-named stone was found, is an old Egyptian seaport in the western Nile delta (Figure 3 ). The Rosetta stone was discovered there in 1799. With the aid of this artefact, it was possible to decipher the hieroglyphic system of writing. The Rosetta stone is a half-round stone stele with carved text in three types of script. This text contributed decisively to the deciphering of the Egyptian hieroglyphs (‘sacred engraved letters’). Today it is located in the British Museum in London. The stone is 114.4 cm high, 72.3 cm wide, and 27.9 cm thick it weighs 762 kg and consists of dark-gray granodiorite—the hardest type of basalt. It dates from 196 BC and contains a carved decree of the council of Egyptian priests. However, the entire stele is heavily weathered the entire upper-left corner has been chipped off, and other large text passages are also missing. Therefore, around two-thirds of the hieroglyphic text were lost.

Map segment (Nile delta) with topography of the city of Rosetta (today called Rashid).

Map segment (Nile delta) with topography of the city of Rosetta (today called Rashid).

This text—a priestly decree honouring King Ptolemy Epiphanes—was written in three different scripts, enabling three population groups to read the text (Figure 4 ) namely the priests in Egyptian hieroglyphs (hieratic script since ∼2400 BC), the administration in Egyptian in Demotic script (demos = people), i.e. the language used for daily purposes in old Egypt (

600 - 470 BC), and the Greek rulers over Egypt in ancient Greek, written in Greek capital letters.

The Rosetta stone as it looks today.

The Rosetta stone as it looks today.

During the Egyptian expedition of Napoleon (1798–1801), in the course of setting up a camp (Kâit Bey = Rosetta Fort), French lieutenant Pierre François Xavier Bouchard found the stone on 15 July 1799, while working on the fortification of Fort St Julien, ∼4 km from the city of Rosetta in the Nile delta. Scientists who accompanied Napoleon on his expedition closely examined the stone.

During the war between France and Britain, Napoleon invaded Egypt. From Egypt, he wanted to conquer India, the richest colony governed by Britain and thus bring the British Empire to a fall. While Bonaparte landed in Egypt, conquered Alexandria, and started the march to the south, British admiral Sir Horatio Nelson crossed the eastern Mediterranean Sea. In August 1798, the Battle of the Nile was fought near Abukir (∼20 km north-east of Alexandria), where the French fleet lay at anchor. The French armada, which previously had brought Napoleon's expedition army to the land of the pyramids, was defeated by the British navy under Admiral Nelson. Thus the British recaptured the command of the Mediterranean Sea. Six years later Nelson died in the Battle of Trafalgar (1805), in which Napoleon's naval forces were defeated and the British fleet gained unrestricted rule over the world's oceans. This was the beginning of the end of Napoleon's reign.

After the French had been defeated in Egypt, they had to relinquish the Rosetta stone to the British in 1801, together with other antiques. In the spring of 1801, when Cairo was being threatened by military operations under the leadership of Sir Ralph Abercromby, academic scholars who participated in the French expedition took the Rosetta stone to Alexandria to keep it safe. According to the unfortunate capitulation treaty, the stone had to be handed over to General Hutchinson however, it initially remained hidden among the luggage of French General Menou. In the end, the Rosetta stone nevertheless got into the hands of Colonel Turner (who was later promoted to Major General), who shipped the precious find to Portsmouth in February 1802, on board of the HMS L'Egyptienne. After intensive archaeological and graphological examinations by the Society of Antiquaries, the Rosetta stone finally made its way to the British Museum, where it can still be viewed and admired today.

In 1822, with the aid of the Rosetta stone, Jean-François Champollion succeeded in deciphering the Demotic script and found the key to the hieratic script and the hieroglyphs ( Figure 5 ). Credit for deciphering the ancient script also belongs to Silvestre de Sacy, Johan David Åkerblad from Sweden and Thomas Young from Britain.

In 1822, 31-year-old Jean François Champollion achieved a breakthrough in the decipherment of the hieroglyphs when he successfully identified the names of the Pharaohs Ramses and Thutmose. Champollion had a remarkable scientific career that came to an early end upon his death at the age of 41. Champollion described the hieroglyphs as a script that contains pictorial, symbolic, and phonetic elements in the same text, the same phrase, and even within the same word.

In 1822, 31-year-old Jean François Champollion achieved a breakthrough in the decipherment of the hieroglyphs when he successfully identified the names of the Pharaohs Ramses and Thutmose. Champollion had a remarkable scientific career that came to an early end upon his death at the age of 41. Champollion described the hieroglyphs as a script that contains pictorial, symbolic, and phonetic elements in the same text, the same phrase, and even within the same word.


Rosetta Stone today

Champollion's discovery remained subject to scientific bickering and controversy until a much less famous stone proved him right in 1866, according to "Cracking Codes." Another decree &mdash also written in hieroglyphic text, Greek and demotic &mdash was found in Tanis, Egypt, and was studied by Prussian Egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius that year. The Tanis Stone gave scientists a comparison for testing the Rosetta Stone translation and confirmed Champollion's findings. It is now kept in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

The Rosetta Stone itself remains at the British Museum, where it is a popular tourist draw but no longer the subject of much research. Egyptian authorities periodically call for the return of the stone.

"[T]he artifacts stolen from Egypt must come back," Zahi Hawass, then-director of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, said in 2003. Hawass continued to call for the stone's repatriation to Egypt until he lost his position in the Egyptian government in 2011 amid the upheaval of the country's revolution that year. His successors have taken up the cause, with Egyptian archaeologist Ahmed Saleh calling for the return of the stone as recently as 2014. The British Museum has refused these calls, citing a 1970 UNESCO agreement that denies Egypt the right to demand any artifact taken from the country before 1970, according to the Cairo Post. Recently smuggled artifacts are regularly repatriated to Egypt, but objects taken during the colonial period have proved more difficult for Egypt to reclaim.


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