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Crkva Franka

Crkva Franka


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Frank Church rođen je u Boiseu, Idaho, 25. srpnja 1924. Dok je bio u školi, Crkva je postala snažna podrška Williamu Borahu. U srednjoj školi Boise, Church je pobijedio na nacionalnom oratorijskom natjecanju American Legion 1941. s govorom pod naslovom "The American Way of Life".

Godine 1942. Church je postao student na Sveučilištu Stanford, ali se sljedeće godine pridružio vojsci Sjedinjenih Država i tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata služio je kao vojni obavještajni časnik u Burmi.

Nakon rata vratio se na Sveučilište Stanford, a nakon diplomiranja 1950. počeo je raditi kao odvjetnik u Boiseu. Crkva se pridružila Demokratskoj stranci, a 1956. izabran je u Senat. Imao je samo 32 godine i bio je peti najmlađi član koji je ikada sjedio u Senatu.

Godine 1959. čelnik većine u Senatu Lyndon B. Johnson imenovao je Church u Odbor za vanjske odnose. Crkva je, kao i njegov idol, William Borah, zastupala neovisna politička stajališta, a 1965. godine Church je počeo kritizirati američku uključenost u Vijetnam. Godine 1969. pridružio se senatoru Johnu Shermanu Cooperu kako bi sponzorirao amandman koji zabranjuje uporabu kopnenih trupa u Laosu i Tajlandu. Njih dvojica također su udružili snage 1970. kako bi ograničili moć predsjednika tijekom rata.

Church je bio član nekoliko odbora Senata, uključujući Posebni odbor za starenje, Posebni odbor za ukidanje nacionalne hitne situacije i Odabrani odbor za vladine obavještajne aktivnosti. Godine 1975. Church je postao predsjednikom Odabranog odbora za proučavanje vladinih operacija s obzirom na obavještajne aktivnosti. Ovaj odbor je istraživao navodne zlouporabe ovlasti od strane Središnje obavještajne agencije i Federalnog zavoda za obavještajne poslove.

Odbor je pogledao slučaj Freda Hamptona i otkrio da je William O'Neal, Hamptonov tjelohranitelj, bio agent-provokator FBI-a koji je nekoliko dana prije racije dostavio Zavodu tlocrt stana s "X" koji označava Hamptonovu krevet. Balistički dokazi pokazali su da je većina metaka tijekom napada bila uperena u Hamptonovu spavaću sobu.

Crkveni odbor također je otkrio da su Središnja obavještajna agencija i Federalni istražni ured poslali anonimna pisma u kojima se napada politička uvjerenja ciljeva kako bi se naveli njihovi poslodavci da ih otpuste. Slična su pisma poslana supružnicima u nastojanju da unište brakove. Odbor je također dokumentirao kriminalne provale, krađu popisa članova i kampanje dezinformacija čiji je cilj izazivanje nasilnih napada na ciljane pojedince.

Jedan od tih meta bio je Martin Luther King. FBI je Kingu poslao magnetofonsku snimku napravljenu od mikrofona skrivenih u hotelskim sobama. Traka je popraćena bilješkom u kojoj se sugerira da će snimka biti puštena u javnost osim ako King nije izvršio samoubojstvo.

1975. Crkveni je odbor intervjuirao Johnnyja Rosellija o njegovom odnosu s tajnim službama. Pokazalo se da su u rujnu 1960. Roselli i njegov kolega zločinački šef, Sam Giancana, sudjelovali u razgovorima s Allenom W. Dullesom, direktorom Središnje obavještajne agencije (CIA), o mogućnosti ubojstva Fidela Castra.

U svom završnom izvješću, Odaberite Povjerenstvo za proučavanje vladinih operacija s obzirom na obavještajne aktivnosti zaključio: „Domaće obavještajne djelatnosti ugrozile su i potkopale ustavna prava Amerikanaca na slobodu govora, udruživanja i privatnost. To je učinjeno prvenstveno zbog toga što nije primijenjen ustavni sustav za provjeru zlouporabe ovlasti. ”

Prema izvješću Kongresa objavljenom 1976. godine: "CIA trenutno održava mrežu od nekoliko stotina stranih pojedinaca diljem svijeta koji pružaju obavještajne podatke CIA -i i pokušavaju povremeno utjecati na mišljenje korištenjem prikrivene propagande. Ti pojedinci pružaju CIA -i izravan pristup velikom broju novina i periodičnih publikacija, nizu novinskih službi i novinskih agencija, radijskim i televizijskim postajama, izdavačima komercijalnih knjiga i drugim stranim medijima. " Church je tvrdio da su troškovi pogrešnog informiranja svijeta američke porezne obveznike koštali oko 265 milijuna dolara godišnje.

Church je pokazao da je politika CIA -e koristiti tajno postupanje s novinarima i autorima kako bi informacije prvotno objavile u stranim medijima kako bi se proširile u Sjedinjenim Državama. Crkva citira jedan dokument koji je napisao načelnik stožera za tajne akcije o tome kako je ovaj proces funkcionirao (stranica 193). Na primjer, on piše: "Nabavite knjige objavljene ili distribuirane u inozemstvu bez otkrivanja bilo kakvog utjecaja SAD -a, prikriveno subvencionirajući strane izdavače knjiga ili knjižare." Kasnije u dokumentu piše: "Nabavite knjige objavljene iz operativnih razloga, bez obzira na komercijalnu isplativost". Church ide na izvještaj da je "više od tisuću knjiga proizvedeno, subvencionirano ili sponzorirano od strane CIA -e prije kraja 1967. godine". Sve su te knjige na kraju došle na američko tržište. Bilo u izvornom obliku (Crkva daje primjer Penkovskiy radovi) ili prepakirani kao članci za američke novine i časopise.

U drugom dokumentu objavljenom 1961. načelnik propagandne jedinice Agencije napisao je: „Prednost našeg izravnog kontakta s autorom je ta što ga možemo vrlo detaljno upoznati sa svojim namjerama; da mu možemo dostaviti bilo koji materijal koji želimo da uključi i da možemo provjeriti rukopis u svakoj fazi ... (Agencija) mora osigurati da će stvarni rukopis odgovarati našoj operativnoj i propagandnoj namjeri. "

Church citira Thomasa H. Karamessinesa koji je rekao: “Ako članak posadite u neki papir u inozemstvu, a to je teško pogađajući članak ili otkriće, ne postoji način da se jamči da neće biti pokupljen i objavljen. od strane Associated Pressa u ovoj zemlji ”(stranica 198).

Analizom dokumenata CIA -e Church je uspio identificirati preko 50 američkih novinara koji su izravno zaposleni u Agenciji. Bio je svjestan da postoji mnogo više onih koji su uživali u vrlo bliskim odnosima s CIA -om koji su “redovito plaćali svoje usluge, onima koji od CIA -e primaju samo povremene darove i nadoknade” (stranica 195).

Church je istaknuo kako je to vjerojatno bio samo vrh ledenog brijega jer je CIA odbila “dati imena svojih medijskih agenata ili imena medijskih organizacija s kojima su povezani” (stranica 195). Crkva je također bila svjesna da većina tih plaćanja nije dokumentirana. To je bila glavna točka Izvješća Otis Pike. Ako ta plaćanja nisu dokumentirana i evidentirana, mora postojati velika mogućnost financijske korupcije. To uključuje velike komercijalne ugovore za koje je CIA bila odgovorna za distribuciju. Pikeovo izvješće zapravo je 1976. istaknulo ono što se na kraju dogodilo 1980 -ih kroz aktivnosti operativaca CIA -e, poput Edwina Wilsona, Thomasa Clinesa, Teda Shackleya, Raphaela Quintera, Richarda Secorda i Felixa Rodrigueza.

Church je također identificirao E. Howarda Hunta kao važnu osobu u operaciji Ptica rugalica. Ističe kako je Hunt organizirao da knjige pregledaju pojedini pisci u nacionalnom tisku. On daje primjer kako je Hunt dogovorio da “pisac CIA -e pod ugovorom” napiše neprijateljski osvrt na knjigu Edgara Snowa u New York Times (stranica 198).

Church je zaključio sljedeće: „Ispitujući CIA -inu prošlost i sadašnju upotrebu američkih medija, Odbor nalazi dva razloga za zabrinutost. Prvi je potencijal, svojstven tajnim medijskim operacijama, za manipuliranje ili slučajno zavođenje američke javnosti. Drugo je šteta vjerodostojnosti i neovisnosti slobodnog tiska koja može biti uzrokovana prikrivenim odnosima s američkim novinarima i medijskim organizacijama. ”

Odbor je također izvijestio da je Središnja obavještajna agencija uskratila Warrenovoj komisiji, tijekom svoje istrage o atentatu na Johna F. Kennedyja, informacije o spletkama Vlade Sjedinjenih Država protiv Fidela Castra s Kube; te da je Federalni istražni ured proveo protuobavještajni program (COINTELPRO) protiv Martina Luthera Kinga i Konferencije južnjačkog kršćanskog vodstva.

Šefu mafije, Samu Giancani, naređeno je da se pojavi pred Odborom za odabir radi proučavanja vladinih operacija s obzirom na obavještajne aktivnosti. Međutim, prije nego što se mogao pojaviti, 19. lipnja 1975. Giancana je ubijen u vlastitoj kući. Imao je masivnu ranu u zatiljku. Također je pogođen šest puta u krug oko usta. U isto vrijeme nestao je i Jimmy Hoffa, još jedan čovjek s kojim je odbor htio razgovarati. Njegovo tijelo nikada nije pronađeno.

Johnny Roselli također se trebao pojaviti pred crkvenim odborom kada je ubijen, a u srpnju 1976. njegovo je tijelo pronađeno kako pluta u bačvi za naftu u Miami's Dumfoundling Bayu. Jack Anderson, iz Washington Post, intervjuirao Rosellija neposredno prije nego što je ubijen. Dana 7. rujna 1976. godine novine su izvijestile Rosellijevu izjavu: "Kad je Oswald uhvaćen, zavjerenici podzemnog svijeta su se bojali da će razbiti i otkriti informacije koje bi do njih mogle doći. To bi gotovo sigurno dovelo do masovnog suzbijanja američke mafije. Tako je Jack Ruby dobio naredbu da eliminira Oswalda. "

Kao rezultat crkvenog izvješća i smrti Sama Giancane, Jimmyja Hoffa i Johnnyja Rosellija, Kongres je u rujnu 1976. osnovao Povjerenstvo za ubojstva izabranog doma, rezolucija je ovlastila 12-člano odabrano povjerenstvo da provede istragu okolnosti oko smrti Johna F. Kennedyja i Martina Luthera Kinga.

Crkva je 1976. tražila nominaciju za demokratsku kandidaturu za predsjednika. Osvojio je primarne izbore u Nebraski, Idahu, Oregonu i Montani, ali se na kraju odlučio povući u korist Jimmyja Cartera.

Crkveni otvoreni stavovi učinili su mu mnogo neprijatelja i 1980. je poražen u pokušaju da bude izabran u Senat na peti mandat.

Church je imenovan delegatom Sjedinjenih Država na 21. Generalnoj skupštini Ujedinjenih naroda. Nakon toga radio je u Washingtonu za međunarodnu odvjetničku tvrtku Whitman and Ransom. Frank Church umro je od tumora gušterače 7. travnja 1984.

Tajno korištenje knjiga i izdavačkih kuća: Odbor je utvrdio da Središnja obavještajna agencija pridaje posebnu važnost izdavaštvu knjiga kao obliku prikrivene propagande. Bivši časnik tajne službe izjavio je da su knjige "najvažnije oružje strateške (dalekometne) propagande". Prije 1967. Središnja obavještajna agencija sponzorirala je, subvencionirala ili proizvela više od 1.000 knjiga; otprilike 25 posto njih na engleskom jeziku. Samo 1967. godine CIA je objavila ili subvencionirala preko 200 knjiga, od knjiga o afričkim safarijima i divljim životinjama do prijevoda Machiavellijevog Princa na svahili i djela TS Eliota na ruski, do konkurenta Maovoj maloj crvenoj knjizi koja je nosila naslov Citati od predsjednika Liua.

Odbor je otkrio da je značajan broj knjiga koje je zapravo izradila Središnja obavještajna agencija pregledano i plasirano na tržište u Sjedinjenim Državama:

* Knjigu o mladom studentu iz zemlje u razvoju koji je studirao u komunističkoj zemlji CIA je opisala kao "razvijenu od (dva područna odjeljenja), a koju je izradilo Odjeljenje za domaće operacije ... i imala je veliki utjecaj u Sjedinjenim Državama, kao i na tržištu (stranog područja). " Ova knjiga, koju je izradilo europsko izdavaštvo američke izdavačke kuće, objavljena je u skraćenom obliku u dva velika američka časopisa. "

* Druga knjiga CIA -e, Penkorsky Papers, objavljena je u Sjedinjenim Državama 1965. Knjiga je pripremljena i napisana izostavljanjem imovine agencije koja se oslanjala na stvarne materijale slučaja, a prava na objavljivanje rukopisa prodana su izdavaču putem povjereničkog fonda koji je osnovana u tu svrhu. Izdavač nije bio svjestan interesa vlade SAD -a.

Godine 1967. CIA je prestala objavljivati ​​u Sjedinjenim Državama. Od tada je Agencija objavila oko 250 knjiga u inozemstvu, većinom na stranim jezicima. CIA je posebnu pozornost posvetila objavljivanju i distribuciji knjiga o uvjetima u sovjetskom bloku u inozemstvu. Od onih koji su namijenjeni publici izvan Sovjetskog Saveza i istočne Europe, veliki je broj dostupan i na engleskom jeziku.

Domaći "ispad": Odbor smatra da tajne medijske operacije mogu rezultirati manipuliranjem ili slučajnim zavaravanjem američke javnosti. Unatoč naporima da se to svede na minimum, zaposlenici CIA -e, bivši i sadašnji, priznali su da ne postoji način da se američka javnost u potpunosti zaštiti od "pada" u Sjedinjenim Državama od propagande Agencije ili plasmana u inozemstvo. Doista, nakon upita Katzenbacha, zamjenik ravnatelja za operacije izdao je direktivu u kojoj se navodi: "Ispadanje u Sjedinjenim Državama iz strane publikacije koju podržavamo neizbježno je i stoga je dopušteno."

Domaći ispad tajne propagande dolazi iz mnogih izvora: knjige namijenjene prvenstveno stranoj publici koja govori engleski; CIA -ine medijske pozicije koje preuzima međunarodna telefonska služba; i publikacije nastale izravnim financiranjem stranih instituta od strane CIA -e. Na primjer, knjigu koju je jedan operativac CIA-e napisao za stranu publiku koja govori engleski, drugi agent CIA-e pozitivno je ocijenio u New York Timesu. Odbor je također utvrdio da je CIA pomogla u stvaranju i podržavanju različitih vijetnamskih časopisa i publikacija. U barem jednom slučaju, vijetnamska publikacija koju podržava CIA korištena je za propagandu američke javnosti te članova i osoblja oba doma Kongresa. Ova je propaganda bila toliko učinkovita da su neki članovi citirali ovu publikaciju raspravljajući o kontroverznom pitanju umiješanosti Sjedinjenih Država u Vijetnam.

Odbor je utvrdio da je ovaj neizbježni domaći ishod pogoršan kada je Agencija distribuirala svoje subvencionirane knjige u Sjedinjenim Državama prije njihove distribucije u inozemstvu kako bi izazvala povoljan prijem u inozemstvo.

Tajna upotreba 11.5. Novinari i medijske institucije, 11. veljače 1976., direktor CIA-e George Bush najavio je nove smjernice koje uređuju odnos Agencije s medijskim organizacijama Sjedinjenih Država: "Odmah na snazi, CIA neće stupiti u plaćeni ili ugovorni odnos s bilo kojim punim radnim vremenom ili sa dopisnik time news, akreditiran od bilo koje američke novinske službe, novina, časopisa, radijske ili televizijske mreže ili postaje. "

Službenici agencije koji su svjedočili nakon najave od 11. veljače 1976., rekli su Odboru da se zabrana proteže na neameričane koji su akreditirani za određene medijske organizacije Sjedinjenih Država.

CIA trenutačno održava mrežu od nekoliko stotina stranih pojedinaca diljem svijeta koji pružaju obavještajne podatke CIA -i i ponekad pokušavaju utjecati na mišljenje korištenjem prikrivene propagande. Ti pojedinci omogućuju CIA -i izravan pristup velikom broju novina i periodičnih izdanja, nizu novinskih službi i novinskih agencija, radijskim i televizijskim postajama, izdavačima komercijalnih knjiga i drugim stranim medijima.

Približno 50 imovine su individualni američki novinari ili zaposlenici američkih medijskih organizacija. Od toga, manje od polovice "akreditirano" je u američkim medijskim organizacijama i na njih utječu nove zabrane korištenja akreditiranih novinara. Preostali pojedinci su neakreditirani slobodni suradnici i predstavnici medija u inozemstvu, pa ih nova zabrana CIA-e ne pogađa.

Više od desetak američkih novinskih organizacija i komercijalnih izdavačkih kuća ranije je pružalo pokriće agentima CIA -e u inozemstvu. Neke od tih organizacija nisu bile svjesne da su pružile ovo pokriće.

Odbor primjećuje da se nove zabrane CIA -e ne primjenjuju na "neakreditirane" Amerikance koji služe u medijskim organizacijama, poput predstavnika američkih medijskih organizacija u inozemstvu ili pisaca slobodnjaka. Od više od 50 odnosa CIA -e s novinarima iz Sjedinjenih Država ili zaposlenicima u američkim medijskim organizacijama, manje od polovice bit će raskinuto prema novim smjernicama CIA -e.

Odbor je zabrinut da je korištenje američkih: novinara i medijskih organizacija za tajne operacije prijetnja integritetu tiska. Svi američki novinari, bilo da su akreditirani pri jednoj novinskoj organizaciji Sjedinjenih Država ili samo u nizu, mogu biti osumnjičeni kada se bave nekim tajnim aktivnostima.

U ispitivanju CIA -ine prošlosti i sadašnje uporabe američkih novinara i medijskih organizacija.

Godine 1953. Joseph Alsop, tada jedan od vodećih američkih kolumnista, otišao je na Filipine kako bi pratio izbore. Nije otišao jer ga je to zamolio njegov sindikat. Nije otišao jer su ga to zatražile novine koje su tiskale njegovu kolumnu. Otišao je na zahtjev CIA -e.

Alsop je jedan od više od 400 američkih novinara koji su u posljednjih dvadeset pet godina tajno izvršavali zadatke za Središnju obavještajnu agenciju, prema dokumentima koji se nalaze u sjedištu CIA-e. Neki od odnosa ovih novinara s Agencijom bili su prešutni; neki su bili izričiti. Došlo je do suradnje, smještaja i preklapanja. Novinari su pružali cijeli niz tajnih usluga - od jednostavnog prikupljanja obavještajnih podataka do služenja posrednika sa špijunima u komunističkim zemljama. Novinari su svoje bilježnice podijelili s CIA -om. Urednici su podijelili svoje osoblje. Neki od novinara bili su dobitnici Pulitzerove nagrade, ugledni novinari koji su sebe smatrali veleposlanicima bez portfelja za svoju zemlju. Većina je bila manje uzvišena: strani dopisnici koji su otkrili da im je suradnja s Agencijom pomogla u radu; gudači i slobodnjaci koji su bili zainteresirani za izvođenje špijunskih poslova kao i za podnošenje članaka, i, najmanja kategorija, zaposlenici CIA-e s punim radnim vremenom koji su se maskirali kao novinari u inozemstvu. U mnogim slučajevima, pokazuju dokumenti CIA -e, novinari su bili angažirani u obavljanju poslova za CIA -u uz suglasnost rukovodstava vodećih američkih novinskih organizacija.

Povijest angažmana CIA -e u američkom tisku i dalje je obavijena službenom politikom zataškavanja i obmane. .

Među rukovoditeljima koji su posudili suradnju Agenciji bili su William Paley iz Columbia Broadcasting System, Henry Luce iz Time Inc., Arthur Hays Sulzberger iz New York Timesa, Barry Bingham stariji iz Louisville Courier-Journal-a i James Copley iz Copley News Service. Druge organizacije koje su surađivale s CIA-om uključuju American Broadcasting Company, National Broadcasting Company, Associated Press, United Press International, Reuters, Hearst Newspapers, Scripps-Howard, časopis Newsweek, Mutual Broadcasting System, Miami Herald i staru subotu Evening Post i New York Herald-Tribune.

Daleko najvrjednije od ovih udruga, prema službenicima CIA -e, bile su s New York Timesom, CBS -om i Time Inc ....

Poslovi Agencije s novinarima započeli su u najranijim fazama Hladnog rata. Allen Dulles, koji je postao direktor CIA-e 1953., nastojao je uspostaviti sposobnost regrutiranja i pokrivanja u najprestižnijim američkim novinarskim institucijama. Djelujući pod krinkom akreditiranih dopisnika vijesti, vjerovao je Dulles, operativci CIA -e u inozemstvu dobili bi stupanj pristupa i slobodu kretanja koji su nedostižni gotovo pod bilo kojom drugom vrstom naslovnice.

Američki izdavači, kao i mnogi drugi korporacijski i institucionalni čelnici u to vrijeme, bili su voljni da uložimo resurse svojih tvrtki u borbu protiv "globalnog komunizma". U skladu s tim, tradicionalna linija razdvajanja američkog tiskovnog zbora i vlade često se nije mogla razlikovati: rijetko se neka novinska agencija koristila za pokrivanje operativaca CIA -e u inozemstvu bez znanja i pristanka bilo kojeg od njezinih glavnih vlasnika; izdavač ili viši urednik. Dakle, suprotno shvaćanju da su doba CIA -e i rukovoditelji vijesti dopustili sebi i svojim organizacijama da postanu sluškinje obavještajnih službi. "Nemojmo birati neke siromašne izvjestitelje, zaboga", uzviknuo je William Colby u jednom trenutku istražiteljima Crkvenog odbora. “Idemo na uprave. Bili su voljni ”. Ukupno je dvadeset pet novinskih organizacija (uključujući one navedene na početku ovog članka) pružilo pokriće Agenciji ...

Mnogi novinari koji su pratili Drugi svjetski rat bili su bliski ljudima iz Ureda za strateške službe, ratnog prethodnika CIA -e; što je još važnije, svi su bili na istoj strani. Kad je rat završio i mnogi dužnosnici OSS -a otišli u CIA -u, bilo je prirodno da će se ti odnosi nastaviti. U međuvremenu je u profesiju ušla prva poslijeratna generacija novinara; dijelili su iste političke i profesionalne vrijednosti kao i njihovi mentori. "Imali ste bandu ljudi koji su radili zajedno tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata i nikada to nisu preboljeli", rekao je jedan dužnosnik Agencije. “Bili su istinski motivirani i vrlo podložni spletkama i iznutra. Zatim je pedesetih i šezdesetih postojao nacionalni konsenzus o nacionalnoj prijetnji. Vijetnamski rat je rastrgao sve u komade - razbio je konsenzus i bacio ga u zrak. ” Drugi dužnosnik Agencije primijetio je: „Mnogi novinari nisu razmišljali o suradnji s Agencijom. No, došlo je do trenutka kada su se etička pitanja koja je većina ljudi potopila konačno pojavila. Danas mnogi od ovih momaka žestoko poriču da su imali bilo kakav odnos s Agencijom. ”

CIA je čak pedesetih godina prošlog stoljeća vodila službeni program obuke kako bi svoje agente naučila biti novinarima. Obavještajni časnici "naučeni su stvarati zvukove poput novinara", objasnio je visoki dužnosnik CIA -e, a zatim su uz pomoć uprave postavljeni u velike novinske organizacije. "To su bili momci koji su prošli redove i rečeno im je:" Bit ćete novinar ", rekao je dužnosnik CIA -e. Relativno mali broj od 400 odnosa opisanih u dosjeima Agencije slijedilo je taj obrazac; većina uključenih osoba koje su već bile vjerodostojni novinari kada su započele s obavljanjem poslova za Agenciju ...

U sjedištu CBS News -a u New Yorku, mnogi rukovoditelji vijesti i izvjestitelji, unatoč demantijima, Paleyjevu suradnju uzimaju zdravo za gotovo. Paley (76) nisu intervjuirali Salantovi istražitelji. "To ne bi bilo ništa dobro", rekao je jedan izvršni direktor CBS -a. "To je jedina tema o kojoj mu je pamćenje zakazalo."

Časopisi Time i Newsweek. Prema izvorima CIA -e i Senata, dosjei Agencije sadrže pisane ugovore s bivšim stranim dopisnicima i gudačima za oba tjednika. Isti izvori odbili su reći je li CIA prekinula sve veze s pojedincima koji rade za dvije publikacije. Allen Dulles često je posredovao kod svog dobrog prijatelja, pokojnog Henryja Lucea, osnivača časopisa Time and Life, koji je spremno dopustio određenim članovima svog osoblja da rade za Agenciju i pristao osigurati poslove i vjerodajnice za druge operativce CIA -e kojima je nedostajalo novinarsko iskustvo.

U Newsweeku, izvijestili su izvori Agencije, CIA je angažirala usluge nekoliko inozemnih dopisnika i gudača prema aranžmanima koje su odobrili viši urednici časopisa ...

Nakon što je Colby 28. siječnja 1976. napustio Agenciju, a naslijedio ga je George Bush, CIA je objavila novu politiku: „Odmah na snazi, CIA neće stupiti u plaćeni ili ugovorni odnos s bilo kakvim vijestima na puno ili nepuno radno vrijeme dopisnik akreditiran od bilo koje američke vijesti, novina, časopisa, radijske ili televizijske mreže ili postaje. ” ... U tekstu objave napominje se da će CIA nastaviti "pozdravljati" dobrovoljnu, neplaćenu suradnju novinara. Stoga je bilo dopušteno da mnogi odnosi ostanu netaknuti.


FRANKOVNA CRKVA IDAHO, KOJA JE 24 GODINE SLUŽILA U SENATU, UMIRA U 59. GODINI

Frank Church iz Idaha, 24 godine član Senata i jedno vrijeme predsjednik Odbora za vanjske odnose, umro je danas u svom domu u predgrađu Bethesda, Md. Imao je 59 godina i bolovao je od raka gušterače.

Bijela kuća izdala je priopćenje predsjednika Reagana u kojemu je pohvalilo gospodina Churcha zbog ' ' njegovog stalnog interesa za vanjsku politiku ' ' za koje je rekao da je dao##x27 ' važan intelektualni doprinos našoj zemlji. ' '

Kolega u Senatu, Edward M. Kennedy, demokrata iz Massachusettsa, rekao je da je gospodin Church bio ' ' hrabar vođa protiv rata u Vijetnamu. ' '

Komemoracija će se održati u 11 sati U utorak u Nacionalnoj katedrali. Govornici će biti senator Kennedy, senator Claiborne Pell, demokrata s Rhode Islanda, bivši senator George A. McGovern iz Južne Dakote, Cecil D. Andrus, bivši tajnik unutarnjih poslova i guverner Idaha, te jedan od gospodina Church 's sinovi, crkva velečasnog F. Forresta, službenik Unitarističke crkve svih duša u New Yorku.

Frank Church, svojedobno ' ' dječački govornik ' ' Senata Sjedinjenih Država, imao je dvije velike ambicije. Htio je biti predsjednik Sjedinjenih Država i želio je biti predsjednik Odbora za vanjske odnose Senata.

U proljeće 1976. vodio je tromjesečnu kampanju za nominaciju za predsjednika Demokratske stranke, što je iznenađujuće snažno pokazalo pobjedom na predizborima u Idahu, Nebraski, Oregonu i Montani. Na kraju se ipak povukao i odobrio bivšeg guvernera Georgija, Jimmyja Cartera, koji je postao predsjednik.

No, gospodin Church postigao je svoj drugi cilj, postavši predsjednik Odbora za vanjske odnose Senata 1979. Izgubio je mjesto u Senatu od Stevena D. Symmsa, republikanca, na odlučujućim izborima Ronalda Reagana 1980. godine.

U 24 godine provedene u Senatu, počevši od 1957., kada je imao 32 godine, Frank Church postao je vodeći, često rječit glas liberalizma, snažno podržavajući zaštitu građanskih prava, proširene beneficije za starije osobe, druge programe socijalnih usluga i jednaka prava za žene. Bio je vodeći konzervator i snažan pobornik državnosti Aljaske i Havaja. Aktivan u vanjskim poslovima

No, prvenstveno u vanjskim poslovima postigao je trag, i prije i nakon što je predsjedao Odborom za vanjske poslove. Snažno je podržao sporazum o zabrani nuklearnih pokusa iz 1963. sa Sovjetskim Savezom. Godine 1966. zabrinut zbog sve većeg američkog angažmana u Vijetnamu, prekinuo je s Johnsonovom administracijom tražeći prekid bombardiranja.

' 'Ni jedan narod, ' ' rekao je te godine, ' ɺk ni naš, posjeduje toliko veliki arsenal ili riznicu toliko bogatu da uguši vatru tinjajuće revolucije u cijelom svijetu koji se budi . ' '

Kako se rat u jugoistočnoj Aziji nastavio širiti, pojačao je svoje protivljenje. 1970. bio je supokrovitelj mjere Senata za zabranu daljnjeg raspoređivanja kopnenih snaga Sjedinjenih Država u Kambodži, čime je prekinuta šestomjesečna rasprava u Senatu. Dvije godine kasnije, on i senator Clifford P. Case, republikanac iz New Jerseyja, nastojali su okončati sve američke vojne aktivnosti u jugoistočnoj Aziji.

No, upravo na području pokušaja suzbijanja kriminalnih aktivnosti američkih obavještajnih agencija Sjedinjenih Država dao je možda svoj najvažniji doprinos, koji su ga neki hvalili, a drugi kritizirali. Nosilac za ispitivanje aktivnosti Središnje obavještajne agencije i Federalnog istražnog ureda bilo je Senatsko povjerenstvo za obavještajne poslove, osnovano 1975. pod predsjedanjem g. Churcha. Panel je dao mnogo prijedloga

U svom završnom izvješću, odbor je dao gotovo 100 preporuka za suzbijanje takvih zlouporaba kao što su nezakonito prisluškivanje, provale, nadzor, uznemiravanje političkih neistomišljenika, zavjere za ubojstvo stranih čelnika i kampanje za blaćenje aktivista za građanska prava.

Iako je istraga rezultirala samo ograničenim brojem zakona, s vremenom je bilo jasno da je otkrivanje nezakonitih aktivnosti od strane agencija dovelo do suzbijanja takvih zlouporaba.

Senator Church upravo je završio posao na obavještajnoj istrazi kada je otputovao u malu planinsku zajednicu Idaho Cityja kako bi najavio svoju kandidaturu za demokratsku predsjedničku nominaciju. Bio je to nešto poput nostalgičnog odabira mjesta. U gradu Idahu njegov se djed naselio u zlatnoj groznici nakon građanskog rata.

No dom crkve Frank Forrester nije bio Idaho City. Rođen je 25. srpnja 1924. u Boiseu, sin trgovca sportskom opremom. Obitelj je bila izrazito republikanska. Godinama kasnije gospodin Church postao je demokrata.

Kao učenik srednje škole Boise razvio je ljubav prema govorništvu, osvojivši prvu nagradu na nacionalnom oratorijalnom natjecanju American Legion 's. Godinu dana kasnije, nakon što je završio srednju školu, upisao je Sveučilište Stanford.

Njegov boravak na Stanfordu bio je kratak, jer se krajem 1942. prijavio u vojsku i poslan je u časničku školu za kandidate u Fort Benningu, Ga. Na svoj 20. rođendan, naručio mu se kao natporučnik i služio je kao oficir vojne obavještajne službe u Kina, Burma i Indija u Drugom svjetskom ratu. Diplomiranje i vjenčanje u ❇

Vrativši se na Stanford nakon rata, osvojio je ključ Phi Beta Kappa i diplomirao 1947. To ljeto bio je oženjen Jean Bethine Clark, čiji je otac nekoć bio demokratski guverner Idaha.

Te jeseni upisao je Harvard Law School, no prešao je na Stanford nakon jakih bolova u leđima za koje je mislio da bi mu toplija klima mogla olakšati leđa. Međutim, liječnici su otkrili da ima rak i rekli mu da ima šest mjeseci života. Nakon što je podvrgnut operaciji uklanjanja testisa i liječenju zračenjem, vratio se na Pravni fakultet Stanford, stekavši diplomu 1950.

Vrativši se u Boise, počeo je prakticirati pravo i predavati govorništvo na Boise Junior Collegeu. Do tada je bio demokrata, kandidirao se za mjesto u zakonodavnom tijelu Idaha, ali je izgubio.

Svoj je cilj usmjerio još više, ovaj put na Senat Sjedinjenih Država. 1956., s 32 godine, pobijedio je na izborima pobijedivši dosadašnjeg republikanca Hermana Welkera.

Godine 1960. Senatorska crkva dobila je nacionalnu važnost kada je održao glavno obraćanje na Demokratskoj nacionalnoj konvenciji. Komentatori su ocjenjivali njegov govor dokle god je riječ o retoričkom procvatu, ali o sadržaju. Godinama kasnije, priznajući da je s govorom postigao nešto manje od nevjerojatnog uspjeha, rekao je: ' 'Sve što mogu reći u svoju obranu je da nisam ' znao ništa bolje. ' '

Kad je u proljeće 1976. ušao u utrku za predsjedničku nominaciju, priznao je da je bio strelac ' ɽulji hitac ' ', ali da za to nikad nije kasno. ' &# x27 Sastanak s Castrom

Nakon neuspješnih napora, nastavio je svoju ulogu važnog glasa u Odboru za vanjske poslove Senata. U ljeto 1977. godine susreo se na Kubi s Fidelom Castrom, što je dovelo do toga da je kubanski čelnik pristao dopustiti 84 američka državljana i njihove obitelji da napuste tu zemlju. Crkva senator također je služila kao podvodni vođa za ratifikaciju ugovora o Panamskom kanalu 1978.

No, posljednjih godina Carterove uprave našao se u sukobu s predsjednikom kako se bližilo njegovo vrijeme za ponovni izbor Senata. 1979. zatražio je hitno povlačenje sovjetskih borbenih trupa s Kube prije nego što je dopustio Senatu da izglasa ratifikaciju drugog ugovora sa Sovjetskim Savezom o ograničenju strateškog naoružanja.

Godinama kasnije, Jimmy Carter je u svojoj knjizi, ' 'Keeping Faith, ' ' napisao da je senatorska crkva bila ' ɺpsolutno neodgovorna ' ' u otkrivanju ' ' povjerljivih informacija ' ' o sovjetsko prisustvo na Kubi, pripisujući taj potez pokušajima senatora da se odbrani od konzervativne opozicije njegovom ponovnom izboru. Senator Church je kasnije demantirao Carterove optužbe. Bilo je, međutim, jasnih naznaka da je senatorska crkva nastojala umanjiti njegovu liberalnu sliku na druge načine kako su se izbori 1980. približavali. Bio je jedan od šest demokratskih senatora odabranih za poraz od konzervativnih političkih organizacija. Kampanja je bila ogorčena i skupa. Organizaciju gospodina Church -a koštala je 4 milijuna dolara i bila je najskuplja politička kampanja u povijesti Idaha.

Nakon poraza od gospodina Symmsa, gospodin Church se bavio međunarodnim pravom kao partner iz Washingtona u njujorškoj odvjetničkoj tvrtki Whitman & amp Ransom. He wrote occasional articles, including one published in The New York Times Magazine, criticizing the the Reagan Administration for anti-Soviet ideology.

In addition to his wife and son F. Forrest, he is survived by another son, Chase Clark of Bethesda, and two grandchildren.


Frank Church

The Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness is a generous tract of designated public land that stretches throughout the heart of the state of Idaho. It exists as the second largest wilderness area in the continental United States (second to the Death Valley Wilderness in California and Nevada) and is ripe with steep canyon walls, clear, billowing creeks, flourishing plant and animal species and fresh alpine air. Across the northern half of its almost 2.4 million acres runs the Wild and Scenic Salmon River, and to the south flows the highly popular Middle Fork of the Salmon River on which countless rafters, kayakers and other recreationists spend the summer months.

The "Frank" is truly one of the nation's most valuable treasures, stellar in its size and captivating in its beauty, and although many know of its physical existence, what is known of the man for which it is named? Without the diligence and political effort of Frank Forrester Church III, the "Frank" and many other wild places across the lower forty-eight may not be in existence today. 

Frank Church III was born on July 25, 1924 in Boise, Idaho to Frank Forrester Church Jr. and his wife Laura. The third to be bestowed with his given name, he also entered the world as the Church family's third generation to be born in Idaho. This multi-generational existence in the state gave the family considerable clout, and Church was raised in a modest, yet well-respected and politically conservative, home. In his eighth grade year, Church developed an admiration for Senator William Borah (R-ID) and decided early in life that he wanted to pursue a career in politics. That same year the local newspaper published a letter written by Church about Borah's foreign policy stance on its front page. This led to community-wide recognition of young Church's intelligence and political savy. 

In Church's junior year at Boise High School he won the American Legion National Oratorical Contest by giving a speech titled, "The American Way of Life." This was a pivotal experience in Church's life because the prize money was enough to pay for four years at the college of his choice. After completing his senior year as class president, Church enrolled at Stanford University in 1942. 

In 1943, Church set aside his formal education and enlisted in the U.S. Army, serving as an intelligence officer in China, Burma and India. Upon his discharge in 1946, he returned to Stanford to complete his bachelor's degree, graduating in 1947. That same year he married Bethine Clark, daughter of the former governor of Idaho. Together the couple had two sons, Frank Forrester Church IV and Chase Clark Church. 

Church spent the following year studying at Harvard Law School, but decided to return to Stanford Law School, due to New England's cold climate. While at Harvard, he experienced a bout of chronic pain in his lower back, which doctor's in California eventually diagnosed as cancer. Amazingly, after being given only several months to live, Church recovered from his illness and was given a second chance at life. Later he would state that this second opportunity is what inspired him to live life to its fullest, "…life itself is such a chancy proposition that the only way to live is by taking great chances." 

After graduating from Stanford Law School in 1950, Church returned to his hometown of Boise to practice law with the Federal Price Control Agency. 

As an independent teen-ager, Church had strayed from his family's support of the Republican Party, becoming interested in Democratic views on political issues. This individuality continued into his adult life, and after being defeated in a 1952 run for the state legislature, Church ran on the Democratic ballot for the United States Senate in 1956. Church defeated Republican opponent Herman Welker to become, at 32, the fifth youngest member in history to serve in the U.S. Senate. 

In his political career Church primarily focused on issues concerning American foreign policy and wilderness preservation. During the 1960s he staunchly opposed the war in Vietnam and would continue to oppose U.S. involvement in the conflict throughout three re-elections in 1962, 1968 and 1974. Despite his somewhat liberal stance in a conservative state, Church became the only Democrat in Idaho's history to win re-election to the U.S. Senate. 

During his career Church was a vital part of the wilderness preservation movement. In 1964 he acted as the floor sponsor of the National Wilderness Act and in 1968 sponsored the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. He also played a prominent role in establishing recreation areas such as the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area bordering Oregon, Washington and Idaho and the Sawtooth Wilderness and National Recreation Area in central Idaho. 

Church received several honors for his preservation work. In 1965 he became the chairman of the Subcommittee on Public Lands, was voted Conservationist of the Year by the Idaho Wildlife Federation and in 1966 received the National Conservation Legislative Award. 

On March 19, 1976 in Idaho City, Idaho, Church announced his candidacy for President of the United States, going on to win primaries in Nebraska, Idaho, Oregon and Montana. In support of Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter, however, Church ultimately withdrew from the race, though he is still the only Idahoan to win a major party primary election. 

During his last year in office, 1980, Church played a large role in the formation of Idaho's River of No Return Wilderness, at the time, the largest wilderness area outside of Alaska. Though he ran for re-election that same year, he was defeated by Republican congressman Steve Symms by only one percent of the vote. After a twenty-four year stint in office, Church went on to practice law with the Washington D.C. firm of Whitman and Ransom. Aside from his law practice, he spent the next several years writing, traveling and lecturing on international affairs. 

On January 12, 1984 Church was hospitalized for a pancreatic tumor. Four months later on April 7, he passed away at his home in Bethesda, Maryland at the age of 59. In honor of his political work in the realm of wilderness preservation, President Ronald Reagan signed Public Law 98-231, designating the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness as the new name for the former River of No Return Wilderness. 


Sadržaj

By the early years of the 1970s, a series of troubling revelations had appeared in the press concerning intelligence activities. First came the revelations by Army intelligence officer Christopher Pyle in January 1970 of the U.S. Army's spying on the civilian population [9] [10] and Senator Sam Ervin's Senate investigations produced more revelations. [11] Then on December 22, 1974, The New York Times published a lengthy article by Seymour Hersh detailing operations engaged in by the CIA over the years that had been dubbed the "family jewels". Covert action programs involving assassination attempts on foreign leaders and covert attempts to subvert foreign governments were reported for the first time. In addition, the article discussed efforts by intelligence agencies to collect information on the political activities of US citizens. [12]

The creation of the Church Committee was approved on January 27, 1975, by a vote of 82 to 4 in the Senate. [13] [14]

The Church Committee's final report was published in April 1976 in six books. Also published were seven volumes of Church Committee hearings in the Senate. [15]

Before the release of the final report, the committee also published an interim report titled "Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders", [16] which investigated alleged attempts to assassinate foreign leaders, including Patrice Lumumba of Zaire, Rafael Trujillo of the Dominican Republic, Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam, Gen. René Schneider of Chile and Fidel Castro of Cuba. President Gerald Ford urged the Senate to withhold the report from the public, but failed, [17] and under recommendations and pressure by the committee, Ford issued Executive Order 11905 (ultimately replaced in 1981 by President Reagan's Executive Order 12333) to ban U.S. sanctioned assassinations of foreign leaders.

In addition, the committee produced seven case studies on covert operations, but only the one on Chile was released, titled "Covert Action in Chile: 1963–1973". [18] The rest were kept secret at CIA's request. [15]

According to a declassified National Security Agency history, the Church Committee also helped to uncover the NSA's Watch List. The information for the list was compiled into the so-called "Rhyming Dictionary" of biographical information, which at its peak held millions of names—thousands of which were US citizens. Some prominent members of this list were Joanne Woodward, Thomas Watson, Walter Mondale, Art Buchwald, Arthur F. Burns, Gregory Peck, Otis G. Pike, Tom Wicker, Whitney Young, Howard Baker, Frank Church, David Dellinger, Ralph Abernathy, and others. [19]

But among the most shocking revelations of the committee was the discovery of Operation SHAMROCK, in which the major telecommunications companies shared their traffic with the NSA from 1945 to the early 1970s. The information gathered in this operation fed directly into the Watch List. In 1975, the committee decided to unilaterally declassify the particulars of this operation, against the objections of President Ford's administration. [19]

Together, the Church Committee's reports have been said to constitute the most extensive review of intelligence activities ever made available to the public. Much of the contents were classified, but over 50,000 pages were declassified under the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992.

    , Chairman, Idaho , Michigan , Minnesota , Kentucky , North Carolina , Colorado
    , Vice Chairman, Texas , Tennessee , Arizona , Maryland , Pennsylvania

The Church Committee learned that, beginning in the 1950s, the CIA and Federal Bureau of Investigation had intercepted, opened and photographed more than 215,000 pieces of mail by the time the program (called "HTLINGUAL") was shut down in 1973. This program was all done under the "mail covers" program (a mail cover is a process by which the government records—without any requirement for a warrant or for notification—all information on the outside of an envelope or package, including the name of the sender and the recipient). The Church report found that the CIA was careful about keeping the United States Postal Service from learning that government agents were opening mail. CIA agents moved mail to a private room to open the mail or in some cases opened envelopes at night after stuffing them in briefcases or in coat pockets to deceive postal officials. [20]

On May 9, 1975, the Church Committee decided to call acting CIA director William Colby. That same day Ford's top advisers (Henry Kissinger, Donald Rumsfeld, Philip W. Buchen, and John Marsh) drafted a recommendation that Colby be authorized to brief only rather than testify, and that he would be told to discuss only the general subject, with details of specific covert actions to be avoided except for realistic hypotheticals. But the Church Committee had full authority to call a hearing and require Colby's testimony. Ford and his top advisers met with Colby to prepare him for the hearing. [21] Colby testified, "These last two months have placed American intelligence in danger. The almost hysterical excitement surrounding any news story mentioning CIA or referring even to a perfectly legitimate activity of CIA has raised a question whether secret intelligence operations can be conducted by the United States." [22]

On August 17, 1975 Senator Frank Church appeared on NBC's Meet the Press, and discussed the NSA, without mentioning it by name:

In the need to develop a capacity to know what potential enemies are doing, the United States government has perfected a technological capability that enables us to monitor the messages that go through the air. (. ) Now, that is necessary and important to the United States as we look abroad at enemies or potential enemies. We must know, at the same time, that capability at any time could be turned around on the American people, and no American would have any privacy left: such is the capability to monitor everything—telephone conversations, telegrams, it doesn't matter. There would be no place to hide.

If this government ever became a tyranny, if a dictator ever took charge in this country, the technological capacity that the intelligence community has given the government could enable it to impose total tyranny, and there would be no way to fight back because the most careful effort to combine together in resistance to the government, no matter how privately it was done, is within the reach of the government to know. Such is the capability of this technology. (. )

I don't want to see this country ever go across the bridge. I know the capacity that is there to make tyranny total in America, and we must see to it that this agency and all agencies that possess this technology operate within the law and under proper supervision so that we never cross over that abyss. That is the abyss from which there is no return. [23] [24]

As a result of the political pressure created by the revelations of the Church Committee and the Pike Committee investigations, President Gerald Ford issued Executive Order 11905. [25] This executive order banned political assassinations: "No employee of the United States Government shall engage in, or conspire to engage in, political assassination." Senator Church criticized this move on the ground that any future president could easily set aside or change this executive order by a further executive order. [26] Further, President Jimmy Carter issued Executive Order 12036, which in some ways expanded Executive Order 11905. [25]

In 1977, the reporter Carl Bernstein wrote an article in the Rolling Stone magazine, stating that the relationship between the CIA and the media was far more extensive than what the Church Committee revealed. Bernstein said that the committee had covered it up, because it would have shown an "embarrassing relationships in the 1950s and 1960s with some of the most powerful organizations and individuals in American journalism." [27]

R. Emmett Tyrrell, Jr., editor of the conservative magazine The American Spectator, wrote that the committee "betrayed CIA agents and operations." The committee had not received names, so had none to release, as confirmed by later CIA director George H. W. Bush. However, Senator Jim McClure used the allegation in the 1980 election, when Church was defeated. [28]

The Committee's work has more recently been criticized after the September 11 attacks, for leading to legislation reducing the ability of the CIA to gather human intelligence. [29] [28] [30] [31] In response to such criticism, the chief counsel of the committee, Frederick A. O. Schwarz Jr., retorted with a book co-authored by Aziz Z. Huq, denouncing the Bush administration's use of 9/11 to make "monarchist claims" that are "unprecedented on this side of the North Atlantic". [32]


One Of The Largest Wilderness Areas In The Country Is Hiding In Idaho And It’s Absolutely Stunning

One of the most spectacular parts about Idaho living is knowing that true wilderness exists just a short drive away from anywhere in the state.It’s amazing to think that we share this state with so many totally unspoiled natural areas. For many people, an image of rugged backcountry is what first comes to mind when they think of Idaho, and they’re partially right. One of the most amazing facts about our state is that the largest wilderness area in the continental United States resides right here in Idaho. Many Idahoans know this area by name, but don’t realize the enormity of the region itself, or its history. In fact, this region is incredible for a variety of reasons, and you’re about to find out why.

On the eastern side of the Middle Fork of the Salmon are the Bighorn Crags, which form towering rugged summits some of which are at least 10,000 feet high in elevation.

There's truly nothing else like this area in the world. The Frank Church Wilderness is truly one of Idaho's most immense, yet hidden, treasures.

Have you seen at least part of the Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness? Isn’t this massive region absolutely gorgeous? Tell us your thoughts in the comments!

Did you know that Idaho is home to a canyon deeper than the Grand Canyon? You can read all about it here!


The Death of Frank Olson

Frank Olson was a scientist who worked for the CIA. At a 1953 CIA retreat, Olson drank a cocktail that had been secretly spiked with LSD.

A few days later, on November 28, 1953, Olson tumbled to his death from the window of a New York City hotel room in an alleged suicide.

The family of Frank Olson decided to have a second autopsy performed in 1994. A forensics team found injuries on the body that had likely occurred before the fall. The findings sparked conspiracy theories that Olson might have been assassinated by the CIA.

After prolonged legal proceedings, Olson’s family was awarded a settlement of $750,000, and received a personal apology from President Gerald Ford and then-CIA Director William Colby.


Church History, Volume Two: From Pre-Reformation To The Present Day

Church history tells story of the greatest movement in world history. Yet, just as the biblical record of the people of God is the story of a mixed people with great acts of faith and great failures in sin and unfaithfulness, so is the history of the people who have made up the church for 2,000 years.

Frank A. James III and John D. Woodbridge’s Church History, vol. 2: From Pre-Reformation to the Present Day recounts these triumphs and struggles of the Christian movement from just before the Reformation to today. It offers a unique contextual view of how the Christian church spread and developed in the modern day. Woodbridge and James look closely at the integral link between the history of the world and that of the church, detailing the times, cultures, and events that influenced—and were influenced by—the church.

Don’t miss the companion volume by Everett Ferguson: Church History, Volume 1: From Christ to Pre-Reformation.

Key Features

  • Provides a balanced view of the church’s triumphs and struggles from the Reformation to today
  • Details the times, cultures, and events that influenced the modern Christian church
  • Covers 500 years of Christian history in the West, Africa, Asia, and Latin America
  • Examines the intellectual and social history of the church since the Reformation

Sadržaj

  • European Christianity in an Age of Adversity, Renaissance, and Discovery (1300–1500)
  • The Renaissance and the Christian Faith
  • Luther’s Reformation: A Conscience Unbound
  • The Swiss Reformations: The Maturation of International Calvinism (Sixteenth Century)
  • Radicals and Rome: Responses to the Magisterial Reformation (Sixteenth Century)
  • Reformations in England: The Politics of Reform (Sixteenth Century)
  • Refining the Reformation: Theological Currents in the Seventeenth Century
  • Christianity in an Age of Fear, Crisis, and Exploration (Seventeenth Century)
  • Christianity and the Question of Authority (Seventeenth Century)
  • Christianity under Duress: The Age of Lights (1680–1789)
  • Christianity in the Age of Lights (1): The British Isles (1680–1789)
  • Christianity in the Age of Lights (2): The Kingdom of France (1680–1789)
  • Christianity in the Age of Lights (3): The Continent of Europe (1680–1789)
  • Christianity in an Age of Revolutions (1770–1848)
  • Adjusting to Modernization and Secularism: The Rise of Protestant Liberalism (1799–1919)
  • Nineteenth-Century Christianity in the British Isles: Renewal, Missions, and the Crisis of Faith
  • The Christian Churches on the European Continent (1814–1914)
  • Global Christianity: A Re-Centered Faith (Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries)
  • Modern Theological Trajectories: Spiraling into the Third Millennium (Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries)
  • Catholicism and Orthodoxy: Collision to Collegiality (Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries)
  • Contemporary American Evangelicalism: Permutations and Progressions (Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries)
  • Christianity and Islam: The Challenge of the Future (Twenty-first Century)

Praise for the Print Edition

Product Details

  • Title : Church History, Volume 2: From Pre-Reformation to the Present Day
  • Authors : John D. Woodbridge, Frank James
  • Volume: 2
  • Publisher : Zondervan
  • Print Publication Date: 2013
  • Logos Release Date: 2015
  • Pages: 864
  • Language : English
  • Resources: 1
  • Format : Digital › Logos Research Edition
  • Subject : Church history
  • ISBNs : 9780310527152, 9780310257431
  • Resource ID: LLS:ZPHCHRHISTV02
  • Resource Type: text.monograph.church-history
  • Metadata Last Updated: 2021-04-26T18:00:57Z

Benefits of Logos Edition

In the Logos edition, this volume is enhanced by amazing functionality. Important terms link to dictionaries, encyclopedias, and a wealth of other resources in your digital library. Perform powerful searches to find exactly what you’re looking for. Take the discussion with you using tablet and mobile apps. With Logos Bible Software, the most efficient and comprehensive research tools are in one place, so you get the most out of your study.

About the Authors

John D. Woodbridge is research professor of church history and history of Christian thought at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois, where he has taught since 1970. He was previously a senior editor of Kršćanstvo danas and is the author of numerous books, including A God-Sized Vision: Revival Stories that Stretch and Stir. He is also the coeditor, with D.A. Carson, of Scripture and Truth i Hermeneutics, Authority, and Canon. Woodbridge is the recipient of four Gold Medallion Awards.

Frank A. James III is the president of Biblical Seminary in Hatfield, Pennsylvania. Prior to taking his current post, he taught and served as president at Reformed Theological Seminary in Orlando, FL, and served as provost and taught at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary. Additionally, he has been on the teaching faculties of Villanova University and Westmont College, and was a visiting professor at the Centre for Medieval and Renaissance Studies at Oxford University.

James is the author or editor of numerous works on the Reformation and has been a consultant and script writer for a historical documentary film series. He is the author of Peter Martyr Vermigli and Predestination: The Augustinian Inheritance of an Italian Reformer and the professor for Logos Mobile Ed’s Introducing Church History I and II.


Edward Snowden is the 21st Century's Frank Church

Kristie Macrakis, a Professor of History, Technology and Society at Georgia Tech, is the author or editor of five books. Her book on the "Stasi: Seduced by Secrets," just came out in paperback and one on secret writing was released last April: "Prisoners, Lovers, and Spies."

NSA/CSS Georgia Cryptologic Center

Admiral Michael Rogers was in Georgia last week. He has an impressive title: Director of the NSA/CSS i Commander, U.S. Cyber Command. Despite over a year of public discussion about reining in the NSA’s powers, Rogers was here, in essence, to recruit young people and to inaugurate the national security state’s unbridled expansion at Fort Gordon. The balance between privacy and security is not the only issue to consider regarding the NSA. Our next public debate should be about shrinking the enormous and expanding post-9/11 national security state and its intelligence bureaucracies.

Georgia’s new NSA/CSS Cryptologic Center is across the street from Fort Gordon’s Bingo Palace. Located in Augusta, GA, Fort Gordon is the new Fort Meade of the South.

Fort Meade, NSA headquarters in Maryland

The new NSA Georgia building opened in March 2012 and is part of the Intelligence Community’s building and spending spree in the wake of 9/11. It developed along with:

Of course NSA Utah, a facility in excess of 1 million square feet.

Rogers was in Georgia to present a keynote lecture at the Education Cyber Summit. He was also at Georgia Tech talking to students and faculty. He skipped down the auditorium steps dressed in Admiral Navy white. He bristled when I stated that Washington, DC seems to be in a state of damage control. “We are not in damage control,” he said defensively. Well, if discussions about how to prevent a future Edward Snowden, isn’t damage control, I don’t know what is.

Maybe it’s time to think: “Maybe we did something wrong, maybe we overstepped our boundaries. How can we reform ourselves?” As a historian of intelligence and technology, I wanted to know what reforms had been instituted in the wake of the Snowden revelations. I pointed out that almost forty years ago, Senator Frank Church oversaw in-depth investigations and reviews about decades of intelligence abuse and its reform. One of the results was the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA).

Edward Snowden is the new Frank Church. And reporters Glenn Greenwald and Barton Gellman are the investigative staffers. In the absence of real congressional oversight, whistleblowers and the media have had to step in.

The current congressional intelligence committees are in bed with the Intelligence Community. They are no longer watchdogs but sleeping hounds. Intelligence oversight committees have become part of the entrenched bureaucracies. Saxby Chambliss from the Senate Intelligence Committee sponsored the new NSA Georgia expansion. The committees have become part of the intelligence bureaucracies, not overseers of it.

Bureaucracy and secrecy are a toxic mix. Forty years is a long time in the life cycle of a governmental bureaucracy. It is time for renewal, a time for re-thinking who will do the oversight. The only report the public has seen is from the Washington insiders on the Presidential Review Committee with its bewildering 47 recommendations. The government has been slow in telling us which of the specific recommendations will be accepted.

Many of the issues raised by the voluminous Church Committee reports are surprisingly similar to those of today. Church and his committee were prescient. Aside from preserving first and fourth amendment rights, staffers warned against Orwellian technologies of surveillance. One worry was that “some government organization by the expenditure of enough money could have the capability to “know everything about everyone” at any time.” Well, here we are. The new national security state has received more money for intelligence than ever in the history of the world and the NSA has the capability to know everything about everyone. The Stasi could only have dreamed of such capabilities.

As James Risen has recounted in his new book Pay any Price, Diane Roarck, a staffer responsible for the NSA on the Senate Intelligence Committee was rebuffed, harassed and ostracized when she brought her concerns about NSA’s domestic surveillance program to other committee members and leaders.

Technology always moves faster than laws and society. This is true also for surveillance technologies. In the absence of congressional oversight, it is good we have whistleblowers like Thomas Drake, Bill Binney and Edward Snowden. It is too bad it had to take the most dramatic one of all—Snowden—to jolt Washington into frenzy. Let’s hope that frenzy turns to action not just damage control.


Povijest

There are many variations of this story, but here is the best timeline we’ve been able to piece together about the Frank Holton & Co. instrument manufacturing company.

Frank E. Holton
born Mar. 10, 1858

Source: 1860 US Census
Heath Township, Allegan, MI June 23, 1860
Father: Otis M. ? or L.? Holton (Born 1827: New York) Farmer
Mother: Hanna A. Holton (Born 1829: Michigan)
Siblings:
Emma E
Alice
Frank E
Leona (? spelling)

Izvor: 1870 US Census
Allegan Village, June 10, 1870

Frank Holton official roster of John Philips Sousa Band (age 33-34)

source :
John Philip Sousa official website
Sousa Band Roster
http://www.dws.org/sousa/band/roster.htm

York briefly participated in two partnerships, Smith & York (1883) and York & Holton (1885) before naming the company J.W. York and Company.

source:
Lars Kilmer York Serial Number List
York Serial Number list
http://www.musictrader.com/york.html

Frank Holton began his company in Chicago.

source : Music Trades Database, G. Leblanc Company

“Frank Holton was a professional trombonist with the famous Sousa band and associate of the leading musicians of the late 19th century. He was a business manager and trombone soloist a theatre musician and entrepreneur. The legacy of Frank Holton continues to this day, over 100 years later, focusing on providing musicians with the finest tools on which to perform their craft.

Holton began his company in 1896 in Chicago, after numerous engagements as a trombonist in many leading performing groups. As a former member of Sousa’s great band, and an associate and friend of trombonist Arthur Pryor and cornetist Herbert L. Clarke, Holton enjoyed wide renown. At forty year’s of age, Frank Holton created his own recipe for trombone slide oil. He soon took on the sale of used band instruments. H. A. Vander Cook (who later started the Vander Cook School of Music) stated that, “The present factory is the result of his perseverance and his making one good tone at a time, which method he applied to overcome the obstacles as they arose before him. Holton’s contacts and friendships made in his professional musician days served him well during these years. Many of his friends in the theatre and dance band circuits had made their way to top symphony jobs, bringing their Holton instruments to Boston, New York, Philadelphia and other highly respected orchestras.

One interesting note is that the first trumpet player with the Boston Symphony, Vincent Bach, used and endorsed the Holton trumpet at that time. In 1917, Holton had completed tooling for a complete line of saxophones, in order to meet with the saxophone craze that was just beginning. His factory, though, was at capacity and needed to grow. One of his early customers and friend suggested that Holton combine his love of Wisconsin farms with his work and set up a new factory in Elkhorn, Wisconsin. The citizens of Elkhorn built him a factory of over 35,000 square feet and, while bringing in or training a workforce proved difficult, the first profits for the Wisconsin-based company showed themselves in 1920. The organization of school bands and the promise of ?a playing band within twelve weeks, brought Holton good sales results, but this growth in student instrument demand was not a good fit for the higher-priced professional instruments that Holton was producing. The company introduced lower-priced outsourced instruments under such names as Pertin and Beaufort until it could introduce its own ?Collegiate? line in the early 1930’s. Mr. Holton retired at age 82 and sold his controlling shares to longtime associate, William Kull. Frank Holton died on April 16, 1942. Kull remained the CEO until his death in 1944, but the Frank Holton Company was essentially run by the sales manager, Elliott Kehl, a long-time Holton employee. Kehl found war work to keep the factory open during a time when all brass was directed to the war effort. Over the next several years, Kehl was allowed to purchase a majority share in the company as he led a program of re-engineering and improving the line of instruments. Kehl also revived work with key artists, including Phillip Farkas, first horn player of the Chicago Symphony. In 1956, the Holton Farkas model French horn was introduced to great acclaim. That same year, new tooling for saxophones brought Holton into the modern saxophone world.

In 1962, the decision to sell the Frank Holton Company to the G. Leblanc Corporation was made. G. Leblanc brought its strength in woodwind instruments together with Holton brass expertise, creating a much more formidable competitor in the band instrument industry. Through the remainder of the century, Holton continued to produce student and professional brass instruments. Its work with international star Maynard Ferguson and his “Superbone” continued Frank Holton’s commitment to working with the finest artists. Development with key educators such as Chicago’s Ethel Merker keeps Holton French horn development moving even beyond what Phillip Farkas has envisioned. Efforts to help young people progress included the introduction of a child-size single horn. In 2005, the company introduced the new Holton Collegiate line of low brass instruments. Like its predecessor in the 1930’s, this high-quality, lower-priced instrument line provides the ideal combination of performance and value for school music programs. The second century of Holton continues to be written, however, the purchase of Leblanc and Holton by Steinway Musical Instruments bodes well for the company. Working with key artists, serving amateur musicians, and developing exciting new opportunities were key to Frank Holton’s vision. Now as part of Steinway Musical Instruments and its band and orchestra division, Conn-Selmer, Inc., Holton instruments continue to excite the musical mind and provide today’s musicians with the finest instruments on which to experience the joy of music.”


First Christian Church is a Real Frank Lloyd Wright

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I'd always assumed that the peculiar church on Seventh Avenue was a Frank Lloyd Wright knockoff, one of dozens of acclaimed buildings around town that are politely referred to as "homages" because they ape Wright's trademark concrete-and-stone stylings. But it turns out that this prettily peculiar building is that rarest of things: a sanctioned, official Wright design, albeit one built from retired plans that languished on a shelf for more than two decades.

Even if the name First Christian Church (6750 North Seventh Avenue) doesn't ring a bell with you, the building itself &mdash and especially the soaring, triangular bell tower blasting out of its lawn and towering over the property like a giant finger pointing to the sky &mdash likely will. Anyone who's ever traveled through Central Phoenix on Seventh Avenue knows this church it's the only place of worship in town with a 77-foot-tall roof and spire, held aloft by 23 willowy concrete and steel pillars surrounding walls made mostly of glass and capped by what Wright called a "lantern" that extends from one side of the building to the next. Both the lantern and the church's dramatic spire are chockablock with stained glass imported from France, Belgium, and Italy and assembled in Tempe.

Wright's philosophy was that a triangular building reflected an attitude of prayer, but this diamond (or double-triangle) shaped design was not originally intended for First Christian. Wright's plans were commissioned in 1949 by Southwest Christian Seminary, a Bible college that went belly-up the following year. The drawings for the 80-acre university were made public in 1950 and included a chapel, administrative buildings, seminar rooms, library, Greek theater, and faculty housing. When the seminary folded, the plans were returned to Wright, who shelved them.

Got a least-favorite building you want to see covered here? Want to praise a Phoenix design element, new or old, that you've admired? Write to [email protected]

"Dr. Boyce was our minister in the early '70s, and he knew of the plans on file at Taliesin West," remembers First Christian's administrative assistant Sandra Morgan, who's been a member of the church for 30 years. "Dr. Boyce went and talked to Mrs. Wright and convinced her to let him buy the design for the chapel part of the university."

Boyce's save was an auspicious one. The lost plans were transformed into a building that has become a local landmark and has been called "one of the 10 best church buildings ever built in America" by the Church Architects Guild of America. It's certainly among Wright's more unusual designs &mdash and that's saying a lot &mdash and one that proved challenging to the phalanx of engineers hired to erect it.

First Christian, which had been hunkering in smaller, more humble homes since its founding in 1952, broke ground in 1971. By 1973, it resided in a classically Wrightian building of rough concrete and native stone, the famed architect's favored building materials. The low-ceilinged lobby and sanctuary entrance are hung with 20 tons of rock mined from the Arizona desert, and the four-sided spire that caps the worship center appears from every angle to be a triangle. (Try this: Ogle the spire during the daytime while walking the church's grounds or driving through its parking lot, and you'll notice that the spire appears to be turning. It's not it's designed to catch sunlight on each of its sides, any two of which are equal to the others, in such a way that it always appears as a triangle against the sky.)

The church's free-standing, 120-foot bell tower offers the same optical illusion as the roof spire, but with four sides each unequal to the other three. The tower, capped with a 22-foot-tall cross, has no inward supporting structure steel detailer Frank Grossman (a Phoenician who'd built the suspension mechanism for the blue whale that's still hanging in the American Museum of Natural History) created an alloy skeleton that supports the tower's 304 tons of concrete, stone, and steel, materials specified in Wright's notes on the original design, which the widow Wright reportedly insisted be followed to the letter.

If she hadn't, and if the leadership of First Christian Church hadn't gone after her husband's unused plans, Central Phoenix and Seventh Avenue would be a whole heck of a lot less interesting to look at. And while Wright brought a ton of spiritual subtlety to his design (it's even built on 23 triangular pillars of concrete and steel that somehow represent the Holy Trinity), this rustic house of worship is so wonderfully eccentric to look at that even a cranky old atheist like me has fallen in love with it.

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Komentari:

  1. Brenton

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  2. Sanersone

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  4. Ahuiliztli

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  5. Connie

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