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Arthur Hays Sulzberger

Arthur Hays Sulzberger

Arthur Hays Sulzberger, sin Cyrusa L. Sulzbergera, trgovca pamučnom robom, i Rachel Peixotto Hays, rođen je 12. rujna 1891. Oba su mu roditelja bili potomci aškenazijskih i sefardskih židovskih obitelji.

Sulzberger je završio školu Horace Mann 1909. i Sveučilište Columbia 1913., a oženio se Iphigene Bertha Ochs, kćerkom Adolpha Ochsa, vlasnika New York Times, 1917. Sljedeće godine počinje raditi za novine. Smrću svog tasta 1929. postao je novi izdavač novina. Te je godine osnovao Židovski savjetodavni odbor (Columbia-Barnard Hillel) i dugo je bio u njegovom odboru.

Sulzberger je bio duboko zabrinut progonom Židova u nacističkoj Njemačkoj. Međutim, zabrinuo ga je to što će ga smatrati cionistom pa je 1934. izdao izjavu: "Nisam cionist jer mi se čini da se Židov, tražeći vlastitu domovinu, odriče nečeg beskrajno veće vrijednosti svijet ... ... iskosa gledam na svaki pokret koji pomaže da mirotvorac među narodima postane samo nacionalni ratnik. "

Godine 1940. financijski je podržao niz pro-intervencijskih skupina koje je osnovala Britanska sigurnosna koordinacija (BSC). U svojoj knjizi, Bez straha i naklonosti: New York Times i njegov Times (1980) Harrison Salisbury tvrdi: "Nedugo nakon izbijanja rata (u Europi) Sulzberger je saznao da je niz tih dopisnika imao veze s MI6, britanskom obavještajnom agencijom." Salisbury ga opisuje kao "jako ljutog" zbog ovoga, ali ostali su u novinama. Prema riječima Hansona W. Baldwina, novinara na stranici New York Times "cure kroz britanske obavještajne podatke Vrijeme nastavljeno nakon ulaska SAD -a u rat. "

Unatoč pomoći koju je pružio kampanji kako bi uvjerio Sjedinjene Države da uđu u Drugi svjetski rat, BSC je još kritizirao Sulzbergera zbog toga što nije podržao stvar, kao i New York Herald Tribune. Jedan od njegovih agenata, Valentine Williams, imao je sastanak sa Sulzbergerom i 15. rujna 1941. izvijestio je Hugha Daltona, ministra gospodarskog ratovanja: "Imao sam sat vremena s Arthurom Sulzbergerom, vlasnikom New York Times, prošli tjedan. Rekao mi je da je prvi put u životu požalio što je bio Židov jer, s porastom plima antisemitizma, nije bio u stanju zagovarati antihitlerovsku politiku uprave onoliko snažno i univerzalno koliko bi želio njegovo sponzorstvo izolacionisti bi pripisali židovskom utjecaju i time izgubili dio svoje snage. "Predložio je i Isaiahu Berlinu, koji je lobirao kod Sulzbergera da bude otvoreniji u pogledu postupanja prema Židovima u nacističkoj Njemačkoj:" Gospodine Berlin, zar ne? vjeruju da bi, ako bi riječ Židov bila zabranjena u javnom tisku pedeset godina, imala snažan pozitivan utjecaj. "

Laurel Leff je u svojoj knjizi tvrdila, Zakopao Times: Holokaust i najvažnije američke novine (2005.) da Sulzberger nije učinio dovoljno da pomogne proganjanim Židovima u nacističkoj Njemačkoj. Ona citira Williama Cohena koji je u veljači 1942. pisao u novine, rekavši da je Sulzberger bio mrzitelj Židov koji je bacio "bodež izdaje u leđa bespomoćnih milijuna Židova". Leffova glavna zamjerka bila je ta što nije dovoljno istaknuo vijesti o holokaustu. Međutim, Ira Stoll je istaknula: "Bilo bi pretjerano reći ovo Times potpuno zanemarili holokaust. Prema vlastitom prebrojavanju gospođe Leff, objavljeno je gotovo 1200 priča o sudbini europskih Židova. Godine 1944., godine kada je priča dobila najveću pozornost, bilo je 12 članaka na naslovnoj stranici i 13 uvodnika. Druge novine nisu prošle bolje, a kako opisuje gospođa Leff, glasnogovornici američke vlade u Washingtonu također nisu previše utjecali na sudbinu Židova. "Leff također tvrdi da je Arthur Krock, ured Washington -a načelnik, "bilo mu je neugodno što je Židov ... i od gotovo 1200 Krockovih kolumni objavljenih tijekom rata, niti jedan nije spomenuo progon Židova".

Sulzberger, koji je bio povjerenik Rockefellerove zaklade (1939.-1957.), Dobio je nagradu Lovejoy župe Elijah župe 1956. Umirovljen je 1961., a kao izdavača naslijedio ga je zet Orvil E. Dryfoos. Za vrijeme dok je imao kontrolu nad New York Times, dnevna naklada porasla je sa 465.000 na 713.000, a nedjeljna naklada sa 745.000 na 1,4 milijuna. Godine 1963. novine je preuzeo njegov sin, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger.

Arthur Hays Sulzberger umro je 11. prosinca 1968. godine.

Imao sam sat vremena s Arthurom Sulzbergerom, vlasnikom New York Times, prošli tjedan. Rekao mi je da je prvi put u životu požalio što je bio Židov jer, s porastom plima antisemitizma, nije bio u stanju zagovarati antihitlerovsku politiku uprave onoliko snažno i univerzalno koliko bi želio njegovo sponzorstvo izolacionisti bi pripisali židovskom utjecaju i time izgubili nešto od svoje snage.

Arthur Hays Sulzberger dobio je prilično površan tretman od povjesničara časopisa Times. Sada dolazi Laurel Leff, čija Zakopao Times: Holokaust i najvažnije američke novine (2005.) predstavlja fascinantnu biografiju čovjeka koji je vodio Times tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata i predsjedavao je onime što je list od tada priznao vlastitu neuspješnu reportažu o nacističkom istrebljenju europskog židovstva.

Gospođa Leff, bivša reporterka i urednica koja sada predaje na Sveučilištu Northeastern, odlučila je ne uokviriti knjigu kao biografiju. Umjesto toga, možda kao rezultat svog akademskog zaposlenja i akademskog izdavača ove knjige, ona kritizira New York Times jer vijesti o holokaustu nisu dovoljno istaknute. Ona tu kritiku utemeljuje u komunikacijskoj teoriji, ali vrijedi je zaobići za revolucionarnu biografiju sahranjenu u ...

Bio je predan čudnoj definiciji novinarske ravnoteže. Vrijeme, prema gospođi Leff, odbila je poslati pisma uredniku koji je napao porast antisemitizma u Njemačkoj, kako ne bi morao nuditi prostor onima koji podržavaju antisemitizam.

Umjesto da govorimo o židovskim izbjeglicama, Times uvodnici su govorili o njemačkim izbjeglicama. Arthur Hays Sulzberger odbio je intervenirati kod američkih dužnosnika kako bi dobio vizu za rođaka Fritza Sulzbergera, savjetujući ga 1938. da ostane u Njemačkoj. No, ipak je intervenirao i spasio druge. (Fritz Sulzberger je stigao u Ameriku, ali drugi udaljeni rođaci obitelji Ochs -Sulzberger nisu imali tu sreću - barem je jedna umrla u Auschwitzu, prema gospođi Leff.) Times vodio je kampanju od devet uvodnika i tri priče na naslovnicama koje su pozivale Kongres da dozvoli britanskim obiteljima da pošalju svoju djecu na sigurno u Ameriku, ali nisu poduzele takvu kampanju u ime Židova.

Kad su Britanci izdali Bijelu knjigu 1939., ograničavajući useljavanje Židova u Palestinu, Times objavio je uvodnik u kojem je hvalio taj korak kao nužan "kako bi samu domovinu spasio od prenaseljenosti, kao i od sve nasilnijeg otpora Arapa". (Do veljače 1944., Times je preokrenuo tu temu.) Ideja da bi Židovi trebali izbjegavati činiti stvari suočeni s prijetnjama nasilja od strane Arapa bila je (a, neki bi mogli tvrditi, i do danas) ponavljajuća tema Times uvodnici. Uvodnik iz 1942. osporavao je stvaranje židovske brigade u sastavu savezničkih snaga jer bi to moglo "izazvati arapski ustanak".

Times je lagano gurnuo vijesti o nacističkim zvjerstvima nad Židovima, naglašavajući nacističke zločine nad Česima i kršćanima - što je činjenica koju su u to vrijeme prepoznali senator Edwin Johnson iz Kolorada, prema gospođi Leff. I američkih Židova poput Williama Cohena koji je, pišući u Nova granica iz veljače 1942., rekao da je Sulzberger Židov koji mrzi sebe i koji je bacio "bodež izdaje u leđa bespomoćnih milijuna Židova koji sa strepnjom gledaju u Palestinu za utočište nakon rata". Ili poput Miltona Steinberga, rabina iz sinagoge Park Avenue na Manhattanu, koji je 1946. rekao: "Bože nas zaštiti od vrste Židova koji objavljuje Times."

Sulzberger nije bio jedini Times koji je imao zategnut odnos sa svojim vlastitim židovskim porijeklom. Utjecajni kolumnist i šef Washington ureda, Arthur Krock, "bilo je neugodno što je Židov", prema izvoru kojeg citira gospođa. "Od gotovo 1.200 krock kolumni objavljenih tijekom rata, niti jedna nije spomenula progon Židova", piše ona.

Bilo bi pretjerano reći Times potpuno zanemarili holokaust. Leff opisuje da ni glasnogovornici američke vlade u Washingtonu nisu previše utjecali na sudbinu Židova.

Bi li drugačija pokrivenost spasila živote nekih od 6 milijuna? U njenoj knjizi Čemu služi židovska povijest, povjesničarka Lucy Dawidowicz piše da je manje restriktivna useljenička politika Amerike prije rata mogla spasiti neke Židove, da bi jača američka vojska mogla zaustaviti Hitlera prije nego što je osvojio Europu i da bi židovska država, da je postojala, "učinila razlika."

Sahranjen od strane Times ne raspravlja o nastojanjima kasnijih generacija Timesmena da se suoče s neuspjesima lista u priči o holokaustu. Nekada je takav pokušaj bio članak bivšeg izvršnog urednika časopisa Max Frankela u posebnom odjeljku 150. Times, objavljen 2001. Gospodin Frankel opisao je rad časopisa o priči o Hitlerovom ratu protiv Židova kao "zapanjujući, mrljajući neuspjeh". Knjiga također ne pokušava procijeniti je li današnja Times, u svom izvještavanju o Izraelu ili trenutnom ratu protiv Židova, pati od bilo koje iste tendencije koja je pogađala list i njegovog izdavača u Drugom svjetskom ratu.

No pažljivi suvremeni čitatelj skenira a Times uredništvo koje uzbuđuje premijerku Sharon i ruga se "cionističkim doseljenicima koji vjeruju da im je Bog dao zemlju" treba samo zakolutati očima i smjestiti ih na vrh kolone na ime Arthur Hays Sulzberger. Rad gospođe Leff znači da će njegovo ime imati više značenja - nije dobro za njegov ugled, iako će možda biti od koristi onima koji žele razumjeti instituciju koja ga je preživjela.


Budućnost demokrata počiva na Ericu Adamsu: Goodwin

U nedavnom članku o planini Rushmore, The New York Times rekao je o Georgeu Washingtonu, Thomasu Jeffersonu, Abrahamu Lincolnu i Teddyju Rooseveltu da "svaki od ovih titana američke povijesti ima komplicirano naslijeđe".

Novinari Bryan Pietsch i Jacey Fortin ležerno su saželi litanije pritužbi probuđenog stada: Washington i Jefferson posjedovali su robove, Lincoln je "nerado i kasno" izdao Proglas o emancipaciji, a Roosevelt je "aktivno nastojao pokrstiti i iskorijeniti domorodačke Amerikance".

Rushmoreov kipar, Gutzon Borglum, nije pobjegao neozlijeđen. "Borglum je bio uključen u još jedan projekt: ogroman bareljef na Stone Mountainu u Georgiji koji je obilježio vođe Konfederacije", napisali su izvjestitelji.

U priči je bilo malo toga što je bilo izvanredno, i to je bila poanta. Times, kao glavna medijska navijačica za kaos koji se razvio u cijeloj naciji, rutinski uništava američke heroje, njezinu kulturu i, kroz projekt 1619, njegovo utemeljenje.

Kipar Mount Rushmore Gutzon Borglum u Berlinu 1931. Getty Images

Četiri godine nakon što je napustio svoje tradicionalne standarde poštenja pokušavajući pobijediti Donalda Trumpa, list je sada usredotočen na prepisivanje priče o Americi. Vozački napad na predsjednike Rushmora bio je dio njegove agende kulture.

Ipak, Times nikada u svojoj povijesti nije primijenio standarde koje koristi za demoniziranje drugih. Da jest, tamošnji novinari saznali bi da obitelj Ochs-Sulzberger koja 125 godina posjeduje i vodi novine ima "komplicirano naslijeđe".

To naslijeđe uključuje konfederate u ormaru - muškarce i barem jednu ženu koja je podržavala jug i ropstvo tijekom građanskog rata. Zapravo, Timesov patrijarh Adolph S. Ochs uložio je novac u sam projekt Kamene planine i druga spomen obilježja Konfederacije koje Times sada smatra neprikladnima.

Da budem jasan, gadim se Timesovoj odlučnosti da prosuđuje i revidira povijest koristeći kriterije zamišljene prije 20 minuta. Aktivizam inspiriran marksizmom i fetiš utemeljen na rasama toliko su ga odbacili da više ne funkcionira kao stvarne novine.

Nakon što sam svoje formativne novinarske godine proveo u Sivoj dami, izrazio sam veliko poštovanje prema predanosti urednika prema poštenom i nepristranom izvještavanju o vijestima. Ta je obveza započela s Ochsom, koji je, od dana kada je preuzeo kontrolu nad Timsom 1896., inzistirao na strogom odvajanju vijesti i mišljenja, tradiciji koja je trajala više od stoljeća. Upravo su te tradicije - poštenje i mjere zaštite od pristranosti novinara - novinama dale vjerodostojnost i učinile ih vodećim u američkom novinarstvu.

Ali ti su dani prošli, sa standardima koji su isprva polako erodirani, a zatim ukinuti pod sadašnjim izvršnim urednikom Deanom Baquettom. Svaka je priča ovih dana urednička jer list zahtijeva da se svaka institucija i pojedinac prilagodi stavovima Timesa ili da ih se proglasi rasističkim, homofobičnim, islamofobičnim i mizoginskim. Zbog iznimnog utjecaja Timesa, njegova demagogija igra važnu ulogu u uništavanju tkiva naše zemlje.

U najmanju ruku, papir bi trebao biti dovoljno častan da svoje svježe iskovane standarde primijeni na svoju prošlost. Da je tako, vjerujem da bi vlasnici, urednici, izvjestitelji i dioničari bili šokirani onim što otkriju.

Možda bi tada shvatili da su njihovu tvrtku izgradili i vodili ljudi koji su, u nekim aspektima veliki, dijelili mnoge stavove i nedostatke koje sada sami po sebi osuđuju.

Adolph S. Ochs prikazan je kao beba, koju drži njegova majka, Bertha Levy Ochs, 1858. AP

Nasljedne komplikacije počinju s Ochsom, biznismenom iz Tennesseeja koji je preuzeo kontrolu nad problematičnim New York Timesom kad je imao samo 38 godina. Već je posjedovao Chattanooga Times, koji je nazvao konzervativnim demokratskim novinama - u vrijeme kada su gotovo svi crni građani na jugu bili republikanci. Kako je Ochs rekao kada je preuzeo kontrolu 1879. godine, časopis Chattanooga "kretao bi se u skladu s konzervativnom demokracijom juga".

On i njegovi potomci nastavili su posjedovati novine do 1999. godine, uključujući i tijekom prisilne segregacije iz doba Jim Crow. Primjer tenora časopisa Chattanooga Times uključuje zloglasni slučaj Scottsboro Nine iz 1931. godine, koji je uključivao lažne navode o silovanju dvije bijele žene nad devet crnih tinejdžera.

Uvodnik je imao naslov „Smrtna kazna propisno tražena u zločinima devet siromasnih crnaca“, a izvjestitelj sa suđenja nazvao je optužene „zvijerima nesposobnima da ih se naziva ljudima“, prema „Rasnim naočarima“, knjizi o rasi, pravdi i mediji.

Kad je Ochs došao u New York, sa sobom je donio svoje južnjačke simpatije. Deset godina nakon što je preuzeo The New York Times, imao je sjajan profil Jeffersona Davisa, predsjednika Konfederacije tijekom Građanskog rata. Članak iz 1906. bio je proglašen "proslavom stogodišnjice Davisa" i objavljen je na "godišnjicu smrti velikog južnjačkog vođe".

Ochsovi roditelji, Julius i Bertha Levy, bili su njemački židovski useljenici koji su se sastali na američkom jugu, ali su imali vrlo različite poglede na ropstvo.

Dok je živjela s ujakom u Natchezu, gospođica, Bertha je to osjećala naklonost, što je činjenica zabilježena u obiteljskim povijestima.

U "Trustu", odobrenoj biografiji obitelji Ochs-Sulzberger iz 1999., autorice Susan Tifft i Alex Jones pišu da je Julius bio svjedok aukcija robova i opisao ih kao "zlobnu relikviju barbarstva", ali je Bertha "prigrlila prezirni antebelum" crnaca, a do kraja života bila je dogmatski konzervativna, čak reakcionarna. ” Rekli su da je bila odlučna u očuvanju "osebujne institucije Juga".

Jedan od njezinih potomaka nazvao ju je "tom damom iz Konfederacije".

Svjestan sam nikakvih dokaza ili tvrdnji da su neki članovi Bertine obitelji posjedovali robove ili su sudjelovali u trgovini robljem.

Tijekom građanskog rata Bertha je imala barem jednog brata koji se pridružio pobunjeničkoj vojsci, a i sama je osumnjičena da je špijun. Jednom je prilikom uhvaćena kako šverca medicinske potrepštine iz Ohia u Kentucky koji su držali pobunjenici.


Obitelj Sulzberger: Komplicirano židovsko naslijeđe u The New York Timesu

NEW YORK (JTA)-U četvrtak je The New York Times objavio da će njegov izdavač, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr., 66, odstupiti krajem godine, a naslijedit će ga njegov sin, 37-godišnji Arthur Gregg (AG) Sulzberger.

Obiteljska razmjena moći nije bila neočekivana. Mlađi Sulzberger šesti je član klana Ochs Sulzberger koji je služio kao izdavač uglednih njujorških novina. On je potomak pete generacije Adolpha S. Ochsa, koji je kupio novine 1896. godine jer su se nalazile pred bankrotom.

Židovska povijest obitelji - Adolph Ochs bio je dijete njemačkih židovskih useljenika - često je bila predmet fascinacije i provjere, osobito tijekom i nakon Drugog svjetskog rata, kada je list optužen da je zažmirio pred zločinima nad Židovima.

Danas su židovske veze obitelji manje vidljive nego što su bile u prošlosti. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger mlađi odgojen je u episkopalnoj vjeri svoje majke, a kasnije se prestao baviti religijom. On i njegova supruga Gail Gregg vjenčali su se s prezbiterijanskim ministrom. Međutim, rekao je da ga ljudi zbog prezimena i dalje smatraju Židom.

Pogled na povijest obitelji pokazuje zašto. Adolph Ochs, izvorni član klana Ochs Sulzberger, oženio se Effie Wise, kćerkom rabina Isaaca Mayera Wisea, vodećeg američkog reformatorskog židovskog učenjaka koji je osnovao rabinsku školu pokreta, Hebrew Union College-Židovski institut za religiju.

Nakon Ochsove smrti, njegov zet, Arthur Hays Sulzberger, preuzeo je uzde časopisa The Times. Sulzberger, reformski Židov, bio je otvoreni anticionist u vrijeme dok je reformski pokret još raspravljao o tom pitanju. On i njegova obitelj "bili su blisko povezani sa židovskim filantropskim svijetom kako je i priličilo njihovom društvenom i ekonomskom položaju", napisao je Neil Lewis, bivši dugogodišnji izvjestitelj u The Timesu.

Vlasnici su izazvali kritike zbog načina na koji su novine pokrivale židovske poslove, posebno holokaust. Kritičari su rekli da novine nisu dale odgovarajuću pokrivenost nacističkim zvjerstvima počinjenim nad Židovima, što je optužba koju je kasnije posjedovao The Times. Arthur Hays Sulzberger iskusio je antisemitizam i bio je zabrinut da će se njegov rad smatrati previše židovskim, napisala je Laurel Leff u svojoj knjizi "Buried by the Times: Holokaust i najvažnije američke novine" 2005. godine.

"Ne bi bilo posebne pažnje, posebne osjetljivosti, niti posebnih molbi", napisao je Leff.

U članku iz 2001. za The Times, bivši izvršni urednik Max Frankel napisao je da je taj list, kao i mnogi drugi mediji u to vrijeme, u skladu s politikom američke vlade koja je umanjila nevolje židovskih žrtava i izbjeglica, ali da su stavovi izdavač je također odigrao značajnu ulogu.

"Snažno i javno je vjerovao da je judaizam religija, a ne rasa ili nacionalnost - da Židovi trebaju biti odvojeni samo u načinu na koji štuju", napisao je Frankel. “Mislio je da im ne trebaju nikakve državne ili političke i društvene institucije. Uložio je veliki napor kako bi izbjegao da The Times označi židovske novine ‘. ’ ”

Kao rezultat toga, napisao je Frankel, Sulzbergerova urednička stranica "bila je hladna prema svim mjerama koje su mogle izdvojiti [Židove] za spašavanje ili čak posebnu pozornost".

Iako The Times nije bio jedini časopis koji je oskudno izvještavao o nacističkom progonu Židova, činjenica da je to učinilo imala je velike posljedice, Alex Jones i Susan Tifft napisali su u svojoj knjizi iz 1999. godine “Trust: Privatna i moćna obitelj iza New York Times. ”

"Da je The Times istaknuo nacističke zločine nad Židovima ili jednostavno nije zakopao određene priče, nacija bi se možda probudila u užasu mnogo prije nego što je to učinila", napisali su Jones i Tifft.

Godine 1961. Arthur Hays Sulzberger odstupio je kao izdavač, tri godine nakon što je doživio moždani udar, dajući mjesto svom zetu Orvilu Dryfoosu. Dryfoos je umro dvije godine kasnije od zatajenja srca, pa ga je preuzeo njegov šogor Arthur “Punch” Ochs Sulzberger. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, koji je umro 2012., identificiran je kao „nominalno Židov, iako nimalo religiozan“. Bio je "puno ugodniji u svom judaizmu" od svog oca, napisao je bivši religijski reporter Timesa Ari Goldman. Ipak, priče povezane sa židovskim temama pomno su uređivane, rekao je Goldman, koji je u Timesu radio od 1973. do 1993. godine.

“Te priče su dobile malo više uredničke pažnje, i ne kažem da su naginjale na ovaj ili onaj način, ali list je bio svjestan da ima tu reputaciju i da ima takvu pozadinu te se želio pobrinuti da su priče ispričane pošteno i ne bi dovelo do optužbi za favoriziranje ili savijanje unatrag ”, rekao je u ponedjeljak za JTA.

Arthur Ochs Sulzberger odgojio je svog sina, Arthura Ochsa Sulzbergera mlađeg, u episkopalnoj vjeri svoje žene. No Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ipak je imao neke veze sa svojim židovskim porijeklom. U srednjoj školi otišao je na putovanje u Izrael zbog čega ga je pomalo zaintrigiralo njegovo porijeklo, napisali su Jones i Tifft. Dok su kritike židovske zajednice pod njegovim mandatom bile manje oštre nego u vrijeme njegova djeda, mnogi, osobito s desne strane, i dalje smatraju da su novine pristrane prema Izraelu.

Ipak, s obzirom na obiteljsku povijest svojih vlasnika, nerazmjerno veliko židovsko čitateljstvo i često izvještavanje o židovskim preokupacijama, The Times se često smatra "židovskim novinama"-što antisemiti često omalovažavaju.

Ta je percepcija "uvelike zbog obitelji i zbog židovskog imena obitelji i židovskih korijena", rekao je Goldman, "pa bili oni Židovi ili ne danas, postoji osjećaj da su to još uvijek novine s velikim židovskim utjecajem. ”

I ta obiteljska povijest živi. A.G. Sulzberger dio je generacije u novinama koja uključuje njegove rođake Sama Dolnicka, koji nadzire digitalne i mobilne inicijative, i Davida Perpicha, višeg izvršnog direktora koji vodi njegovu stranicu za pregled proizvoda Wirecutter. Dolnickova majka, Lynn Golden, praunuka je Juliusa i Berthe Ochs, roditelja Adolpha S. Ochsa, a udala se u sinagogi Chattanooga, Tennessee, koja je nazvana u njihovo sjećanje. Perpich, unuk Arthura Ochsa Sulzbergera, oženio se rabinom 2008.

A.G. Sulzberger najpoznatiji je po tome što je vodio tim koji je 2014. sastavio 96-strano "izvješće o inovacijama" koje je trebalo potaknuti The Times da brže napreduje u korak s novim digitalnim medijskim okruženjem.

Upitan nedavno o svom radnom odnosu s Dolnickom i Perpichom, A. G. Sulzberger govorio je o njihovom snažnom novinarskom zaleđu i pozvao se na obiteljski etos.

"Da nisu članovi obitelji Ochs/Sulzberger, naši konkurenti bi ih bombardirali ponudama za posao", rekao je. "Ali oni su duboko predani ovom mjestu i nas troje smo predani nastavku rada kao tim."

Reći ću vam istinu: život ovdje u Izraelu nije uvijek lak. Ali pun je ljepote i smisla.

Ponosan sam što radim u The Times of Israel zajedno s kolegama koji iz dana u dan ulažu svoja srca u hvatanje složenosti ovog izvanrednog mjesta.

Vjerujem da naše izvještavanje postavlja važan ton iskrenosti i pristojnosti koji je neophodan za razumijevanje onoga što se doista događa u Izraelu. Našem timu je potrebno puno vremena, zalaganja i napornog rada kako bismo ovo riješili.

Vaša podrška kroz članstvo u Zajednica Times of Israel, omogućuje nam nastavak rada. Biste li se danas pridružili našoj zajednici?

Sarah Tuttle Singer, urednica novih medija

Zaista nam je drago što ste pročitali Članci X Times of Israel u proteklih mjesec dana.

Zato svakodnevno dolazimo na posao - kako bismo pronicljivim čitateljima poput vas pružili obavezno čitanje izvješća o Izraelu i židovskom svijetu.

Dakle, sada imamo zahtjev. Za razliku od drugih vijesti, nismo postavili platni zid. No, budući da je novinarstvo koje radimo skupo, pozivamo čitatelje kojima je The Times of Israel postao važan da nam pomognu podržati naš rad pridruživanjem Zajednica Times of Israel.

Za samo 6 USD mjesečno možete pomoći u podržavanju našeg kvalitetnog novinarstva dok uživate u The Times of Israel BEZ OGLASA, kao i pristup ekskluzivnom sadržaju dostupnom samo članovima zajednice Times of Israel.


Jesu li izdavači časopisa Rođeni glupi?

Najjednostavniji način za pisanje novinarskog profila je da se njegov predmet predstavi kao div ili patuljak. New York Times Izdavač Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. dobiva tretman patuljaka koji stoji u jarku u filmu Marka Bowdena u svibnju sajam taštine, kako imenovani i neimenovani izvori slobodno ubacuju Arthura Jr.

Gawker je prikupio razne uvrede i besmislice koje projiciraju ne baš bistrog, zabunjenog momka. Neimenovani bivši suradnik Arthura Jr. -a kaže Bowdenu da ga je poslovna strana tvrtke gledala s prezirom. "Oni su ga smatrali beznačajnim, letećim, škrtim i ne mare za njih koliko mu je stalo do novinara", kaže neimenovani izvor. Diane Baker, bivša glavna financijska direktorica New York Times Co., kaže da Arthur Jr. ima osobnost "dvadesetčetverogodišnjeg štrebera". Bowden piše da ga čak ni „talent srednje razine oko Arthura [Jr.] ne smatra vršnjakom, a još manje prikladnim vođom”. Gawker nije prikupio: "U određenoj mjeri neki od njegovih vrhunskih djelatnika smatraju da nije mudro, on nastoji promicati ljude ne na temelju hladnokrvnih ocjena njihovog talenta, već na temelju toga koliko se ugodno osjeća u njihovoj blizini-na osnovu toga koliko zabava oni su."

Nije da Bowden misli da je Arthur Jr. aktivno glup. Zapravo, on piše da je Arthur Jr. "očito pametan". No, način na koji Bowden završava rečenicu - "Arthur nije osobito intelektualan" - dovršava njegovu misao. Bowden nastavlja: „Koliko god vrijedilo, on je Zvjezdane staze ventilator. Um mu luta, osobito kada je pritisnut da se koncentrira na složena poslovna pitanja. ” Drugim riječima, dovoljno pametan za nošenje unitarda i upravljanje njime Starship Enterprise s zamišljenog mosta, ali nedovoljno pametnog za objavljivanje Times.

Ako je Arthur Jr. prostak, on podržava obiteljsku tradiciju koja se može pratiti od patrijarha osnivača njegova klana, Adolpha S. Ochsa. Ochs je kupio kontrolni udio u New York Times 1896. i od tada su njegovi rođaci i potomci upravljali novinama. (Savjetovati New Yorku časopisa „Children of the Times”[PDF] genealogija kako bi svi igrači bili ravno u vašoj glavi.)

Koliko je Adolph S. Ochs bio glup? Garet Garrett, koji je radio za Ochs na Times urednička stranica, smatrao je svog šefa pomalo glupim. "Intelektualno je inferioran od bilo kojeg čovjeka za uredničkim stolom", napisao je Garrett u dnevniku koji je vodio 1915. i 1916. "Nitko od nas ne cijeni njegove mentalne procese visoko." Garrett je također kritizirao Ochsove negramatičke konstrukcije, kritizirao njegov rječnik i raspravljao o tome kako Times vlasnik je "uvijek bio impresioniran velikim brojkama bogatstva ili prihoda". Glup. Bez pisma. Plitko. Zvuči poznato?

Ako je Ochs nosio nijemi gen, to nije ukaljalo njegovo jedino dijete, kćerku Iphigene. U prosvijećenijem razdoblju ona je, umjesto svog supruga, jednako bistrog i simpatičnog Arthura Haysa Sulzbergera, možda naslijedila uzde tvrtke od svog oca. Sulzberger je postao izdavač 1936., kada je starac umro.

No, natrag na krvnu liniju. Iphigene je 1926. poklonio Ochsu prvog unuka, ali nakon posjeta bolnici, Ochs je "jednom pogledao naborano dijete i proglasio ga neprihvatljivim", pišu knjiga Susan E. Tifft i Alexa S. Jonesa Povjerenje: privatna i moćna obitelj iza New York Times.

Dojenče, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, dobilo je nadimak "Punch", a Punch se uvijek smatrao tupim. “Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, jedini sin Arthura Haysa Sulzbergera, bio je muško dijete koje ni njegova obitelj nije shvaćala ozbiljno, a još manje rukovoditelji i urednici časopisa Times", Piše Joseph C. Goulden 1988. godine Prikladno za ispis: A.M. Rosenthal i njegova vremena. Kasnije u knjizi, Goulden ponavlja temu Punch-as-knucklehead, napisavši: „Jedan čovjek koji je radio za Times 1955. rekao da je među "pravim reporterima" konsenzusno mišljenje bilo da je "starac trebao Puncha staviti u vreću s teškim kamenjem i baciti ga u rijeku."

Edwin Diamond ponavlja Gouldena u svojoj knjizi iz 1993. Iza Times: Unutar novog New York Times. Punch je u djetinjstvu pokazao "ravnodušan akademski uspjeh" i "njegovi ga roditelji nisu ocijenili baš sjajnim. Kasnije bi se anketarima šalio o školama koje je napustio 'neposredno prije nego što su me htjeli izbaciti.' '

Loša reputacija Puncha pratila ga je do Times, Diamond izvještava:

Od dana kada je [Sulzberger] ušao u zgradu, morao se boriti s dojmom da je intelektualac lagan i da ne zaslužuje svoju poziciju u novinama. Ova rana presuda, zasnovana na glasinama kao i na svim dokazima iz prve ruke, nikada nije u potpunosti izbrisana.

Valja napomenuti da je tijekom Punchovog mandata kao izdavača (1963.-92.), Times postala veća, važnija novinarska institucija. Ili bi to možda trebalo biti „unatoč Punchu, Times postala veća, važnija novinarska institucija ”. Možda mu je Forrest Gump uspio!

Ako je Punch bio glup, bio je dovoljno glup da se glupo ponaša prema Arthuru Jr. 1976., nakon što je Arthura mlađeg dobio kao izvještajni posao u londonskom uredu Associated Pressa kako bi ga sezonio za buduće zaposlenje u Times, Punch je dogovorio posao za suprugu svog sina, Gail, u londonskom uredu United Press International. Iz knjige Tiffta i Jonesa:


Obitelj Sulzberger: Komplicirano židovsko naslijeđe u The New York Timesu

NEW YORK-U četvrtak je The New York Times objavio da će njegov izdavač, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr., 66, odstupiti krajem godine, a naslijedit će ga njegov sin, 37-godišnji Arthur Gregg (AG) Sulzberger.

Obiteljska razmjena moći nije bila neočekivana. Mlađi Sulzberger šesti je član klana Ochs Sulzberger koji je služio kao izdavač uglednih njujorških novina. On je potomak pete generacije Adolpha S. Ochsa, koji je kupio novine 1896. godine jer su se nalazile pred bankrotom.

Židovska povijest obitelji - Adolph Ochs bio je dijete njemačkih židovskih useljenika - često je bila predmet fascinacije i provjere, osobito tijekom i nakon Drugog svjetskog rata, kada je list optužen da je zažmirio pred zločinima nad Židovima.

Danas su židovske veze obitelji manje vidljive nego što su bile u prošlosti. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger mlađi odgojen je u episkopalnoj vjeri svoje majke, a kasnije se prestao baviti religijom. On i njegova supruga Gail Gregg vjenčali su se s prezbiterijanskim ministrom. Međutim, rekao je da ga ljudi zbog prezimena i dalje smatraju Židom.

Pogled u povijest obitelji pokazuje zašto. Adolph Ochs, izvorni član klana Ochs Sulzberger, oženio se Effie Wise, kćeri rabina Isaaca Mayera Wisea, vodećeg američkog židovskog stručnjaka za reforme koji je osnovao rabinsku školu Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion.

Nakon Ochsove smrti, njegov zet, Arthur Hays Sulzberger, preuzeo je uzde časopisa The Times. Sulzberger, reformski Židov, bio je otvoreni anticionist u vrijeme dok je reformski pokret još raspravljao o tom pitanju. On i njegova obitelj "bili su blisko povezani sa židovskim filantropskim svijetom kako je i priličilo njihovom društvenom i ekonomskom položaju", napisao je Neil Lewis, bivši dugogodišnji izvjestitelj u The Timesu.

Da je The Times istaknuo nacističke zločine nad Židovima, ili jednostavno nije zakopao određene priče, nacija bi se mogla probuditi u užasu mnogo prije nego što se to dogodilo.

Vlasnici su izazvali kritike zbog načina na koji su novine pokrivale židovske poslove, posebno holokaust. Kritičari su rekli da novine nisu dale odgovarajuću pokrivenost nacističkim zvjerstvima počinjenim nad Židovima, što je optužba koju je kasnije posjedovao The Times. Arthur Hays Sulzberger had experienced anti-Semitism, and he was worried about his paper being perceived as too Jewish, Laurel Leff wrote in her 2005 book “Buried by the Times: The Holocaust and America’s Most Important Newspaper.”

“There would be no special attention, no special sensitivity, no special pleading,” Leff wrote.

In a 2001 article for The Times, former Executive Editor Max Frankel wrote that the paper, like many other media outlets at the time, fell in line with U.S. government policy that downplayed the plight of Jewish victims and refugees, but that the views of the publisher also played a significant role.

“He believed strongly and publicly that Judaism was a religion, not a race or nationality — that Jews should be separate only in the way they worshiped,” Frankel wrote. “He thought they needed no state or political and social institutions of their own. He went to great lengths to avoid having The Times branded a ‘Jewish newspaper.’”

As a result, wrote Frankel, Sulzberger’s editorial page “was cool to all measures that might have singled [Jews] out for rescue or even special attention.”

Though The Times wasn’t the only paper to provide scant coverage of Nazi persecution of Jews, the fact that it did so had large implications, Alex Jones and Susan Tifft wrote in their 1999 book “The Trust: The Private and Powerful Family Behind The New York Times.”

“Had The Times’ highlighted Nazi atrocities against Jews, or simply not buried certain stories, the nation might have awakened to the horror far sooner than it did,” Jones and Tifft wrote.

In 1961, Arthur Hays Sulzberger stepped down as publisher, three years after having suffered a stroke, giving the position to his son-in-law Orvil Dryfoos. Dryfoos died two years later from heart failure, so his brother-in-law Arthur “Punch” Ochs Sulzberger took over. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, who died in 2012, identified as “nominally Jewish, although not at all religious.” He was “much more comfortable with his Judaism” than his father, wrote former Times religion reporter Ari Goldman. Still, stories related to Jewish topics were carefully edited, said Goldman, who worked at the Times in 1973-93.

“Those stories got a little more editorial attention, and I’m not saying they were leaning one way or another, but the paper was conscious that it had this reputation and had this background and wanted to make sure that the stories were told fairly and wouldn’t lead to charges of favoritism or of bending over backwards,” ” he told JTA on Monday.

Arthur Ochs Sulzberger raised his son, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr., in his wife’s Episcopalian faith. But Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. still had some connections to his Jewish background. In high school he went on a trip to Israel that left him slightly intrigued by his background, Jones and Tifft wrote. While criticism from the Jewish community under his tenure was less harsh than during his grandfather’s time, many, particularly on the right, still saw the newspaper as being biased against Israel.

So whether they’re Jewish or not today, there’s a feeling that this is still a newspaper with a heavy Jewish influence.

Nevertheless, given its owners’ family history, its disproportionately large Jewish readership and its frequent coverage of Jewish preoccupations, The Times is often regarded as a “Jewish newspaper” — often disparagingly so by anti-Semites.

That perception is “largely because of the family and because of the family’s Jewish name and Jewish roots,” Goldman said, “so whether they’re Jewish or not today, there’s a feeling that this is still a newspaper with a heavy Jewish influence.”

And that family history lives on. A.G. Sulzberger is part of a generation at the paper that includes his cousins Sam Dolnick, who oversees digital and mobile initiatives, and David Perpich, a senior executive who heads its Wirecutter product review site. Dolnick’s mother, Lynn Golden, is the great-great-granddaughter of Julius and Bertha Ochs, the parents of Adolph S. Ochs, and was married in a Chattanooga, Tennessee, synagogue named in their memory. Perpich, a grandson of Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, was married by a rabbi in 2008.

A.G. Sulzberger is best known for heading a team that in 2014 put together a 96-page “innovation report” that meant to prod The Times into moving more rapidly in catching up with the new digital media landscape. Asked recently about his working relationship with Dolnick and Perpich, A.G. Sulzberger spoke of their strong journalism backgrounds and invoked the family ethos.

“If they weren’t members of the Ochs/Sulzberger family, our competitors would be bombarding them with job offers,” he said. “But they are deeply devoted to this place, and the three of us are committed to continuing to work as a team.” PJC


Bližašie rodstvenniki

About Arthur Hays Sulzberger

Arthur Hays Sulzberger was the publisher of The New York Times from 1935 to 1961. During that time, daily circulation rose from 465,000 to 713,000 and Sunday circulation from 745,000 to 1.4 million the staff more than doubled, reaching 5,200 advertising linage grew from 19 million to 62 million column inches per year and gross income increased almost sevenfold, reaching 117 million dollars.

Sulzberger was the son of Cyrus L. Sulzberger, a cotton-goods merchant, and Rachel Peixotto Hays, both descendants of old and noteworthy Sephardic Jewish families. His great-grandfather, Benjamin Seixas, brother of the famous rabbi and American revolutionary Gershom Mendes Seixas of Congregation Shearith Israel, was one of the founders of the New York Stock Exchange. His grandfather, Dr. D.L.M. Peixotto, was a prominent physician and director of Columbia University's Medical College.

Sulzberger graduated from the Horace Mann School in 1909 and Columbia College in 1913, and married Iphigene Bertha Ochs in 1917. In 1918 he began working at the Times, and became publisher when his father-in-law, Adolph Ochs, the previous Times publisher, died in 1935. In 1929, he founded Columbia's original Jewish Advisory Board and served on the board of what became Columbia-Barnard Hillel for many years. He served as a University trustee from 1944 to 1959 and is honored with a floor at the journalism school. He also served as a trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation from 1939 to 1957. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1950.[4] In 1954, Sulzberger received The Hundred Year Association of New York's Gold Medal Award "in recognition of outstanding contributions to the City of New York."

In 1956, Sulzberger received the Elijah Parish Lovejoy Award as well as an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Colby College.

He was succeeded as publisher first by a son-in-law, Orvil E. Dryfoos, in 1961, and then two years later by his son, Arthur Ochs "Punch" Sulzberger.

Sulzberger broadened the Times’s use of background reporting, pictures, and feature articles, and expanded its sections. He supervised the development of facsimile transmission for photographs and built the Times radio station, WQXR, into a leading vehicle for news and music. Under Sulzberger the Times began to publish editions in Paris and Los Angeles with remote-control typesetting machines.

He once stated,[citation needed] "I believe in an open mind, but not so open that your brains fall out". Sulzberger is also credited with the quote: "We journalists tell the public which way the cat is jumping. The public will take care of the cat."

In 1917, he married Iphigene Bertha Ochs, the daughter of Adolph Ochs and Effie Wise (the daughter of Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise). They had four children: Marian Sulzberger Dryfoos (born 1918), married to Orvil Dryfoos Ruth Sulzberger Holmberg (1921-2017), publisher of the Chattanooga Times,[8] married and divorced from Ben Hale Gordon Judith Sulzberger Cohen (1923-2011), physician, married and divorced from Dick Cohen and Arthur Ochs Sulzberger (1926-2012).

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26 APR 2019 15:18:08 GMT -0500 Robert Dryfoos Dryfoos Web Site <p>MyHeritage family tree</p><p>Family site: Dryfoos Web Site</p>Family tree: 615866681-1 Smart Matching 615866681-1

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26 APR 2019 15:21:52 GMT -0500 Nancy Adelson Abelman & Goldberg and Adelson & Almoslino Family Trees Website <p>MyHeritage family tree</p><p>Family site: Abelman & Goldberg and Adelson & Almoslino Family Trees Website</p>Family tree: 252139741-4 Discovery 252139741-4

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Arthur Hays Sulzberger 3 26 APR 2019 Added by confirming a Smart Match Smart Matching 4005380

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7 APR 2019 19:02:47 GMT -0500 Geni World Family Tree MyHeritage The Geni World Family Tree is found on <A href="http://www.geni.com" target="_blank">www.Geni.com</a>. Geni is owned and operated by MyHeritage. Collection 40000

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https://www.myheritage.com/research/record-40000-80489076/arthur-ha. 4 Arthur Hays Sulzberger&ltbr&gtGender: Male&ltbr&gtBirth: Sep 12 1891 - Manhattan, New York, New York, USA&ltbr&gtMarriage: Spouse: Iphigene Bertha Sulzberger (born Ochs) - Nov 17 1917 - Temple, Franklin, Maine, United States&ltbr&gtDeath: Dec 11 1968 - Manhattan, New York, New York, USA&ltbr&gtFather: <a>Cyrus Leopold Sulzberger</a>&ltbr&gtMother: <a>Rachel Peixotto Sulzberger (born Hays)</a>&ltbr&gtWife: <a>Iphigene Bertha Sulzberger (born Ochs)</a>&ltbr&gtChildren: <a>Marian Effie Dryfoos (born Sulzberger)</a>, <a>Ruth Rachel Holmberg (born Sulzberger)</a>, <a>Judith Peixotto Cohen (born Sulzberger)</a>, <a>Arthur Ochs Sulzberger</a>&ltbr&gtSiblings: <a>Leopold Sulzberger</a>, <a>Cyrus L. Sulzberger</a>, <a>Anna Sulzberger</a>, <a>David Hays Sulzberger</a> Record 40000:80489076:

About ארתור הייס זלצברגר (עברית)

Arthur Hays Sulzberger was the publisher of The New York Times from 1935 to 1961. During that time, daily circulation rose from 465,000 to 713,000 and Sunday circulation from 745,000 to 1.4 million the staff more than doubled, reaching 5,200 advertising linage grew from 19 million to 62 million column inches per year and gross income increased almost sevenfold, reaching 117 million dollars.

Sulzberger was the son of Cyrus L. Sulzberger, a cotton-goods merchant, and Rachel Peixotto Hays, both descendants of old and noteworthy Sephardic Jewish families. His great-grandfather, Benjamin Seixas, brother of the famous rabbi and American revolutionary Gershom Mendes Seixas of Congregation Shearith Israel, was one of the founders of the New York Stock Exchange. His grandfather, Dr. D.L.M. Peixotto, was a prominent physician and director of Columbia University's Medical College.

Sulzberger graduated from the Horace Mann School in 1909 and Columbia College in 1913, and married Iphigene Bertha Ochs in 1917. In 1918 he began working at the Times, and became publisher when his father-in-law, Adolph Ochs, the previous Times publisher, died in 1935. In 1929, he founded Columbia's original Jewish Advisory Board and served on the board of what became Columbia-Barnard Hillel for many years. He served as a University trustee from 1944 to 1959 and is honored with a floor at the journalism school. He also served as a trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation from 1939 to 1957. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1950.[4] In 1954, Sulzberger received The Hundred Year Association of New York's Gold Medal Award "in recognition of outstanding contributions to the City of New York."

In 1956, Sulzberger received the Elijah Parish Lovejoy Award as well as an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Colby College.

He was succeeded as publisher first by a son-in-law, Orvil E. Dryfoos, in 1961, and then two years later by his son, Arthur Ochs "Punch" Sulzberger.

Sulzberger broadened the Times’s use of background reporting, pictures, and feature articles, and expanded its sections. He supervised the development of facsimile transmission for photographs and built the Times radio station, WQXR, into a leading vehicle for news and music. Under Sulzberger the Times began to publish editions in Paris and Los Angeles with remote-control typesetting machines.

He once stated,[citation needed] "I believe in an open mind, but not so open that your brains fall out". Sulzberger is also credited with the quote: "We journalists tell the public which way the cat is jumping. The public will take care of the cat."

In 1917, he married Iphigene Bertha Ochs, the daughter of Adolph Ochs and Effie Wise (the daughter of Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise). They had four children: Marian Sulzberger Dryfoos (born 1918), married to Orvil Dryfoos Ruth Sulzberger Holmberg (1921-2017), publisher of the Chattanooga Times,[8] married and divorced from Ben Hale Gordon Judith Sulzberger Cohen (1923-2011), physician, married and divorced from Dick Cohen and Arthur Ochs Sulzberger (1926-2012).

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26 APR 2019 15:18:08 GMT -0500 Robert Dryfoos Dryfoos Web Site <p>MyHeritage family tree</p><p>Family site: Dryfoos Web Site</p>Family tree: 615866681-1 Smart Matching 615866681-1

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TIME on the Times: Arthur Ochs Sulzberger’s Legacy, from the Archives

Arthur Ochs “Punch” Sulzberger, whose three-decade reign as New York Times publisher brought the paper 31 Pulitzer Prizes, died Saturday at the age of 86 after a long illness. Sulzberger, the only grandson of Times trailblazer Adolph S. Ochs and son of longtime publisher Arthur Hays Sulzberger, took over as publisher in 1963, after his brother-in-law Orvil E. Dryfoos died. At the time, Sulzberger was just 37 years old and serving as assistant treasurer.

Throughout his 34 years at the top, TIME documented Sulzberger’s tremendous — and at times contentious — success, analyzing his vast influence on the New York Times in particular and the world of journalism and broader society in general. Here’s a look back, through the archives, at TIME’s coverage of Sulzberger, his family and the Times over the decades.

Sulzberger appeared on TIME’s cover in 1977, the subject of a story that profiled not just the man, but also the ever evolving New York Times. The story tracked Sulzberger’s ascent from aloof assistant to formidable leader:

Punch Sulzberger was an amiable presence around the building, though when he attended an occasional story conference he sometimes seemed more interested in examining the air-conditioning ducts on the ceiling … He learned fast … While admirers and subordinates try to second-guess him, Sulzberger goes on tinkering with the wondrous machine he has inherited. (Aug. 15, 1977)

Eight years into his stint as publisher, Sulzberger oversaw what today remains one of the newspaper’s most controversial decisions: publishing the Pentagon Papers, a series of classified documents exposing details of the Vietnam War. While some major papers followed suit, others held back — and TIME sought to determine why:

As leaks continued, TIME polled two dozen editors across the U.S., asking how they would have played the story had they, and not the Times, received the Pentagon papers first. Although most newspapers do not command as much newsprint space as the Times, the great majority of editors, in the words of Denver Post Executive Editor William Hornby, “would have done just what the Times did.” (July 5, 1971)

In 1992, Sulzberger handed off his duties as publisher to his then 40-year-old son, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. TIME wrote a feature on this transition — the passing of a very weighty torch — and paid particular attention to the relationship between the new publisher and his father:

Reporters noticed a deeper affection growing between him and his father, “Punch” Sulzberger. One editor observed, “Arthur took on some of Punch’s winning characteristics — his self-deprecating humor, his listening rather than talking.” (He did not find it humorous, however, when people tried to stick him with the obvious diminutive “Pinch.”) (Aug. 17, 1992)

Although he relinquished his title as publisher, Sulzberger remained chief executive of the New York Times Co. until 1997. That year, TIME covered what it called the “most radical face-lift” the Times had attempted in 20 years — which, perhaps most notably, included running the paper’s first color photograph. TIME evaluated the paper’s obvious strengths but more subtle weaknesses:

On the one hand, it’s a rock of restrained, sober-minded news judgment in a media world that flies into paroxysms of excess every time an O.J. Simpson or JonBenet Ramsey comes along. Yet that same sobriety can make the paper seem stuffy and arthritic … The Times is easily the best, most important newspaper in the country, authoritative and unfailingly serious. Yet in some fundamental way, it is also out of the mainstream — snooty, austere and loathe to go near gossip, even when it concerns the performance of such major figures as President Clinton and New York City’s Mayor Rudolph Giuliani. (Sep. 29, 1997)

In 2003, TIME covered an “unprecedented downfall” in New York Times history: the plagiarism scandal surrounding young reporter Jayson Blair. The article addressed the subsequent resignation of top Times staffers — managing editor Gerald Boyd and executive editor Howell Raines — and discussed Sulzberger Jr.’s reactions:

Speaking to TIME last week, Sulzberger said he was saddened by the resignations but not because he was responsible for choosing Raines. “You make choices,” said Sulzberger. “Some work. Some don’t work. My heart was broken because these men were taking an act for the good of an institution that they and I love.” (June 16, 2003)

As the newspaper continued to undergo face-lifts and attempt to navigate a rapidly digitizing media landscape, TIME continued to document its evolution and assess its evolving business model:

A big printed shoe fell on Wednesday, when the New York Times partially lifted the veil on its plan to charge for access to its website … The Times has tried the charging-for-content trick twice before. In the early days of the Internet, it charged for access from overseas readers, and from 2005 to 2007, it tried TimesSelect, in which readers had to pay for access to its signature columns and opinion pieces. That experiment was abandoned. (Jan. 20, 2010)

Through it all, the influence of Arthur Ochs Sulzberger — who grew the paper’s size and influence — is undeniable.


Israel beware: Here comes a new Sulzberger

(January 6, 2021 / JNS) In a change that is unlikely to change anything at The New York Times, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr.—its publisher between 1992 and 2017, and chairman thereafter—announced his retirement in his newspaper on New Year’s Day. Predictably, he will be succeeded by his son, Arthur Gregg Sulzberger, extending the family dynasty five generations back to 1935 when Arthur Hays Sulzberger succeeded his father-in-law, Adolph Ochs, who had purchased the newspaper in 1896 and proclaimed its enduring pledge: “All the News That’s Fit to Print.”

In his farewell statement, Sulzberger Jr. proudly identified his job: “to provide whatever support the world’s best journalists needed to do their important work.” And that they did, covering “things that no one thought possible” with “nuance, empathy and ambition.” The Times, he concluded immodestly, “is larger, more open, more creative, more nimble and more ambitious than ever.” With pardonable exaggeration, he identified it as exemplifying “independent journalism,” providing “the greatest service for a changing country that is struggling to understand itself.”

But it was not always thus, nor is it now likely to be. The Times was molded by Adolph S. Ochs, who purchased the newspaper in 1896—ironically, the same year that Theodor Herzl’s The Jewish State was published. A proud Reform Jew who insisted that Judaism was a religion and not a national identity, Ochs and his credo were embraced by his son-in-law, Arthur Hays Sulzberger, who launched the family dynasty that has guided the Times ever since.

Sulzberger, sharing Ochs’s aversion to any perception of the Times as a “Jewish” newspaper, feared that Zionism would raise doubts about the loyalty of American Jews to the United States. Editors were instructed not to refer to “the Jewish people,” but to “people of the Jewish faith.” Adolph Hitler might identify Jews as a despised race, but Sulzberger insisted that the Times not identify them as a distinctive group. Jews fleeing Nazi terror or slaughtered in death camps were identified as “human beings” or “persons,” not Jews. Their horrific plight was rarely reported in the Times. Sulzberger linked Zionism to “the Nazi connotation that we are a racial group apart.”

The birth of a Jewish state in 1948 sparked the newspaper’s concern, lest American Jews (the Sulzbergers included) be accused of divided loyalty. Over time, it (slowly) relinquished its resolute anti-Zionism, though signs of discomfort with Israel periodically surfaced. Its capture and trial of Adolph Eichmann was a source of palpable Times discomfort because it enabled Israel to speak on behalf of world Jewry. Sulzberger conceded: “I don’t feel any affinity for the State of Israel.” Nor did he favor Jews in editorial positions, lest the Times be devalued “in Gentile circles.”

Sulzberger’s family successors—Arthur Hays Sulzberger Jr., Arthur Ochs Sulzberger (the first non-Jewish family member to become publisher) and Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr.—largely receded from public view, and Christian identities removed any disparaging claim that the Times was a “Jewish” newspaper. But deeply embedded discomfort with Israel persisted, especially following the 1967 Six-Day War, when Jewish settlements began to appear in biblical Judea and Samaria (previously Jordan’s West Bank). Columnist Anthony Lewis, who was fond of equating Israeli treatment of Palestinians with South African apartheid, and Jerusalem bureau chief Thomas Friedman, who had found fault with Israel ever since his undergraduate years at Brandeis, emerged as hectoring critics of the Jewish state.

Several of Friedman’s Jewish successors followed in his ideological footsteps. Joel Greenberg, who had received a jail sentence for his refusal to serve with his Israel Defense Forces unit in the Lebanon War, perceived a “tribal trend” among religious Jews who wore a “yarmulke at all times.” In a 5,000-word article, Deborah Sontag blamed Israel—not PLO chief Yasser Arafat—for the collapse of peace negotiations. Clyde Haberman bracketed Israelis and Palestinians within the “imperative of faith, advanced by force.” Jodi Rudoren was fond of citing “extremists on both sides,” Israelis and Palestinians, for Palestinian terrorist attacks. After all, “colonized Palestinians” were left to suffer from Israeli “oppression and humiliation.” Peter Beinart recently launched his new position as a columnist with an opinion piece titled “I No Longer Believe in a Jewish State.”

Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. proudly cites “independent journalism,” exemplified by New York Times, as “a cure for this polarized era.” But history suggests that when it comes to critical coverage of Israel, the more that Sulzbergers come and go, the more the Times remains the same.

Jerold S. Auerbach is the author of Hebron Jews: Memory and Conflict in the Land of Israel and “Print to Fit: The New York Times, Zionism and Israel 1896-2016,” which was recently selected for Mosaic by Ruth Wisse and Martin Kramer as a “Best Book” for 2019.

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SULZBERGER, ARTHUR HAYS

SULZBERGER, ARTHUR HAYS (1891–1968), U.S. publisher of The New York Times. Sulzberger, who was born in New York, married Iphigene B. Ochs, the only child of Adolph S. *Ochs, publisher of The New York Times, in 1917. He joined the staff of the paper in 1919, after his release from service in World War i as a lieutenant in the field artillery. Given wide-ranging training and responsibilities in all areas of the paper's operation, he was named publisher of the paper and president of The New York Times Co. when Ochs died in 1935. Under his direction, the paper was successful not only in perpetuating Ochs's high traditions of comprehensive, responsible, and impersonal journalism, but also in extending the scope and influence of its coverage through increased attention to interpretative reporting, news of consequence in political and economic affairs, and the world of culture and the arts. As the newspaper's top executive, he also played a dominant role in its affiliated operations, including: the Chattanooga Times, the paper published by Ochs at the time he went to New York the Spruce Falls Power and Paper Co. Ltd., of Canada, the largest newsprint producer in the world and Interstate Broadcasting Co.

As his father-in-law had done, he too trained a son-in-law to succeed him, Orvil Eugene Dryfoos (1912–1963), who had married his daughter Marian. When Sulzberger went into semi-retirement in 1961, he continued as chairman of the board but turned over day-to-day direction of the paper to Dryfoos as publisher. When Dryfoos died suddenly (in 1963), he was succeeded by arthur ochs sulzberger (1926– ), son of Arthur Hays Sulzberger. Sulzberger had joined The New York Times staff after service with the U.S. Marines. He devoted several years to gaining extensive experience in both its editorial and business operations. After serving as a cub reporter on The New York Times, he worked for a year as a reporter for The Milwaukee Journal, and then returned to The New York Times for assignments on the foreign news desk, as a correspondent in London, Paris, and Rome. He returned to New York in 1955 as assistant to the publisher. He was named assistant treasurer in 1958, and was president and publisher from 1963 until 1992 and served as chairman until 1997. In 1972 he won the Pulitzer Prize for publishing The Pentagon Papers. In 2005 he received the Katharine Graham Lifetime Achievement Award from the Newspaper Association of America. His son arthur ochs sulzberger jr. (1951– ) became the publisher of The New York Times in 1992 and chairman in 1997. Sulzberger's first cousin cyrus leo sulzberger (1912–1993) was a prominent New York Times foreign affairs columnist. He wrote a large number of books, among them Seven Continents and Forty Years: A Concentration of Memoirs (with A. Malraux, 1977).


Sulzberger met President Trump at the White House on July 20, 2018. He said in a statement, “I told the president directly that I thought that his language was not just divisive but increasingly dangerous. I warned that this inflammatory language is contributing to a rise in threats against journalists and will lead to violence.”

He is the son of Gail Gregg and Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. Through his father, he is a grandson of Arthur Ochs “Punch” Sulzberger Sr., great-grandson of Arthur Hays Sulzberger, and great-great-grandson of Adolph Ochs.

His paternal grandfather was Jewish, and the rest of his family is of Christian background (Episcopalian and Congregationalist).